Presentation on theme: "LIVELIHOODS & URBAN FORM: MUMBAI IN A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE SESSION 6: March 4. 2015 INTERROGATING BEST PRACTICES # 2 Self-Employed Women’s Association."— Presentation transcript:
1LIVELIHOODS & URBAN FORM: MUMBAI IN A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE SESSION 6: March INTERROGATING BEST PRACTICES # 2 Self-Employed Women’s Association Ahmedabad, india Marty Chen Lecturer in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School Affiliated Professor, Harvard Graduate School of Design International Coordinator, WIEGO Network
2TAKEAWAYS FROM LAST SESSION Warwick Junction CaseProject Fundamentals:area-based & inter-departmentalcommitted to participation & consultationProject Team Ways of Workingground-level intelligenceurban design with (not just for) informal workerssimple, appropriate, incremental interventions ► significant impacts on informal workers & significant changes over timeMeagher’s political-economy framework = useful framework for analyses of your respective occupational groups in Mumbaidifferentiation & characteristics of informal employment: which strata?role of social networks: e.g. caste and religion in Mumbailinks with formal sector: backward & forward; exploitative?role of state: based on ignorance, lack of policy cohesion or complicity?
3UPDATE FROM WARWICK JUNCTION March 3 – lead lawyer from the Legal Resources Centre (LRC) briefed street vendor leaders of Warwick Junctionto highlight the significance of the judgment: notably, that “seemingly unfettered abuse could be checked”March 6 – last day on which the City can file a notice to appeal the judgmentIn the event of an appeal:“tenacious” lawyer of LRC will continue with the caseLegal Resources Center and Asiye eTafuleni would both be pleased – as the issue would gain prominence as it moves up to the higher courtsRichard Dobson will keep us posted!!!
4TODAY’S CLASS Best Practice Example # 2: Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) in Ahmedabad, IndiaSEWASEWA Urban MembersSEWA Urban StrategiesSEWA Urban Examples: home-based workers &street vendorsClass Discussion: what strikes you as the most innovative aspects of these examples? what are the weaknesses? what are your main takeaways? what questions do you have?
6SELF-EMPLOYED WOMEN’S ASSOCIATION (SEWA) SEWA is first-and-foremost a trade unionlargest trade union of informal workers in the worldnearly 2 million members: who elect representatives by trade into leadership roles in the unionall members are women workers in the informal economy: not just self-employed but also informal employees +sub- contracted workers + casual day laborersfirst trade union of informal workers & also firstto gain national union statusto be recognized by ILO tripartite systemSEWA is also a sisterhood of organizationsSEWA is also a pioneering leader in four international movements: labor + women + informal workers + micro-financeFounder: Ela Bhatt, labor lawyer, GhandianFounding:
7SEWA’S MEMBERSHIPSEWA’s members are engaged in 100 or more different sub-trades or occupations. SEWA groups its varied membership into four main categories, as follows: hawkers and vendors, who sell a range of products including vegetables, fruit, and used clothing from baskets, push carts, or small shopshome-based producers, who stitch garments, make patch-work quilts, roll hand-made cigarettes (bidis) or incense sticks, prepare snack foods, recycle scrap metal, process agricultural products, produce pottery, or make craft itemslaborers and service providers, who sell their labor (as cart-pullers, construction workers, head-loaders), or who sell services such as domestic services, laundry services, or waste picking/cleaningrural producers: small farmers, milk producers, animal rearers, nursery growers, salt farmers, gum collectors
8SEWA’s 2 GOALS & 11 POINTSThe Eleven Points – or standards – by which SEWA measures its progress can be grouped under the Twin Goals of SEWA as follows:Full Employment requires that each woman has:Employment which generates sufficientIncome for living with security and dignity. This, in turn, requires…Ownership of productive assets; sufficientNutrition, and the fulfillment of other basic needs such asHealth careHousing, andChild careSelf-Reliance of each woman is achieved through:Organizing in groups, achievingLeadership as a SEWA member, andSelf-Reliance as a groupEducation
9SEWA JOINT STRATEGY OF STRUGGLE & DEVELOPMENT Struggle Strategiesorganizingcollective bargainingcampaigning around issuesadvocacyDevelopment Servicesfinancial: savings, loans and insurancesocial: health care, child care, and educationinfrastructure: housing, water, sanitation, electricity and transportcapacity-building: literacy, technical skills, leadershipskills, and other trainingenterprise development: skills training, product development and marketing
10SEWA SISTERHOOD OF INSTITUTIONS SEWA Union - which is responsible for recruiting and organizing SEWA’s membershipSEWA Bank - a cooperative bank which provides financial servicesGujarat Mahila Cooperative Federation – which is responsible for organizing and supporting several types of cooperatives of SEWA members: producer cooperatives & service delivery cooperativesGujarat Mahila Housing SEWA Trust – which provides housing services, including finance, legal, and construction servicesSEWA Social Security – which provides health care & child care services + runs the insurance cooperativeRural and Urban Wings of SEWA – which oversee the whole range of SEWA activities in, respectively, rural Gujarat and Ahmedabad CitySEWA Academy – which is responsible for research, training, and communicationSEWA Bharat – a national federation of SEWA affiliates in different states of India.
11SEWA’S URBAN MEMBERS: SECTOR-SPECIFIC MIX OF STRATEGIES
12SEWA STRATEGIES WITH CONSTRUCTION WORKERS higher wagesskills training: masonry, carpentry, and other construction skillsworkplace safety regulationsaccident insurance scheme and workers’ compensationidentity (ID) cardsregisters or other proof of days of worklocal implementation of national Construction Workers’ Protection and Welfare Act
13SEWA STRATEGIES WITH WASTE PICKERS legal recognition and identity as waste collectors (who contribute to the upkeep and cleanliness of the cities they work in)identity (ID) cards to protect themappropriate implements and protective gear (gloves and aprons) to help them avoid dangerous and toxic wasteorganization and bargaining mechanisms to negotiate with a) those to whom they sell the waste they collect and b) municipal officials and policeorganization into waste collection and cleaning cooperatives
14SEWA STRATEGIES WITH HOME-BASED PRODUCERS housing + basic infrastructure servicesregular, secure, and enforceable work orders + minimum piece rates that are equivalent to minimum wages (for sub- contracted home-based workers)product development + marketing services (for self-employed home-based workers)occupational health and safety measurescapital to improve their home=workspace and upgrade their equipmentaccess to social funds set up with tax on specific industries
15SEWA STRATEGIES WITH STREET VENDORS secure vending sites, including precedent-setting Supreme Court judgmentaccess to capital on fair terms: a loan product tailored to their daily need for working capitalwholesale market stall: where SEWA urban vendors buy directly from SEWA rural producersinfrastructure services at vending sites: shelter, water, sanitationidentity (ID) cardslegal representation in courts: to fight harassment, evictions and summary warrantsnational policy on street vendors (2004)►national law on street vendors (2014)
16SEWA LEGAL ARGUMENTS FOR URBAN INFORMAL WORKERS IN INDIA Homeworkerslabor rights and standards: assumed to apply to all workersassumption of employment relationship: not sale-purchase contractConstruction Workersassumption of discrimination: test of employment does not require a long- term contractStreet Vendors“right to vend”: this flows from “right to carry on a trade or business” (Article 19 (1)(g) of Constitution), NOT from “right to life” (Article 21 of Constitution)“right to vend in public space”: all public streets and roads vest in the State which then regulates use of public space - but courts have right to intervene if State imposes unreasonable restrictionsWaste Pickers“right to a healthy life/environment”: this flows from “right to life” (Article 21 of Constitution) and has been used by courts as a basis to direct municipalities to undertake waste management - but most of these orders ignore waste pickers and their contribution to waste managementSource: Kamala Sankaran, Professor of Law, Delhi University
17SEWA CASE # 1: HOME-BASED WORKERS As of July 2012, SEWA had 35,049 garment workers and 31,689 agarbatti rollers among its membership in Ahmedabad City.These two groups of HBWs alone represented 17% of SEWA’s membership in AhmedabadTotal membership in Ahmedabad as of end 2012: 396,654
18BASIC FACTS RE URBAN HBW share of total urban employment:India: 14% of all workersMumbai: 8% of all workersshare of women’s urban employment:India: 32% (10% of men’s)Mumbai: 20% (5% of men’s)found in many branches of industry: from labor-intensive manufacturing to services to tradeshare of all manufacturing units & workers in India: around 50%directly affected by macroeconomic trends, city policies & practices, value chain dynamics - yet invisible to policy makersSources: Chen & Raveendran 2014, Raveendran 2015, Chen 2014, Basu and Basole 2011
19IEMS KEY FINDINGS REGARDING HOME-BASED WORKERS IN 3 ASIAN CITIES Lack of infrastructure services: ranked as main city-related problem by focus groups of home-based workers (45 total, 15 per city) -electricity: 21 FGshousing: 17 FGstransport: 10 FGsNote: small size/poor quality of housing + insecure tenure + evictions were other main city-related problemsCost of Transport: reported in survey of 450 home-based workers (150 per city)30% of total expendituresof those who spent on transport, one quarter operated at a lossSource: Chen 2014: Informal Economy Monitoring Study Sector Report: Home-Based Workers.Official international statistical concepts and termsAgriculture + non-agriculture, rural + urban
20BACKWARD & FORWARD LINKAGES: HOME-BASED GARMENT MAKERS & BACKWARD & FORWARD LINKAGES: HOME-BASED GARMENT MAKERS & INCENSE STICK ROLLERSConsider what a focus group in Ahmedabad, comprised of three garment makers and two incense stick rollers – all sub-contracted workers – described. A contractor or trader delivers the raw materials to two of the garment makers and also collects the stitched garments from them; the third garment maker has to go to the trader’s workshop to collect raw materials and deliver stitched garments. Both incense stick rollers walk daily to their contractor or trader to collect raw materials and return rolled incense sticks. The economic linkages diagram drawn by this focus group shows that the sub-contracted workers have both backward and forward production linkages with the same traders and, also, that the sub-contracted garment workers have to purchase supplies like thread and needles: see diagram 2. The contractors, traders, and supply shops are all near the area where the women live and work (Ahmedabad FG 12, Chen 2014).Source: Ahmedabad Focus Group 12, Chen 2014 IEMS Sector Report: Home-Based Workers
21SEWA MAHILA HOUSING TRUST Construction of low-income housingPlanning, designing and delivering basic water and sanitation infrastructure in slums and other low-income areas in partnership with local government;Facilitating access to energy for the poor including electrification of low-income households, and alternative energy sources such as solar lighting, bio-gas and smokeless stovesKarmika School for Construction Workers for upgrading skills of women construction workersMobilization of poor communities, including training and capacity building of rural and urban community organizationsLinking communities with housing and infrastructure financeNetworking and advocacy for state-level and national-level housing and infrastructure-related urban and rural development policies and programs
22SEWA MHT SLUM UPGRADING PROJECT Aimed to provide a package of basic infrastructure services, including:household connections for water supply;underground sewerage for individual households;toilets for individual households;storm water drainage;stone paving of internal and approach roads;landscaping and solid waste management; andstreet lightingInvolved partnership between Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, SEWA MHT and local communities: each bearing one-third of the costs
24IMPACT OF SLUM UPGRADING Provision of Water and Sanitation ►improved quality of lifesaved time → enhanced productivityreduced inconvenience & embarrassmentimproved community relationsimproved health/reduced incidence of diseaseCivic Engagement ►enhanced personal skills and confidenceimproved relationship between communities and city
25SEWA CASE # 2: STREET VENDORS 75,000 in SEWA Ahmedabad membership as of end 2012 = 19% of total membership in AhmedabadTotal membership in Ahmedabad as of end 2012: 396,654Different estimates of street vendors in Ahmedabad:2003 study by Sharit K. Bhowmik - around 80,000 street vendors in Ahmedabad at that time, 40 per cent of whom were women.2011 census of street vendors in Ahmedabad conducted by the All-India Institute of Local Self Government (AILSG) on behalf of the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) - 66,559vendors in the city across six different zones of the city (table 3). This census found that the largest concentration of the vendors (around 27 per cent) were in the central zone, which is the walled city and the area around it.SEWA - 75,000 street vendors, all women, among its Ahmedabad members.
26BASIC FACTS RE STREET VENDORS share of total urban employment:India: 4%Mumbai: 3.5%share of women’s urban employment:India: 3% (4% of men’s)Mumbai: 2% (4% of men’s)cluster in what SEWA calls “natural markets: where there is significant pedestrian/customer flow – e.g. around transport hubs, wholesale markets, schools, hospitals, temples/mosques and residential coloniesdirectly affected by macroeconomic trends, city policies & practices, value chain dynamics - especially the policies & practices of local authorities (police, municipal officials)Sources: Chen & Raveendran 2014, Raveendran 2015, and Chen 2014
27STREET VENDORS & THE LAW IN INDIALocation & Licensing = policy debates revolve around these 2 key issuesCommon Policy Stance: role of city government is to control and govern access to public space and to restrict access to licencesExisting Laws: empower local government & policeCorporation/Town Planning/Urban Development Acts – set out duties and rights of local government, including keeping streets free from obstruction & charging vendors for obstructing street or not having a licenseIndian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, and Motor Vehicle Act – can be used by police to justify arresting, evicting, or otherwise penalizing street vendors – for causing a danger to the public right of way or obstructing the free flow of traffic
28NATIONAL STREET VENDOR POLICY ► LAW IN INDIASupreme Court: two cases (Mumbai in 1985, Ahmedabad in 1996) ruled that street vending is a constitutionally protected practice, subject to reasonable restrictionsNational Policy: introduced in 2004 and revised in and 2009 – advocated by SEWA & National Association of Street Vendors in India (NASVI)to legalize street vendingto protect street vendorsto create a system of local self-management: Town Vending Committees to determine Vending Zones, Restricted Vending Zones, & No Vending ZonesNational Law: called for by Supreme Court in 2011, pushed for by SEWA & NASVI & enacted in 2014!
29NATURAL MARKETS OF VENDORS IN CENTRAL & PERIPHERAL AREAS, AHMEDABAD As of end 2012, SEWA had 75,233 street vendors among its membership in Ahmedabad City: of which, 49,511 (66 per cent) are selling in the central city and 25,722 (34 per cent) in non-central areas. For the purposes of this study, the 132 Feet Ring Road has been considered as a divide between central and peripheral vending markets. The distinction is as shown in the map (figure 1). The road does not have any name and it is known as the "132 Feet Ring Road" for its breadth.Source: SEWA
30STREET VENDORS (NON-FOOD): RESIDENCE & VENDING SITES Source: Ahmedabad All Focus Groups, Mahadevia et al 2014
31BACKWARD & FORWARD LINKAGES: STREET NON-FOOD VENDORS Source: Ahmedabad All Focus Groups, Mahadevia 2014
32URBAN DEVELOPMENT & STREET VENDORS IN AHMEDABAD Five major urban development projects affecting street vendors in Ahmedabad:the Kankaria Lake redevelopment project and associated development The Bhadra Fort restoration projectthe construction of flyovers at important junctions, which has caused dispersal of the vendors from their natural marketsroad widening for reducing motor vehicular congestion or for putting in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) lanes;declaration of certain roads as “model roads”.SEWA estimates of numbers of street vendors evicted :BRT Phase I - 2,000declaration of certain roads as model roads – 5,142Bhadra Fort restoration – 4,000Notes:A model road is defined by the AMC as one with unrestricted flow of vehicular traffic. Hence, the model roads tend to have narrow footpaths, and wide carriageways for motorized vehicles: with no “encroachments” allowed. Vendors are considered to be encroaching by the AMC and are removed from time to time by the encroachment removal squad of the AMC.Phase I of the Ahmedabad BRT corridor is 58.3 km long (Mahadevia, Joshi and Datey 2012)Source: Mahadevia et al 2014: IEMS City Report: Street Vendors
33STREET VENDORS OF BHADRA FORT AREA, AHMEDABAD Bhadra Fort & Parkbuilt in 1411 by Sultan Ahmed Shah who founded AhmedabadFort: houses Bhadrakali Temple – 1000s of devotees per dayPark: became natural market of vendors over the decades - some 4,000 vendors (including 576 SEWA members) with an estimated turnover of million rupees (or around m USD) in (Jajoo 2011)Bhadra Park ► Bhadra Heritage Plaza2011 – plans approved & funded by national Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal MissionJanuary work began, 4,000 vendors evicted ► vendors shifted to surrounding areaPre-Diwali 2013 – SEWA negotiated a “Women’s Market” within the plaza areaNovember 2014 – restoration work completed & public allowed to enter ► Ahmedabad Municipal Commissioner (AMC) ordered that all vendors should be removed ►SEWA negotiated with AMC to not evict the vendors (citing guarantees promised by previous AMC)December 2014 – AMC announced that a “lottery draw” would be set up by which vendors would be assigned to either Bhadra Plaza or an area one kilometer away (Sardar Baug) ► SEWA began to register vendors for that drawFebruary 2015 – AMC announced the draw with 2-hours notice ► vendor leaders refused to participate at such short notice ► AMC officials went ahead with the draw in an empty hallFebruary-March 2015 – SEWA filed court case against AMC ► judge ruled against draw in favor of vendors staying in Bhadra Plaza and surrounding area ► SEWA & AMC engaged in active negotiations (even today) regarding identifying genuine Bhadra Fort-Plaza vendors and allocating them vending spaces as per SEWA’s plans/designs for the Bhadra Plaza and surrounding areaManali Shah, head of the SEWA Union in Ahmedabad, will keep us posted!!!!
34BHADRA PLAZA & SURROUNDING AREA: FEBRUARY 2013 Photos by Marty Chen
35DEVI-BEN: EVICTED FROM HER HOME & WORKPLACE Devi-ben, a SEWA member, was one of the 4,000 vendors evicted from the Bhadra Fort natural market which was converted into a heritage plaza – she and her fellow vendors now sell from the street and alley-ways around the plazaDevi-ben, her family, and her husband’s clan were evicted from their ancestral home – a colony of traditional artisans in the center of new Ahmedabad – and relocated to tenement housing on the outskirts of the cityDevi-ben has had to cut back on expenditures (including tea during her long work day) due to decreased earnings and increased cost of transportDevi-ben asks: “Aren’t we part of the heritage – the culture – of the city?”
36EXPOSURE DIALOGUE WITH DEVI-BEN Photos from Marty Chen’s camera
37DISCUSSION OF SEWA CASES: HOME-BASED WORKERS & STREET VENDORS what strikes you as the most innovative aspects of these examples?what are the weaknesses?what are your main takeaways?what questions do you have?
38SEWA & FOUR INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENTS SEWA has played a leading role and had great influence on four international movementswomen’s movement: focus on women as workers; focus on working poor womenmicro-finance movement: focus on savings; focus on building a bank, not a projectlabour movement: first trade union of informal workers to gain international recognition; largest trade union of informal workersinformal worker movement: co-founder and guiding light of many organizations of informal workers around the world, including WIEGO network
39SEWA & INTERNATIONAL FIELDS OF PRACTICE SEWA has played a leading role and had great influence on different international fields of practicelabour organizingcooperativesworkers’ educationmicro-financehealth and health insurancesocial protection and social assistancefair trade and ethical tradelabour force statisticshousing and housing services
40SEWA & INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT OF INFORMAL WORKERS THE 1970s – LOCAL ORGANIZING1972 – Founding of SEWA1970s – Organizing of Domestic Workers in Latin AmericaTHE 1980s – NATIONAL POLICIES & INTERNATIONAL LINKAGES1986 – National Workshop on Hawkers and Vendors, India1987 – National Commission on Self-Employed Workers, India1987 – National Conference on Home-Based Workers (with ILO), India1997/8 – SEWA invited to join two Global Union Federations (GUFs)THE 1990s – INTERNATIONAL POLICIES & NETWORKS1994 – Founding of HomeNet1995 – First Meeting of StreetNet1996 – ILO Convention on Homework1997 – Founding of WIEGO1999 – Founding of HomeNet South AsiaTHE 2000s – INTERNATIONAL POLICIES & GLOBAL MOVEMENT2000/1 – 6 Regional Meetings of Informal Workers2002 – General Discussion on Informal Economy at ILC2002 – Official Launch of StreetNet2003/6 – 2 International Conferences on “Organizing Informal Workers”2006 – SEWA invited to join International Trade Union Congress (ITUC)2008 – First International Conference of Waste Picker Organizations2008/13 – Founding of International Domestic Workers Network/FederationILO Convention on Domestic Workers
41FUTURE VISION: HYBRID ECONOMIES & ECONOMIC DIVERSITY “The challenge is to convince the policy makers to promote and encourage hybrid economies in which micro-businesses can co-exist alongside small, medium, and large businesses: in which the street vendors can co-exist alongside the kiosks, retail shops, and large malls. Just as the policy makers encourage bio diversity, they should encourage economic diversity. Also, they should try to promote a level playing field in which all sizes of businesses and all categories of workers can compete on equal and fair terms.“Ela BhattFounder, SEWAFounding Chair, WIEGO