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University of Utah Dental Education Program Presentation The Scholarly Research Process: From Idea to Institutional Repository Joan M. Gregory, Allyson.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Utah Dental Education Program Presentation The Scholarly Research Process: From Idea to Institutional Repository Joan M. Gregory, Allyson."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Utah Dental Education Program Presentation The Scholarly Research Process: From Idea to Institutional Repository Joan M. Gregory, Allyson Mower, Mary E. Youngkin, and Jeanne M. Le Ber Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library University of Utah

2 January 24, 2007 Steps in the Research Process Idea generation and refinement Searching, accessing, reading, evaluating, and keeping track of the literature Seeking the knowledge/expertise of your colleagues Designing, seeking approval, and funding for your study Conducting your study Recording, tracking, and analyzing your data

3 January 24, 2007 Steps in the Research Process Writing up your study for publication Archiving your manuscript in the Institutional Repository Identifying options (including open access) for peer review and dissemination of your article Protecting and retaining your copyright (your rights as an author) Publishing and archiving your published article Sharing your work with colleagues, students, the community

4 January 24, 2007 The Research Idea Where do research ideas come from?

5 January 24, 2007 Research of Importance to the Practicing Dentist Research of Importance to the Practicing Dentist Goal 1: To understand the social, behavioral and biological determinants of oral and dental diseases and their impact on the provision of dental care. Goal 2: To understand the outcomes of elective dental procedures provided at different ages. Goal 3: To understand the scientific basis of emerging issues of interest to the practice of dentistry. Goal 4: To conduct research in support of the application of evidence-based dentistry. American Dental Association Research Agenda:

6 January 24, 2007 Your Research Ideas

7 January 24, 2007 Research Ideas Not just for researchers Questions arise in daily practice Asking and answering questions key to: Evidence-based practice Evidence-based practice Life-long learning Life-long learning

8 January 24, 2007 Evidence-Based Dentistry ADA Definition Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinically relevant scientific evidence, the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinically relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. the patient's treatment needs and preferences. American Dental Association: ts/evidencebased.asp ts/evidencebased.asp ts/evidencebased.asp

9 January 24, 2007 Best research evidence Clinical judgment and experience Patient values EBD Evidence-Based Dentistry

10 January 24, 2007 EBD Process QuestionQuestion - Develop a clear question based on the patients clinical problem. Question FindFind - Find the latest evidence through efficient searching for information. Find AppraiseAppraise - Critically appraise the evidence to assess its value. Appraise ActAct - Act on the evidence you find, if appropriate and relevant to the clinical situation to provide treatment for the patients. Act EvaluateEvaluate – Evaluate each aspect of your performance in this process. Evaluate Practicing Evidence Based Dentistry:

11 January 24, 2007 Translating an Idea into an Answerable Question Elements of a well-formed clinical question Patient/Population Patient/Population Intervention/Exposure Intervention/Exposure Comparison intervention (if appropriate) Comparison intervention (if appropriate) Outcome(s) Outcome(s) Methodology MethodologyPICO-M PICO model adapted from: Sackett, David L. Evidence-based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997.

12 January 24, 2007 Question Which are better when used with dental implants – titanium abutments or gold- alloy abutments?

13 January 24, 2007 PICO-M Patient/Population – patients needing dental implants Intervention/Exposure – gold abutments Comparison – titanium abutments Outcome –bone or soft tissue response Methodology – randomized controlled trial

14 January 24, 2007 hierarchy of major study designs systematic review of RCTs RCT cohort case control interventional observational validity  2001 Bazian Ltd

15 January 24, 2007 Evidence-Based Databases Cochrane Library Oral Health: clsysrev_subjects_fs.html Oral Health: clsysrev_subjects_fs.html clsysrev_subjects_fs.html clsysrev_subjects_fs.html A database of systematic reviews and more A database of systematic reviews and moreDynaMed 1,800 clinical topic summaries; designed for use at point of care, providing best available evidence; updated daily 1,800 clinical topic summaries; designed for use at point of care, providing best available evidence; updated dailyPubMed =uutahlib&holding=uutahlib_fft =uutahlib&holding=uutahlib_fft =uutahlib&holding=uutahlib_fft =uutahlib&holding=uutahlib_fft National Library of Medicine database of citations and full text links from MEDLINE and related databases back to the 1950s National Library of Medicine database of citations and full text links from MEDLINE and related databases back to the 1950s Evidence-Based Health Care Databases:

16 January 24, 2007 PubMed What is PubMed MEDLINE? What is the BEST way to access PubMed? Demo are=uutahlib&holding=uutahlib_fft are=uutahlib&holding=uutahlib_fft

17 January 24, 2007 PubMed - Want to Learn More? Tutorials: Classes and Handouts: Assistance at the Reference Desk or via ASK A LIBRARIAN

18 January 24, 2007 Evidence-Based Practice Resources The Centre for Evidence-Based Dentistry: An independent body promoting the teaching, learning, practice and evaluation of evidence- based dentistry world-wide An independent body promoting the teaching, learning, practice and evaluation of evidence- based dentistry world-wide EBM Toolkit: a collection of tools for identifying, assessing and applying relevant evidence for better health care decision-making a collection of tools for identifying, assessing and applying relevant evidence for better health care decision-making Evidence-Based Health Care Databases:

19 January 24, 2007 Finding the Articles Electronic journals Print journals Interlibrary Loan Remote and campus access Institutional repository

20 January 24, 2007 PubMed Links to full text Links to the library’s catalog for print Links to interlibrary loan for journals the library does not own or license

21 January 24, 2007 Electronic Journals Eccles Library EJournals: EJournals: Library Catalog: Library Catalog: Marriott Library EJournals: EJournals: Library Catalog: Library Catalog:

22 January 24, 2007 Dental Books Departmental library – HSEB 5 th floor, Room #5900C Available when office is open and there isn’t a class scheduled Available when office is open and there isn’t a class scheduled Sign materials out and be sure to return Electronic Journals Sign materials out and be sure to return Electronic Journals Books: search the online catalogs Eccles - WU Eccles - WU Marriott - RK Marriott - RK

23 January 24, 2007 Interlibrary Loan Two step registration: Loansome Doc: Loansome Doc: ILLiad: ILLiad: https://utah.illiad.oclc.org/illiad/uue/logon.html ILL costs:

24 January 24, 2007 Remote Access Off-campus or remote access to the University Network is available for the University of Utah community. All faculty, students and staff are eligible. ss.php ss.php UNID / VPN / Link to Licensed Resources via the Libraries’ Web Sites (Eccles & Marriott)

25 January 24, 2007 BREAK

26 Evaluating the Literature

27 January 24, 2007 Critically Evaluating an Article What is the authors reputation? What is the institutions reputation? What is the type of study? (e.g., randomized controlled trial, systematic review, meta- analysis, case study) What is the population and how do they compare with my population? Regardless of the outcome will it change my practice? What are the methods? What are the results?

28 January 24, 2007 How to Read a Paper Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper : the basics of evidence-based medicine. Malden, Mass. : BMJ Books/Blackwell Pub., W 20.5 G813h 2006 Series on Evidence-based Dentistry from the Canadian Dental Journal:

29 January 24, 2007 Moving Quickly Past … Designing, seeking approval and funding and conducting your study Research Resources: Research Resources: IRB: IRB: OSP: OSP:

30 January 24, 2007 Keeping Track of Your Research Data Management MS Excel – spreadsheet MS Excel – spreadsheet MS Access – database MS Access – database Bibliographic Management - track references/ citations EndNote EndNote RefWorks RefWorks Classes, Handouts, Tutorials: Accessible on Library/HSEB Computers Office of Software Licensing

31 January 24, 2007 and Creating a personal library of imported citations and references To organize references for planning, interpreting and reporting research To incorporate references into your manuscripts, articles, dissertation, reports, etc. Classes, Tutorials, and Handouts : outs/

32 January 24, 2007 Writing the Article Writing Resources (Drug Information Center) Instructions for Authors (journal specific) JADA auth_general.asp auth_general.asp auth_general.aspEBD BMC Oral Health

33 January 24, 2007 Don’t Forget to Check the References PubMed Single Citation Matcher tatic/citmatch.html tatic/citmatch.html Citation Style Guides

34 January 24, 2007 Your Manuscript Save an electronic copy before submitting your manuscript for publication Save electronic copies throughout the publication/editing process Archive the final accepted manuscript version – with all the changes requested by the editor/reviewers in the Institutional Repository

35 January 24, 2007 Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository: long-term digital archive long-term digital archive scholarly or artistic work of enduring value produced by the members of a particular institution scholarly or artistic work of enduring value produced by the members of a particular institution collect and maintain intellectual products such as published journal articles, gray literature, lectures, data sets, reports, learning objects, and other scholarly endeavors collect and maintain intellectual products such as published journal articles, gray literature, lectures, data sets, reports, learning objects, and other scholarly endeavors offer open access to scholarly research worldwide offer open access to scholarly research worldwide But you can only do this IF … you retain your right to distribute your article … your copyright Institutional Repository Demo Institutional Repository Demo

36 January 24, 2007 Sharing your Knowledge with your Colleagues Presentations Conference presentations Conference presentations Posters Posters Classes Classes MS PowerPoint Classes and Handouts: false#powerpointbasics Classes and Handouts: false#powerpointbasics false#powerpointbasics false#powerpointbasics Posters: Posters: false#ppt-posters false#ppt-posters Archive in the UofU Institutional Repository

37 January 24, 2007 Remember … You can only archive your article in the Institutional Repository IF … you retain your right to distribute your article you retain your right to distribute your article you retain … your copyright … you retain … your copyright …

38 January 24, 2007 Copyright Copyright is the right to: Sell Sell Publish Publish Distribute Distribute Standard publisher copyright agreements transfers these rights exclusively to the publisher.

39 January 24, 2007 Standard Publisher Form “The Contributor assigns to …, during the full term of copyright and any extensions or renewals of that term, all copyright in and to the Contribution, including but not limited to the right to publish, republish, transmit, sell, distribute and otherwise use the Contribution and the material contained therein… and in derivative works throughout the world, in all languages and in all media of expression now known or later developed, and to license or permit others to do so.”

40 January 24, 2007 Wait Just a Minute Here You pay taxes that fund the research pay taxes that fund the research write the grant write the grant do all the work do all the work write the paper(s) write the paper(s) perhaps pay a page charge for publishing perhaps pay a page charge for publishing typically you don’t get paid extra for all this typically you don’t get paid extra for all this Perhaps you – do peer review, sit on editorial boards, edit journals

41 January 24, 2007 Wait Just a Minute Here Publisher takes control of your rights takes control of your rights charges so much your own institution can’t afford to buy the journal back charges so much your own institution can’t afford to buy the journal back Access for the public and fellow colleagues exists only if they can pay There’s something wrong with this picture.

42 January 24, 2007 American Dental Association JADA Copyright Agreement orm_copyright_transfer.pdf orm_copyright_transfer.pdf orm_copyright_transfer.pdf orm_copyright_transfer.pdf JADA Open Access Policy (as of April 2006) The full text of all journal content will be open to the public at no cost on one year after publication and The full text of all journal content will be open to the public at no cost on one year after publication andhttp://jada.ada.org will link to PubMed Central, the digital library of the National Institutes of Health, and to Google Scholar will link to PubMed Central, the digital library of the National Institutes of Health, and to Google Scholar

43 January 24, 2007 American Dental Association JADA Archiving Policy charge $75 per article fee to archive in institutional repository charge $75 per article fee to archive in institutional repository only archivable pre-2001 (5 year embargo) only archivable pre-2001 (5 year embargo) publisher’s PDF may be archived publisher’s PDF may be archived

44 January 24, 2007 Blackwell Blackwell Dental Journals asp?subj=YD&site=10 asp?subj=YD&site=10 asp?subj=YD&site=10 Blackwell Self-Archiving Policy selfarchive.asp selfarchive.asp selfarchive.asp Blackwell Exclusive License Form pyright_EDT.pdf pyright_EDT.pdf pyright_EDT.pdf

45 January 24, 2007 Your Rights as an Author You are the copyright holder until you sign on the dotted line The copyright holder controls the work Transferring copyright doesn’t have to be all or nothing The publisher’s agreement can be altered / negotiated The publisher’s agreement can be altered / negotiated To keep your distribution rights, use the SPARC addendum To keep your distribution rights, use the SPARC addendum

46 January 24, 2007 SPARC Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition Alliance of academic and resource libraries Catalyst for change in the scholarly publication system

47 January 24, 2007 The SPARC Addendum Authors Retain the rights you want Use and develop your own work without restriction Increase access for education and research Receive proper attribution when your work is used If you choose, deposit your work in an open online archive where it will be permanently and openly accessible Publishers Obtain a non-exclusive right to publish and distribute a work and receive a financial return Receive proper attribution and citation as journal of first publication Migrate the work to future formats and include it in collections The SPARC Addendum:

48 January 24, 2007 Using the Addendum Complete and sign the addendum Print a copy and attach to the signed publisher’s agreement form Note in a signed cover letter to the publisher that you have included an addendum

49 January 24, 2007 Open Access Model online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions authors retain copyright to their scholarly works, but bear more of the costs of disseminating it developed in response to: spiraling journal subscription costs and spiraling journal subscription costs and the need for free and immediate access to research results in scientific, technical, and medical fields the need for free and immediate access to research results in scientific, technical, and medical fields Suber P. Open access overview.

50 January 24, 2007 BioMed Central University of Utah is a BioMed Central Supporter Member - 15% discount on the article processing charges BMC Journals open access - free to access immediately online open access - free to access immediately online reach a large audience reach a large audience reach a large audience reach a large audience published quickly published quickly open archive open archive peer reviewed peer reviewed indexed in PubMed indexed in PubMed

51 January 24, 2007 BioMed Central BioMed Central BMC Author Information: “You retain copyright, licensing the article under a Creative Commons license. This means that your article can be freely redistributed and reused by yourself and others as long as the article is correctly attributed. For example, your published article can be posted on your personal or institutional homepage, ed to friends and colleagues, printed and sent to as many people as you wish, archived in a collection, distributed on CD- ROM, included in course packs, quoted in the press, translated and further distributed as often and widely as possible.” Creative CommonsCreative Commons BMC Oral Health:

52 January 24, 2007 Factors to Consider in Deciding Where to Publish How long will it take to publish? Will it be peer reviewed? Will the article reach the people who need to read it? Will you be able to retain the rights you need? Will it be indexed in PubMed? Will it be accessible via a free and open archive -- immediately and over time?

53 January 24, 2007 Scholarly Communication Recommendations Retain your copyright Archive your work UofU Institutional Repository UofU Institutional Repository PubMed Central PubMed Central Publish in Open Access and Open Access friendly journals Share your knowledge with colleagues Library assistance is available:

54 January 24, 2007 Scholarly Communication Resources Scholarly Communication Page Institutional Repository SPARC: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition Publish Not Perish free, online tutorial/introduction to scholarly publication

55 January 24, 2007 Research Process Life Long Learning Asking questions Searching for the evidence in the literature and among colleagues Designing valid studies that test your hypotheses where the evidence is lacking Integrating patient values into your decision- making process Changing your practice based on sound evidence (evidence based practice) Sharing your knowledge with your colleagues And retaining your rights to continue to do so

56 January 24, 2007 Contacts & Info Joan Gregory MS Access, MS PowerPoint, Institutional Repository MS Access, MS PowerPoint, Institutional Repository Jeanne Le Ber EndNote, MS PowerPoint, PubMed EndNote, MS PowerPoint, PubMed

57 January 24, 2007 Contacts & Info Allyson Mower Institutional Repository, MS Excel, MS Access Institutional Repository, MS Excel, MS Access Mary Youngkin PubMed, Open Access, Scholarly Communication PubMed, Open Access, Scholarly Communication

58 January 24, 2007 Questions


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