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Cells Chapter 3.

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1 Cells Chapter 3

2 Generalized View of the Cell
There are three main parts to a cell and each part has a very specific function. Read pages to discover them on your own….

3 The Plasma Membrane Sturdy barrier; made mainly of proteins and lipids
Lipid bilayer made of three types of lipid molecules: Phospholipids (lipids that contain phosphorus), cholesterol , glycoproteins (lipids that contain carbohydrates) Two types of proteins: Intergral protein extend through (2) Peripheral loosely attached to interior/exterior example: glycoproteins –proteins attached to carbohydrates Selectively permeable--controls what in/out; to water, most nonpolar lipid soluble molecules: fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, steroids, oxygen, carbon dioxide Impermeable to: ions (cross through ion channels), charged or polar molecules: glucose, amino acids (these cross through integral protein assist, channels; transporters change shape from one side to other) Receptors (integral proteins) recognize & bind to specific molecules; i.e. hormones Enzymes (integral and peripheral proteins) Membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids = cell identity markers  id same cell tissue or foreign cells (danger)

4 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane
Fluids in average body = ~60% ICF -- inside the cell (cytosol) ECF – outside the cell Interstitial fluid (between cells of tissues) Plasma (blood vessels) Lymph (lymphatic vessels) Cerebrospinal fluid (within and around brain/spinal cord) Materials dissolve into these body fluids; direction of movement dependent upon concentration (amount of solute in solution) 

5 Concentration Gradients
Differences between ICF and ECF in solute concentration 3% salt solution % salt solution ??? Water ??? Water Passive Active High to low Low to high No energy needed Energy needed Would this be passive or active

6 Concentration Gradients
Differences between ICF and ECF in solute concentration 3% salt solution % salt solution 97% Water % Water Passive High to low until dynamic equilibrium reached Down concentration gradient No energy needed

7 Passive Processes Does not require the use of energy
Diffusion defined: Substance moves due to kinetic energy Movement from high concentration to low concentration Movement of more molecules in one direction is called net diffusion Movement ‘down the concentration gradient’ Continues until equilibrium is reached

8 Two types of diffusion Simple diffusion: lipid-soluble substances, simple cross membrane down the gradient Facilitated diffusion: ions, through pores of ion channels of integral proteins NO ENERGY NEEDED Simple: oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen gases; fatty acids, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), glycerol, small alcohol and ammonia, water, (polar) and urea (polar) SIMPLE DIFFUSION ALLOWS GAS EXCHANGES BETWEEN BODY AND BLOOD CELLS AND BLOOD AND AIR WITHIN THE LUNGS ALLOWS WASTE TO LEAVE THE BODY Facilitated through pores: ions of potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium through gated Facilitated: through integral protein assist; substance binds to specific transporter, transporter changes shape, release substance on other side (hormone directed process) glucose, fructose, galactose, urea, and some vitamins

9 Osmosis Net movement of water down the gradient; lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration through Lipid bilayer Integral proteins Book problem and packet, sac permeable to water not sucrose; filled with solution is 20% sucrose & 80% water placed in 100% water Mine one side 20 sucrose 80 water, mine moves from high water concentration to low, levels go up because water moves in but sucrose cannot move out, pressure forces some water back out thus maintaining equilibrium, movement equal back and forth Do practice problem in packet WILL LEVELS CONTINUE TO GO UP UNTIL =???? YES!!!! YOUR LEVELS CONTINUE TO GO UP UNTIL EQUILIBRIM IS REACHED 20% sucrose 80% water

10 Osmotic Pressure Pressure exerted on plasma membrane due to a solution containing solute particles that cannot pass through membrane Higher solute concentration = higher osmotic pressure Lower solute concentration = lower osmotic pressure

11 Osmotic Solutions Isotonic solution: cells maintain normal shape and volume; concentration of solutes equal on both sides of membrane Hypotonic solution: higher concentration of water outside; higher concentration of solutes than cytosol inside cell Water molecules will enter cell faster than they leave it = cell will swell, eventually burst Bursting of red blood cells referred to as hemolysis Hypertonic solution: higher concentration of water inside; lower concentration of solutes than cytosol inside cell Water molecules will leave cell faster than they enter it = cell will shrink Shrinkage of red blood cells referred to as crenation

12 Short Video Review

13 Passive or Active? Have I been talking about passive, active, or passive and active transport?

14 Active Transport From low to high concentration; ‘up the concentration gradient’ Requires the use of energy Comes from splitting of ATP molecule Changes shape of transporter protein, called a pump Transports ions: Na+, K+, H+, Ca+2, I-, Cl- Example: sodium-potassium pump 40% of a cell’s ATP expended on active transport Drugs like cyanide can turn off ATP production--FATAL Sodium-potassium pump expels sodium (3) from cell and brings in potassium (2) and acts as an enzyme to split ATP Also extremely important because it maintains osmotic balance of fluids out v. inside the cell by constantly regulating sodium and potassium that easily leaks into and out of a cell; osmotic balance is needed for the ability of cells to generate electrical signals for action potentials

15 Cyanide Cyanide can be a colorless gas, such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or cyanogen chloride (CNCl), or a crystal form such as sodium cyanide (NaCN) or potassium cyanide (KCN). Cyanide sometimes is described as having a “bitter almond” smell, but it does not always give off an odor, and not everyone can detect this odor. You could be exposed to cyanide by breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or touching soil that contains cyanide. Cyanide enters water, soil, or air as a result of both natural processes and industrial activities. When present in air, it is usually in the form of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Smoking cigarettes is probably one of the major sources of cyanide exposure for people who do not work in cyanide-related industries.

16 Transport in Vesicles Vesicles small sacs formed by budding off of membranes Transport substances within the cell from one structure to another Energy source again is ATP Take in substances from ECF and transport substances out to ECF Endocytosis: materials moved into cell Phagocytosis  ‘to eat’ - solids Bulk-phase endocytosis(pinocytosis)  liquids Exocytosis: materials moved out of cell

17 Endocytosis Endocytosis: capturing substance or particle from outside the cell by engulfing it within membrane folds from the cell membrane and releasing it into cytosol. There are two main kinds of endocytosis: Phagocytosis Bulk-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis)

18 Phagocytosis Phagocytosis ”cellular eating” Occurs only in phagocytes
Particles bind to plasma membrane receptors Projections called pseudopods extend surround particles and portions of the membrane fuse to form a vesicle Extensions of the plasma membrane and cytoplasm Pseudopods vesicle formed called a phagosome Phagosome enters the cell, fuses with lysosomes Lysosome enzymes break down phagosome’s contents Any undigested content remains in the phagosome, now called a residual body Occurs only in phagocytes (certain white blood cells and macrophages), cells specialized to engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, aged dying cells, and foreign matters protecting body from disease

19 Bulk-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis)
Bulk-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis) ”cellular drinking” Plasma membrane folds inward, forming a vesicle allowing tiny droplets of extracellular fluid that contain dissolved substances to be surrounded Vesicle detaches or “pinches off” of the plasma membrane and enters the cytosol Liquid is encircled within a pinocytic vesicle Vesicle fuses with a lysosome, enzymes degrade engulfed solutes Degraded solutes; like amino acids and fatty acids leave the lysosome to be used elsewhere in the cell

20 Exocytosis Exocytosis: process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and secretes their contents to the outside of the cell. All cells do exocytosis process, but most important in: Secretory cells Release digestive enzymes, hormones, mucus, and other secretions Nerve cells Release neurotransmitters

21 Cytoplasm Consists of all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus and includes both cytosol and organelles.

22 Cytosol Cytosol is the liquid portion of the cytoplasm that surrounds the organelles and makes up about 55% of the cell’s volume. 75%-90% of cytosol is water, the rest is composed of dissolved solutes and suspended particles. Examples: ions, glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, proteins, lipids, ATP, and waste. Site of many chemical reactions Maintain cell structure and enable cell growth

23 Cytoskeleton Extends throughout cytosol
Network of three different types of protein filaments: Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules

24 Microfilaments Contribute to cell strength and shape Function:
Provide mechanical support and help generate movement Anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins Provide support for microvilli Microvilli Fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane Increase cell surface area Found mostly in areas with great absorption needs like the small intestines Help cells attach to one another or extracellular materials Involved in muscle contractions, cell division, and cell locomotion Migration of embryonic cells Invasion of tissues by white blood cells (WBCs) to fight disease Migration of skin cells in wound healing

25 Intermediate Filaments & Microtubules
Found in parts of cells subjected to tension (stretching) Hold organelles in place Attach cells to one another Microtubules Long, hollow tubes Help determine cell shape Function as transport system for Organelle movement Secretory vesicles Migration of chromosomes Create movement of cilia and flagella

26 Organelles Functions and identification of the organelles are your responsibility since this a total biology review area Information found on pages of your textbook Assign for homework, then do lysosomes, peroxisomes, and proteasomes slides and assign functions of the rest for homework…

27 Lysosomes Membrane-enclosed vesicles
May contain up to 60 different digestive enzymes Fuse with other vesicles during endocytosis Recycle the cell’s own structures (worn-out organelles)  autophagy May destroy own cell  autolysis This cause tissue deterioration after death Faulty lysosomes can contribute to certain diseases, i.e. Tay-Sachs disease Page 13 of packet…. Tay-sachs children jewish nerve cells accumulate glycolipid ganglioside causes muscle rigidity leads to blindness, dementia, lose of coordination die by age 5

28 Peroxisomes Smaller than lysosomes
Contain enzymes called oxidases that oxide (remove hydrogen atoms from) various substances Creating a by-product of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 Potentially toxic compound associated with free radical superoxides BUT peroxisomes also contain catalase which breaks down H2O2 Oxidize toxic substances Abundant in liver

29 Proteasomes Tiny, barrel-like structure
Destroys unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins from the cytosol Contain enzyme called protease Cuts proteins into small peptides So other enzymes can break them down to amino acids from which new proteins can be built Remind them to do rest on their own…

30 Nucleus On your own, this is also a biology review topic
Label the diagram on page 14 of your packet List the functions of the nucleus also Information found on page 62 of your textbook

31 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis
On your own, this is also a biology review topic Information found on pages of your textbook. Show next slide and briefly refresh them on synthesis process…

32 Protein Synthesis DNA transcribed in nucleus to mRNA, leaves nucleus goes to ribosome there translated into amino acids, peptide bonds form between amino acids and polypeptide chain grows….

33 Somatic Cell Division Damaged, diseased, or worn out cells are replaced Two types of cell division: Reproductive cell division-meiosis Will be discussed in later chapters Somatic cell division-mitosis Division into two identical cells Division occurs through a sequence of changes called the cell cycle Two major parts to cell cycle Interphase: when cell is not dividing Mitotic phase: when cell is dividing Somatic cell replacement replaces dead and injured cells and adds ones for tissue growth

34 Interphase 1st step is DNA replication
Then production of new organelles and cytoplasmic components fro the new cell High metabolic activity A lot of cell growth

35 Mitotic Phase Mitosis followed by Cytokinesis (splitting of the cytoplasm) Chromosomes are visible during this phase under a microscope Can you identify this phase? CLICK…prophase Can you identify this phase? CLICK…anaphase

36 Nuclear Division: Mitosis
Four stages: Prophase Chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes Centrioles migrate to opposite poles Mitotic spindles form attach to centromeres of chromatids Nuclear envelop breaks down Metaphase Chromatids line up at equator (metaphase plate) Anaphase Centromeres split chromatids into chromosomes Chromosomes dragged towards the poles Telophase Chromosomes uncoil into chromatin Nuclear envelops reforms Nucleolus reappear Mitotic spindles break down

37 Cytoplasmic Division: Cytokinesis
Division of cytoplasm and organelles between two new cells Begins with formation of a cleavage furrow in plasma membrane that pinches inward Cells return to Interphase

38 Complete Process of Somatic Cell Division

39 Cellular Diversity Average humans has about 100 trillion cells of varying sizes Cell size is measured in micrometers (µm) 1 micrometer = 1 one-millionth of a meter Largest cell in human body is an oocyte with a diameter of 140 µm Average hair strands is ~100 µm in diameter Cells can be round, oval, flat, cube-shaped, column-shaped, elongated, star-shaped, cylindrical, or disc-shaped Shape is related to function

40 Round: oocyte Oval: Liver Flat: Squamous Cube-shaped: Cubiodal Column-shaped: Collumnar Elongated: Collagen Star-shaped: Natural Killer Cells Cylindrical: Skeletal Disc-shaped: RBCs Round =female egg Oval = liver cell Flat = epithelial; connective tissue Cube= epithelial; connective tissue Column = muscle Elongated = Star-shaped = Cylindrical = skeletal muscle cells Disc-shaped = red blood cells

41 Aging and Cells As we age our cells ability to divide is diminished.
DNA sequences that code for cell division break down. Free radical control becomes limited. Autoimmune responses slow down.

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