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Sleep and Productivity What does the literature say?

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Presentation on theme: "Sleep and Productivity What does the literature say?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sleep and Productivity What does the literature say?

2 There are two schools of thought regarding sleep! Need More Could do with less!!

3 Who is correct? u “Sleep Less, Live More” by Everett Mattlin u Mattlin believes that we should sleep more efficiently and that we can easily do with less sleep u “Sleep Thieves” by Stanley Coren u Coren maintains our society is sleep deprived and this leads to a decline in productivity Sleep Thieves Sleep Less, Live More

4 You Decide! u The first half of this slide presentation will present Mattlin’s views. u The second half of the slide presentation will present Coren’s views. u Who will you agree with? Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Thieves

5 Sleep Less, Live More by Everett Mattlin u How would you like to gain 1-2 extra hours a day? u One way to get a couple of extra hours a day is to sleep less!! Sleep Less, Live More




9 How Much Sleep is Needed? u For centuries we have been told we need 8 hours of sleep! u Who has perpetuated this myth? Sleep Less, Live More

10 How Much Sleep is Needed? u Maimonides, a 12 th century philosopher stated, “Eight hours for work, eight hours for play, and eight hours for sleep” u What does a philosopher know? u Was this based upon research?

11 Sleep Less, Live More How Much Sleep is Needed? u Parents have perpetuated this belief!!! They have told their kids: – “You need to go to bed and get your rest” u Translation “I’m tired and want you out of my hair.”

12 Sleep Less, Live More How Much Sleep is Needed? u Blue Cross/Blue Shield Ad from 1978 on how to stay healthy u Rule 7 – “Get seven to eight hours of sleep everyday”

13 How Much Do People Sleep? u Department of Commerce Study “Use of Time by City Dwellers” Sleep Less, Live More

14 How Much Do People Sleep? u Gallup Poll in USA, Great Britain, Canada, France, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden Sleep Less, Live More

15 How Much Do People Sleep? u With differing lengths of light, how much do Eskimos sleep? Sleep Less, Live More

16 Sleep Times – General Population Sleep Less, Live More

17 How Much Do People Sleep? u Most people do indeed sleep 7- 8 hours. u However, the normal range is 6- 10 hours. u Sleep needs vary from individual to individual Sleep Less, Live More

18 Sleep Patterns Vary from the Cradle to the Grave! u Infants vary greatly in their sleep u Some sleep 20 hours per day, some 12 u Some babies sleep through the night at 2 months, some don’t u Yet, all these babies are healthy u This proves there is no magic number of sleep hours Sleep Less, Live More

19 Average Sleep Times u 2 years – 12 hours u 5 years – 11 hours u 6 – late teens – 7-8 hours u 18-20 – life pattern is established u 60+ - 6 ½ hours Sleep Less, Live More

20 Sleep Times

21 Sleep Interuptions

22 Famous People Who Sleep 3-5 Hours u Frederick the Great u Duke of Wellington u Napoleon u Lyndon Johnson u Harry Truman u Jerry Lewis u Michael Scully u Jimmy Carter u John Kennedy u Thomas Edison Sleep Less, Live More

23 The Thesis of Sleep Less, Live More u Since many people function normally on less sleep, and sleep times vary, many people could probably get by on less sleep. Sleep Less, Live More

24 World Sleep Record u A 60+ year old Australian nurse u In a clinical setting, she averaged 1 hour and 7 minutes of sleep daily.

25 What Happens When People Sleep? u Scientific research on sleep has only been conducted for the past 50 years u We know there are several stages of sleep – What are the sleep stages – What happens in each stage

26 Sleep Stages u Sleep stages are cyclical in nature. u During a typical night, one will cycle through these stages 4-6 times u Each cycle lasts about 90 minutes




30 Stage 1 Sleep u Transition from wake to sleep u Found at the beginning and end of night and during periods of body movement u People aroused in Stage 1 sleep will claim not to be asleep u 3-8% of Total Sleep Time (TST) is spent in stage 1. Sleep Less, Live More

31 Sleep Stages 1

32 Stage 1 Sleep








40 Stage 2 Sleep u People awaken in stage 2 will generally claim to be asleep. u About 50% of person's sleep is in stage 2. Sleep Less, Live More

41 Stage 2 Sleep… u Scientists are not sure of the function of stage 2 sleep. It is seen as a filter between SWS (Slow Wave Sleep) and REM (Rapid Eye Movement). Sleep Less, Live More

42 Stage 2 Sleep… u People who are deprived of SWS or REM sleep will reduce stage 2 sleep on later nights. Scientists take this an indication that stage 2 sleep is not that important. u People who sleep less hours per night don't have much stage 2 sleep. Sleep Less, Live More

43 Stage 2 Sleep… u Stage 2 sleep occurs more in the later parts of night. Scientist believe it would occur earlier if it was important. u There is a correlation between the amount of stage 2 sleep and how well people "think" they slept. Sleep Less, Live More

44 Sleep Stages 1 2 Sleep Less, Live More




48 Stage 3 & 4 Sleep u Technically, there is a difference in stage 3 and stage 4 sleep but they are often grouped together because of the slow alpha waves found in both stages of sleep (SWS). Sleep Less, Live More

49 Stage 3 & 4 Sleep u Deep Sleep. u Most difficult to arouse (both verbally and with lights) people from this stage of sleep. u People awakened may be confused and perform tasks with difficulty. Sleep Less, Live More

50 Stage 3 & 4 Sleep u Constitutes 16-25% of the total sleep. u Occurs early in the sleep cycle, decreases as time goes on. u Few Body Movements. u People deprived of SWS will regain it on subsequent nights. Sleep Less, Live More

51 Stage 3 & 4 Sleep u People deprived of SWS report muscle pains and stiffness. u A hormone, somatotropin, is released during sleep; especially during SWS. Sleep Less, Live More

52 Stage 3 & 4 Sleep u There is no correlation between the amount of stage 3/4 sleep and perceptions of "good" sleep. Sleep Less, Live More

53 Sleep Stages 1 2 3 4 After reaching Stage 4 sleep, the sleep stages start to reverse 3 2 Sleep Less, Live More

54 Sleep Stages 1 2 3 4 In the 1950s a new sleep stage was discovered – REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) 3 2 REM Sleep Less, Live More

55 REM Sleep u REM sleep accounts for 20-25% of TST. u Occurs 3-6 times per night at about 90 minute intervals. The length of REM increases the more one sleeps. u Blood pressure increases. Sleep Less, Live More

56 REM Sleep u Respiration increases. u Heart beat increases, often irregularly. u Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production increases. u Cerebral blood flow is more intense. Sleep Less, Live More

57 REM Sleep u Blood flow to genitals increases, clitoris becomes more rigid in females, males have erections. u There is rapid eye movement. u REM dreams are more animated and pictorial, move vivid than dreams during other stages of sleep. Sleep Less, Live More

58 REM Sleep u People can be roused fairly easy and can perform tasks relatively well. u People deprived of REM sleep will rebound on later nights. u Eighty percent of deaths which occur during sleep occur during REM sleep. Sleep Less, Live More

59 REM Sleep u Scientists do not know the function of REM sleep. There are several theories: – Helps develop brain cells. – Sentinel Hypothesis - Snyder – P-Hypothesis (the brain is reprogrammed) - Dewan – Discharge of excess energy – Dreams needed for well being - Dement, Freud

60 REM Sleep

61 Sleep Stages 1 2 3 4 3 2 REM 2 3 4 3 A typical sleep cycle lasts 90 minutes. As sleep progresses, the time spent in stage 4 sleep decreases and the time spent in stage 2 and REM sleep increases 90 Minutes Sleep Less, Live More

62 So u The more important things happen earlier in sleep u Bad things happen in REM sleep which occurs later, so u We should sleep less Sleep Less, Live More

63 What happens if we are deprived of sleep for a week? u GENERAL STATE – Become very sleepy – Speech is slurred – Walk into things – Irritable Sleep Less, Live More

64 What happens if we are deprived of sleep for a week? u PERFORMANCE – First three days fairly good – Next two days rapid deterioration – Then levels off and declines gradually Sleep Less, Live More

65 What happens if we are deprived of sleep for a week? u PSYCHOLOGICAL – Varies according to people u PHYSICAL – Very little change Sleep Less, Live More

66 A Sleep Reduction Program u Define exactly what you want to do with your gained time. u Start only when you are rested. u Begin with a two-week base program and keep a daily log of sleep. Sleep Less, Live More

67 A Sleep Reduction Program u Be as regular as possible in your sleep hours as possible u Reduce your sleep time gradually (half hour reductions every two weeks). Vary the going to be time. Keep the getting up time constant. Sleep Less, Live More

68 A Sleep Reduction Program u Don't push too hard. There are limits. u Try to go one step beyond the sleep level you hope to obtain. u Make allowances for time of stress. Sleep Less, Live More

69 A Sleep Reduction Program u Take advantages of naps and stress reducers. u If it helps, sleep an extra half hour on weekends. u Give yourself some rewards for success. Sleep Less, Live More

70 A Sleep Reduction Program u Be prepared for some discomfort. u Develop good sleep habits. u Make your sleep reduction program part of a re-evaluation of your life style. Sleep Less, Live More

71 Sleeping Efficiently u 1. Keep to a regular schedule. u 2. Establish a sleep routine. u 3. Exercise regularly. Sleep Less, Live More

72 Sleeping Efficiently u 4. Don't go to bed hungry. – An amino acid, L - tryptophan, has been experimentally shown to reduce the amount of time it takes to go to sleep. Foods high in L - tryptophan are: milk, cheese, meats, poultry, eggs and seafood. Sleep Less, Live More

73 Sleeping Efficiently u 5. Avoid drinks high in caffeine. u 6. Alcohol is a no-no. u 7. Sleeping pills don't really help over the long haul. u 8. Keep cool. Sleep Less, Live More

74 Sleeping Efficiently u 9. Block out noise and light. u 10. Wind down at night. u 11. If you can't sleep- get out of bed. Sleep Less, Live More

75 Sleep Thieves by Stanley Coren A rebuttal to Mattlin

76 Sleep Thieves u National Average 7.1 (New Jersey 6.7) u 20% less than a century ago u Most folks need an hour more u As a nation we are sleep deprived - this spells trouble Sleep Thieves

77 Sleep Deprived? u One study showed that approximately 76% of Internet users who cruise cyberspace have whittled their sleep time to roughly six hours per night. Sleep Thieves

78 Surfing the Net? u The result of sleepless nights surfing the net? Losing 10 hours of sleep a week could cause a person's IQ to drop 15 points. Dr. Richard Schwab of the Penn Center for Sleep Disorders at the University of Pennsylvania. Sleep Thieves

79 Sleep Deprived? u Sleep disorders are a cultural phenomenon that occurred only after the Industrial Revolution made an eight-hour night of sleep the norm. Sleep Thieves

80 Pre-Industrial Revolution


82 Sleep Deprived? u Sleep disorders now rank among the most widespread medical problems in the Western world. Sleep Thieves

83 Sleep Deprived? u "Human populations never had a situation where they slept for eight hours at a time, In the Stone Age, people got up, searched for food, took a nap, got up again, talked, socialized, slept more and so on." Dr. George Armelagos, medical anthropologist, Emory University, March 24, 1996 Orlando Sentinel Sleep Thieves




87 Why is sleep needed? u For decades scientist have pondered this question? Sleep Thieves

88 Functions of Sleep u Unlike muscles that burn fat when glucose levels are low (for energy), the brain uses a single fuel source and must tap into glucose reserves in nearby cells when circulating levels drop. Sleep Thieves

89 Functions of Sleep… u The reserves, which are stored in the form of glycogen, can be accessed only when the brain is inactive. – Craig Heller and Joel Bennington, Stanford University Sleep Thieves

90 Functions of Sleep... u When energy stores are depleted, the brain releases edenizine, a substance which brings on sleep. During the early phases of sleep, glycogen reserves restore the brain. Sleep Thieves

91 Functions of Sleep…. u But the inactive brain has an electrical imbalance that needs to be adjusted. REM sleep, the stage in which we dream, jump starts the brain and takes it out of its electrical imbalance. (ibid) Sleep Thieves

92 Functions of Sleep u Sleep is crucial to muscle repair. u Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - or "dream sleep" - completely stops muscle activity and allows the body to reconstruct damaged tissues. Sleep Thieves

93 Functions of Sleep u Sleep is particularly important to healing after surgery. Dr. Michael J. Thorpy, director of the Sleep-Wake Disorder Center at Montefiore Medical Center, New York, March 28,1996. Dow Jones/New York Times wire service Sleep Thieves




97 Sleep Deprivation u Long-term sleep deprivation caused rats to die of severe blood infections. Sleep Thieves

98 Sleep Deprivation u Healthy men deprived of sleep for only one night had a 30 percent decrease in the activity of tumor-fighting cells the next day. April 1996 American Health Sleep Thieves

99 Sleep Deprived? u Almost half of the resident doctors surveyed at Johns Hopkins University said they have fallen asleep while driving, and 90 percent of those incidents occurred as they were getting off work Sleep Thieves

100 Sleep Deprivation u 42 percent of physicians said they had caused the death of at least one person because of sleep deprivation Sleep Thieves

101 Sleep Deprivation u 82 percent of commercial truck drivers responded that they decide it's time to get off the road and rest after they've fallen asleep behind the wheel Sleep Thieves

102 Sleep Deprivation u As many as 23,000 deaths occur each year in this country in sleep-related accidents William Dement, MD, one of the country's leading sleep experts and former chairman of the Congressionally appointed National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. March 23, 1996 St. Petersburg Times Sleep Thieves

103 Sleep Deprived u One of the most dangerous times to be on the road is the first Monday after the switch to daylight-savings time. Sleep Thieves

104 Sleep Deprived u Accidents increase by 7 percent that first Monday when compared to the last Monday of standard time. Sleep Thieves

105 Sleep Deprived u Accidental deaths of any kind increase by 6 percent during the first week of daylight savings time when compared to the prior week. Sleep Thieves

106 Sleep Deprived? u "People are so sleep-deprived that a relatively small amount of sleep loss can make us clumsy and stupid," Dr. Stanley Coren, letter in the The New England Journal of Medicine and a Wall Street Journal article. April 4, 1996 Sleep Thieves

107 Sleep Deprived? u An international survey found that 16 percent of traffic accidents on highways and 10 percent of accidents on rural roads involve sleepy or drowsy people -- National Sleep Foundation, June 3, 1996 Washington Post. Sleep Thieves

108 Sleep Deprivation u Adolescents need more sleep than adults u Adolescents have a daily biological clock of 26 hours compared to the adult 25-hour cycle. u Teens must sleep late into the morning or early afternoon to get the proper amount of sleep. Dr. Edward O'Malley of the Sleep Disorders Center at New York University Medical Center Sleep Thieves



111 Naps u Naps help “power thinking” u Benefits of napping: – increased alertness – lower stress levels and – significantly reduced risk of heart disease David Dinges, director of the experimental psychiatry unit at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Sleep Thieves

112 Naps


114 u Many baby boomers use a 15- minute power nap to avoid nodding off in meetings and to obtain extra vigor to compete with their younger co-workers, according to the June 10, 1996 Detroit News. "Napping is another manifestation of our sleep- deprivation” – Dr. Donald Greenblatt, director of the Sleep Disorders Center in Rochester, NY. Sleep Thieves

115 Naps u Some companies offer "nap rooms" for weary employees to rejuvenate. "You won't be as efficient or happy if you are chronically sleep-deprived," Charmane Eastman, director of the Biological Rhythms Research Lab at Rush-Presbyterian- St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago. Reported in the May 19, 1996 Arizona Republic. Sleep Thieves

116 Naps




120 Major Tragedies u Most tragedies occur between 1 and 3 am – Bhopal India Union Carbide Plant – Exxon Valdez – Three Mile Island u This time is a natural low in the circadian cycle Sleep Thieves

121 In conclusion u Americans are sleep deprived u They would be more alert and productive if they slept one additional hour a night

122 Sleep Produces Serotonin u Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that regulates our mood, appetite, and ability to get a good night's sleep. When our brains aren't producing enough serotonin, we may experience depression, suffer from obesity or insomnia, or otherwise function at less than our mental and physical peak.

123 Sleep trivia u Sleep and death are brothers. In Greek mythology, Hypnos (god of sleep) and Thanatos (god of death) are both sons of Nyx, the goddess of night.

124 Sleep trivia u The word “sleep” occurs 113 times in the Bible (in 105 verses) (includes the Apocrypha) u Is sleep portrayed positively or negatively in the bible?

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