Presentation on theme: "CGT 411 Research Presentation"— Presentation transcript:
1 CGT 411 Research Presentation Conducting Research: What Do You Need to Think About?Part 3 – Instruments and Participants
2 The Nature of SamplingThe idea is to examine elements of a population in order to draw conclusions about the population as a wholeThe (experimental) population is the group of elements about which we want to make inferencesA count of all elements of a population would be known as a censusSample elements = data points
3 Why do we sample?Lower cost it is normally too expensive to look at everyoneGreater accuracy fewer data points means less to keep track ofFaster this greatly reduces costAvailability of population elements every population element is often not accessibleA census is feasible when populations are small and necessary when elements are not homogeneous
4 Overview of ResearchGood research should follow the standards of the scientific methodPurpose clearly definedResearch process detailedResearch design thoroughly plannedLimitations frankly revealedHigh ethical standards appliedAdequate analysis for decision-maker’s needsFindings presented unambiguouslyConclusions justifiedResearcher’s experience reflected
5 Exploratory Research Interviewing Observation Extant data Document analysisCase studiesEthnographyExpert interviewingSecondary data analysisExperience surveysFocus groupsTwo-stage designsInstances of data should be analyzed that provide meaningful information within the context of the organization
6 Communicating with Participants ObservationsInterviewsSurveys
7 Getting to the Measurement Questions What type of data is needed to answer the investigator’s dilemma?What communication approach will be used?Should the questions be structured, unstructured, or some combination?Administrative: identify setting characteristicsClassification: sociological/demographicTarget: address the issues at handShould the questions be disguised or undisguised? have to be careful here potential IRB issues
8 Constructing and Refining Research Questions Measurement questions should:Consider subject contentConsider the wording of each questionConsider the response strategyQuestion development and question sequencing are typically completed at the same time
9 Drafting and Refining the Instrument The introduction has to hook ‘em and give them the particulars also has to filter themSome questions depend on other having or not having been asked alreadyAwaken interest and motivationPut sensitive questions at the endBalance complexity of questions and their locationGeneral to specificGroup questions to minimize shifting frame of reference and subject matter
10 Drafting and Refining the Instrument Pre-testing/pilot-testing is valuable for having a reliable instrumentDiscover participants’ reactions to the instrumentEnsure meaning is conveyedWhy do participants “transform” questions they do not understand?Improve continuity and flow of the instrumentMake sure question sequence is appropriateHelps understand variability in populationHelps to gauge length and time
11 Interview Considerations Should the question be asked?Is the question of the proper scope and coverage?Can the participant adequately answer the question as it is asked?Will the participant willingly answer the question as it is asked?
12 Observation Considerations Much of what we know comes from observation but the collection process often leaves much to be desiredScientifically basedConducted to answer a specific questionSystematically planned and executedUses appropriate control mechanismsReliable and valid account of what happenedObservation is generally behavioralNonverbal analysis: body movementLinguistic analysis: patterns/content of speechSpatial analysis: physical relationship to surroundingsExtra-linguistic analysis: characteristics of speech
13 What is Experimentation? The emphasis is towards discovering a causal relationshipAccepting the world as it is found (ex post fact, communication, observation) vs. systematically altering a variable and observing the change (experimentation)Is the experimental treatment at the heart of the observed change, or are other factors influencing the outcome?
14 What is Experimentation? Requires the intervention of a researcher beyond that required for measurementManipulation of independent variables to affect a hypothesized dependent variable at least one IV and one DV in an experimentMust be an agreement between variables presence/absence of one relates to the presence/absence of anotherTime order of variables must make senseResearchers must be confident that extraneous factors did not cause such a changeOften involves the presence of a contrived research scenario standardized to aid generalizability
15 Elements of Scientific Method Direct observation of phenomenaClearly defined variables, methods, and proceduresEmpirically testable hypothesesAbility to rule out rival hypothesesStatistical justification of conclusionsSelf-correcting process
16 Descriptive StudyDescriptions of phenomena associated with a particular populationEstimates of the proportion of the population that would have such characteristicsDiscovery of associations among different variablesThe simplest descriptive study concerns a statement about the size, form, distribution, or existence of a variable no causal relationship implied
17 Causal StudiesCorrelation is not causation essentially “A produces B” an artifact of languageWe cannot prove that A causes B, but we can find evidence that leads us to believe that A leads to BCovariation of A and BTime order of events in the direction specifiedNo other possible causesInference-making also requires:Control no other confounding causesRandom assignment along the IV
18 Advantages Disadvantages Researcher’s ability to manipulate the IVInfluence of extraneous variables can be controlledConvenient and cost-effectiveAbility to replicate across people, places, and timeCan use naturally occurring eventsContrived settingGeneralization from non-probability samples can be problematicBudgets can be deceivingMost effective for problems in the present or the immediate futureEthical issues in the manipulation of people
19 Conducting an Experiment Select relevant variablesSpecify levels of treatmentControl the experimental environmentChoose the experimental designSelect and assign the participantsPilot test revise testAnalyze the data
20 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing The null hypothesis a statement that no significant difference exists between a parameter and a statistic being compared to it.Why not state this in a positive form?Evidence would preclude a positive hypothesis from being taken as conclusive evidence for accepting the hypothesisCould be consistent with other hypotheses as well
21 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing The alternative hypothesis a statement that there is a significant difference between the parameter and the statisticThis is the logical opposite to the null hypothesisMay take several forms depending on the objective of the researcherNot equal to (not the same as)Greater thanLess than
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