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1 Research Strategy Report on small group discussion.

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1 1 Research Strategy Report on small group discussion

2 2 General Be clear what is/are the overall objective(s) of the themes—what do we want to achieve? –To contribute to FANRPAN’s vision and mission—need to show linkages Research should not be donor-driven but should respond to the needs of the region

3 3 (1) Types of research Clarity needed on the distinction between cross- country vs. the other two types –Cross-country research is longer term, more proactive –The other two are more demand-driven –Cross-country research can later lead to action research Suggestion: to have two categories namely (1) Long-term and (2) Short-term research then have sub-categories under each

4 4 (2) Themes Themes need to be aligned with broader global goals (CAADP, MDG’s) –Specify the CAADP pillars, RISDP points (perhaps in a table) Group endorsed the proposed 4-theme structure—balance of the discussion focused on adding value within the 4 themes. Flexibility seen as an advantage –we can respond to opportunities as they arise

5 5 (2.1) & (2.2) Regional integration & international competitiveness These are closely-related issues Need for a regional approach, i.e. recognising differences in approaches between REC’s (SACU, SADC, COMESA) Link to sections 1.9. 1.11 which discuss some of the issues

6 6 (2.1) & (2.2) Regional integration & international competitiveness Much research has been done on these issues – this needs to be packaged and communicated as policy advice Some additional research questions: i.Is there a rationale for regional integration? (political will vs. regional economic realities)? ii.Impact of removal of NTB’s at national level? iii.Impact of NTB’s on regional integration? iv.Impact of regional integration on the poor v.How to achieve effective integration given overlapping memberships of countries between REC’s (also some trading-partner countries that are not members of existing REC’s)?

7 7 (2.1) & (2.2) Regional integration & international competitiveness vi.Role of private companies operating across borders in enhancing regional integration: Lessons from the experience of successful private companies in overcoming economic barriers Impact of private companies on survival of smaller local companies and market access for local producers Impact on (poor) consumers vii.Impact of threats from global players on competitiveness of local enterprises viii.Impact of bilateral, regional and international trade agreements on the agricultural sector in the region ix.Proactive ‘trade intelligence’ research on potential/ new markets, potential threats before negotiations

8 8 (2.1) & (2.2) Regional integration & international competitiveness x.Impact of inward investment/FDI on the region xi.Research on investment priorities for the region xii.Possible effects of common tariff structure for the region xiii.Possibilities for a common agricultural policy for the region xiv.Effect of expenditure on agricultural research on competitiveness xv.Impact of SPS standards on the region’s ability to trade xvi.Investigating the sources of competitiveness for the region

9 9 (2.1) & (2.2) Regional integration & international competitiveness xvii.Impact of infrastructure investments on competitiveness in the region xviii.Compliance with plethora of international standards—critical analysis of actual problem areas and address these as basis to improve officials’ capacities to meet standards.

10 10 (2.3) Poverty and vulnerability Other themes are macro/meso level; this one focuses more on micro-level—ruralhouseholds, communities Gender issues (cross-cutting issue)—needs strengthening –Given critical role of women in household management, food production, nutrition—how can we overcome policy and institutional biases to make support services more effective? Urban agriculture—should this be addressed too? Subsidies and targeting issue (who benefits?) (e.g. use of HVI for targeting; inputs voucher studies)******* –Assessment of effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies Food security vs. nutrition security (nutrition gardens) Livelihood strategies (including non-agricultural activities)*

11 11 (2.3) Poverty and vulnerability Access to and ownership of land**** Access to water (esp. for women) Access to credit (esp. for women)* Access is a critical issue but effects women even more Policies affecting youth and other marginalised groups** Costs and benefits associated with policy implementation / non-implementation Role of aquaculture and fisheries* Continue HIV studies—HVI is an important tool for targeting Need to pay more attention to nutrition—more salient than ‘food security’ for many poor people Group recognized need for prioritizing but felt it should be left to Secretariat, with other topics kept in the pipeline

12 12 (2.4) Innovation and adaptation Much of the discussion revolved around uptake of innovations by farmers Research questions: i.Many innovations prove unsustainable—why? Is technology irrelevant or are there are other issues? ii.Is the policy and institutional environment supportive of innovation and adaptation? iii.What are government expenditure priorities across sectors and within agriculture? iv.Impact of research expenditure on productivity: the issue is not just amount of money, but how priorities are set and how the funds are used v.Are the various agricultural policies in countries and the region complementary or working at cross purposes?

13 13 (2.4) Innovation and adaptation vi.Factors affecting adoption of technology by farmers vii.Innovation systems –Do we need national innovation systems that lead to value added chains (ie, institutional analysis of the research system to identify how to make it more effective)? –How do new technologies impact on traditional practices of end-users/ consumers? –What can FANRPAN do to enhance adoption of innovations?

14 14 (2.4) Innovation and adaptation Did not discuss adaptation to global environmental change We did discuss aquaculture and fisheries under this heading as well—with the idea of focusing on areas that fall among the sectoral cracks (like bio-fuels, agroforestry)

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