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REA 0002 Chapter 5 Relationships. Relationships 1 Authors use two ways to show relationships and make their ideas clear. Authors use two ways to show.

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Presentation on theme: "REA 0002 Chapter 5 Relationships. Relationships 1 Authors use two ways to show relationships and make their ideas clear. Authors use two ways to show."— Presentation transcript:

1 REA 0002 Chapter 5 Relationships

2 Relationships 1 Authors use two ways to show relationships and make their ideas clear. Authors use two ways to show relationships and make their ideas clear. You use these very same conventions in your writing. You use these very same conventions in your writing. They are transitions and patterns of organization. They are transitions and patterns of organization.

3 Transitions Transitions are words or phrases that show relationships between ideas. Transitions are words or phrases that show relationships between ideas. They are like road signs to guide the travelers or reader. They are like road signs to guide the travelers or reader.

4 Words That Show Addition We have seen these words before in Chapters 2 and 4. (p 172) We have seen these words before in Chapters 2 and 4. (p 172) Addition words are used to show that additional information related to the main idea will be presented. Addition words are used to show that additional information related to the main idea will be presented. They help the author organize his information and presents it clearly to the reader. They help the author organize his information and presents it clearly to the reader.

5 Examples of Addition Words The sound on our TV is full of static. In addition, the picture keeps jumping in and out of focus. The sound on our TV is full of static. In addition, the picture keeps jumping in and out of focus. A field of sunflowers is an undemanding crop. First of all, sunflowers require little fertilizer. Second, they don’t need irrigation. A field of sunflowers is an undemanding crop. First of all, sunflowers require little fertilizer. Second, they don’t need irrigation.

6 Practice – Identify the Addition Words Biologists classify humans as mammals. Whales are also classified as mammals. Biologists classify humans as mammals. Whales are also classified as mammals. Paper and plastics are two products that many communities are asking people to recycle. Another is used motor oil. Paper and plastics are two products that many communities are asking people to recycle. Another is used motor oil.

7 More Practice Practice 1 – page 173. Someone start reading and continue until finished. Practice 1 – page 173. Someone start reading and continue until finished. 1. another 1. another 2. also 2. also 3. In addition 3. In addition 4. second 4. second 5. Furthermore 5. Furthermore

8 Another Transition - Time The time words…as listed on page 174 tell when something happened in relation to when something else happened. The time words…as listed on page 174 tell when something happened in relation to when something else happened. Time transitions can NEVER be interchanged! Time transitions can NEVER be interchanged! These are the stages, events, steps in a process. These are the stages, events, steps in a process.

9 Examples of Time Transitions Mitch went for the job interview after he got a haircut and shaved off his mustache. Mitch went for the job interview after he got a haircut and shaved off his mustache. Some teenagers were giggling loudly during the movie’s love scenes. Some teenagers were giggling loudly during the movie’s love scenes.

10 Caution! Some transition words have the same meaning. Some transition words have the same meaning. For example – also, moreover, and furthermore all mean “in addition”. Authors typically use a variety of words to avoid repetition. For example – also, moreover, and furthermore all mean “in addition”. Authors typically use a variety of words to avoid repetition.

11 Another Caution! Certain words can serve as two different types of transitions depending on how they are used. Certain words can serve as two different types of transitions depending on how they are used. For example – First may be used as an addition word to show that it is the beginning of a list. For example – First may be used as an addition word to show that it is the beginning of a list. To learn about transitions, first, become familiar with the words. Also try to visualize the relationship the author is giving you. To learn about transitions, first, become familiar with the words. Also try to visualize the relationship the author is giving you.

12 However! First can also be used to signal a time sequence. First can also be used to signal a time sequence. In order to bake a cake, you first need to get the ingredients out of the cupboard. Then you need to put the ingredients in a bowl. Finally, you mix them all together and put them in a pan to bake. In order to bake a cake, you first need to get the ingredients out of the cupboard. Then you need to put the ingredients in a bowl. Finally, you mix them all together and put them in a pan to bake.

13 Practice 2 Page 175 Page 175 Using time relationship words from the box on 174 to fill in the blanks. Using time relationship words from the box on 174 to fill in the blanks. 1. After 1. After 2. then 2. then 3. During 3. During 4. until 4. until 5. Before 5. Before

14 Patterns of Organization Transitions show the relationships between the Ideas in sentences. Transitions show the relationships between the Ideas in sentences. Patterns of Organization show the relationships between supporting details in paragraphs, essays, and chapters. Patterns of Organization show the relationships between supporting details in paragraphs, essays, and chapters. Patterns of Organization help you recognize the common patterns in which an author arranges information. Patterns of Organization help you recognize the common patterns in which an author arranges information.

15 More About Patterns of Organization Patterns of Organization help you to understand and remember what you have read. Patterns of Organization help you to understand and remember what you have read. This chapter deals with List and time Patterns of Organization. This chapter deals with List and time Patterns of Organization.

16 List Patterns List transitions present information. List transitions present information. Addition words are used as signals and suggest an order, but… Addition words are used as signals and suggest an order, but… The points may come in any order. The points may come in any order. If you can interchange the points and it doesn’t effect the meaning, then you have an LIST PATTERN. If you can interchange the points and it doesn’t effect the meaning, then you have an LIST PATTERN.

17 Practice Page 176 – top Page 176 – top A list of items refers to a series of reasons, examples, or other supporting details that support an idea. A list of items refers to a series of reasons, examples, or other supporting details that support an idea. They have no set order. They have no set order.

18 Another Practice Practice 3 – page 178 Practice 3 – page 178 What is the main idea? (Hint, it suggests a pattern.) What is the main idea? (Hint, it suggests a pattern.) Regrettable comments fall into five general categories. Regrettable comments fall into five general categories.

19 What Are the 5 Categories? (Introduced by?) Blunder(most common kind) Blunder(most common kind) Direct attack (next) Direct attack (next) Negative group references (another) Negative group references (another) Direct and specific criticism (fourth) Direct and specific criticism (fourth) Saying too much (finally) Saying too much (finally) What is the Pattern of Organization? What is the Pattern of Organization? LIST LIST

20 Time Order Pattern Items are presented in the order in which they happen. Items are presented in the order in which they happen. They MUST STAY IN THAT ORDER! They MUST STAY IN THAT ORDER! Clues are the time transition words. Clues are the time transition words. Common signals in main ideas… Common signals in main ideas… –Stages, steps, processes, dates

21 Practice Main Idea? (Four stages of sleep) Main Idea? (Four stages of sleep) Stage 1 light or REM sleep (After) Stage 1 light or REM sleep (After) Stage 2 bursts of fast brain waves called spindles (next) Stage 2 bursts of fast brain waves called spindles (next) Stage 3 spindles disappear (Then) Stage 3 spindles disappear (Then) Stage 4 deepest level: very slow brain waves called delta waves; most difficult to awaken (Last) Stage 4 deepest level: very slow brain waves called delta waves; most difficult to awaken (Last)

22 Practice Practice 4 – p 182 Practice 4 – p 182 Check for Understanding – Series of Steps. Check for Understanding – Series of Steps. Main Ideas often signal Patterns of Organization: Author’s choice of words should alert you. Main Ideas often signal Patterns of Organization: Author’s choice of words should alert you. Can you guess? Practice Can you guess? Practice

23 Three Final Points Just when you think you have a handle on it, the author throws you a curve! Just when you think you have a handle on it, the author throws you a curve! Discuss these 3 points on page 186. Discuss these 3 points on page 186.

24 Group Practice - Homework Can start on the Homework if there is time. Can start on the Homework if there is time. Review Tests 1 – 3 – pages 188 – 191 Review Tests 1 – 3 – pages 188 – 191 Homework Homework Master Tests 1 – 6. Master Tests 1 – 6.


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