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The Judgments of the Torah Towards an Understanding of the Authority Yeshua Gave Peter to Bind and to Loose.

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Presentation on theme: "The Judgments of the Torah Towards an Understanding of the Authority Yeshua Gave Peter to Bind and to Loose."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Judgments of the Torah Towards an Understanding of the Authority Yeshua Gave Peter to Bind and to Loose

2 18 Then Yeshua came to them and said, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.“ Matthew 28

3 4 th Gospel (John) 5 Moreover, the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son, 23 that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father, who sent him. 24 "I tell you the truth, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be condemned; he has crossed over from death to life.

4 25 I tell you the truth, a time is coming and has now come when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of Elohim and those who hear will live. 26 For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son to have life in himself. 27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.

5 Matthew 16:19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven."

6 Yehovah commanded us to obey all these decrees and to fear Yehovah our Elohim, so that we might always prosper and be kept alive, as is the case today. And it will be righteousness for us when we guard to obey all this commandment before Yehovah our Elohim, as he has commanded us." (Deuteronomy 6:24- 25)

7 5 See, I have taught you decrees and laws as Yehovah my Elohim commanded me, so that you may follow them in the land you are entering to take possession of it. 6 Observe them carefully, for this will show your wisdom and understanding to the nations, who will hear about all these decrees and say, "Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people." Deuteronomy 4

8 7 What other nation is so great as to have their gods near them the way Yehovah our Elohim is near us whenever we pray to him? 8 And what other nation is so great as to have such righteous decrees and laws as this body of laws I am setting before you today? Deuteronomy 4

9 28 Be careful to obey all these regulations I am giving you, so that it may always go well with you and your children after you, because you will be doing what is good and right in the eyes of Yehovah your Elohim. (Deuteronomy 12)

10 Outline Study The Torah of Mosheh A Study of the Words Torah Mitzvah Chukah Mishpat Mishmeret Edah Piqud Imrah

11 Why Should We Study This? English Bible translators have made very little effort in distinguishing the Hebrew words in their rendering of the terms. In fact, English Bibles confuse rather than clarify meaning of these terms. These Hebrew words have nuance which significantly impacts our understanding of the Scriptures. Christian theologians have suggested a false understanding of the “Law” which needs to be clarified and corrected by the truth.

12 Examples KJV - Deuteronomy 6:1 Now these are the commandments, the statutes, and the judgments, which the LORD your God commanded to teach you… NIV - These are the commands, decrees and laws the LORD your God directed me to teach you to observe… NJB - Such, then, are the commandments, the laws and the customs which Yahweh your God… New Living B - "These are all the commands, laws, and regulations that the LORD your God… TNK - TNK - And this is the Instruction -- the laws and the rules -- that the LORD your God…

13 Overview Torah = Instruction, Covenant Mitzvah = A commandment, Covenant Torah = Mitzvah (sometimes used synonymously) Chukim are the prescriptions or direct (non- negotiable) orders, edicts, rules Mishpatim are the “righteous applications” of the chukim in some given situation, “decisions”, rulings, judgments, settlements (of a dispute)

14 Torah (tôrâ) law, direction, instruction, rule, teaching The basic idea of the root yarâ is "to throw" or "to cast." The three most frequent uses of this root deal with shooting arrows, sending rain and teaching. Specifically torah refers to any set of regulations; e.g., Exo 12 contains the torah in regard to observing the Passover, Some other specific instructions include those for the various offerings (Lev 7:37), for leprosy (Lev 14:57) and for jealousy (Num 5:29). In this light torah is often considered to consist of statutes, ordinances, precepts, commandments, and testimonies. Devarim shows that the torah has a broad meaning to encompass history, promises, regulations and their interpretation, and exhortations. It is not merely the listing of rote requirements.

15 Torah in Tanak Gen. 26:5; Exod. 12:49; 13:9; 16:4, 28; 18:16, 20; 24:12; Lev. 6:2, 7, 9, 18; 7:1, 7, 11, 37; 11:46; 12:7; 13:59; 14:2, 32, 54, 57; 15:32; 26:46; Num. 5:29f; 6:13, 21; 15:16, 29; 19:2, 14; 31:21; Deut. 1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:11, 18f; 27:3, 8, 26; 28:58, 61; 29:20, 28; 30:10; 31:9, 11f, 24, 26; 32:46; 33:4, 10; Jos. 1:7f; 8:31f, 34; 22:5; 23:6; 24:26; 2 Sam. 7:19; 1 Ki. 2:3; 2 Ki. 10:31; 14:6; 17:13, 34, 37; 21:8; 22:8, 11; 23:24f; 1 Chr. 16:40; 22:12; 2 Chr. 6:16; 12:1; 14:3; 15:3; 17:9; 19:10; 23:18; 25:4; 30:16; 31:3f, 21; 33:8; 34:14f, 19; 35:26; Ezr. 3:2; 7:6, 10; 10:3; Neh. 8:1ff, 7ff, 13f, 18; 9:3, 13f, 26, 29, 34; 10:29f, 35, 37; 12:44; 13:3; Job 22:22; Ps. 1:2; 19:8; 37:31; 40:9; 78:1, 5, 10; 89:31; 94:12; 105:45; 119:1, 18, 29, 34, 44, 51, 53, 55, 61, 70, 72, 77, 85, 92, 97, 109, 113, 126, 136, 142, 150, 153, 163, 165, 174; Prov. 1:8; 3:1; 4:2; 6:20, 23; 7:2; 13:14; 28:4, 7, 9; 29:18; 31:26; Isa. 1:10; 2:3; 5:24; 8:16, 20; 24:5; 30:9; 42:4, 21, 24; 51:4, 7; Jer. 2:8; 6:19; 8:8; 9:12; 16:11; 18:18; 26:4; 31:33; 32:23; 44:10, 23; Lam. 2:9; Ezek. 7:26; 22:26; 43:11f; 44:5, 24; Dan. 9:10f, 13; Hos. 4:6; 8:1, 12; Amos 2:4; Mic. 4:2; Hab. 1:4; Zeph. 3:4; Hag. 2:11; Zech. 7:12; Mal. 2:6ff; 3:22

16 Use of Torah Ber 26: Ber 26:4 "I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven, and will give your descendants all these lands; and by your descendants all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; (5) because Avraham obeyed Me and kept My guardians (mishmeret), My commandments (mitzvot), My orders (chukot) and My instructions (torot).“ Shemot 12:49 "The same law (torah) shall apply to the native as to the stranger who sojourns among you."

17 Shemot 13 Context: Keeping the Feast of Matzot 9 "And it shall serve as a sign to you on your hand, and as a reminder on your forehead, that the Torah of YHWH may be in your mouth; for with a powerful hand YHWH brought you out of Mitzraim. 10 "Therefore, you shall keep this ordinance (chukah) at its appointed time from year to year.

18 Shmot "When they have a dispute, it comes to me, and I judge between a man and his neighbor and make known the statutes (chukim) of Elohim and His laws (torot).“ 20 then teach them the statutes (chukim) and the laws (torot), and make known to them the way in which they are to walk and the work they are to do.

19 Shmot Now YHWH said to Moshe, "Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the law (torah) and the commandment (mitzvah) which I have written for their instruction."

20 Vayikra 6 9 "Command Aharon and his sons, saying, 'This is the law (torah) for the burnt offering: the burnt offering itself shall remain on the hearth on the altar all night until the morning, and the fire on the altar is to be kept burning on it.

21 Vayiqra 11:46-47 This is the law (torah) regarding the animal and the bird, and every living thing that moves in the waters and everything that swarms on the earth, to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the edible creature and the creature which is not to be eaten.

22 Vayiqra 13:59 This is the law (torah) for the mark of leprosy in a garment of wool or linen, whether in the warp or in the woof, or in any article of leather, for pronouncing it clean or unclean.

23 Mitzvah (mitzvâ) commission, (individual) commandment, (set of all the) commandments, right In a deed of purchase for a plot of land, mitzvah refers to the terms of the contract (Jer 32:11). It is also the word used by the wisdom school for the instruction of a teacher to his pupil (Prov 2:1; Prov 3:1). More frequently the commandments (“mitzvot”) are the particular conditions of the covenant.

24 Mitzvah in Tanak Gen. 26:5; Exod. 15:26; 16:28; 20:6; 24:12; Lev. 4:2, 13, 22, 27; 5:17; 22:31; 26:3, 14f; 27:34; Num. 15:22, 31, 39f; 36:13; Deut. 4:2, 40; 5:10, 29, 31; 6:1f, 17, 25; 7:9, 11; 8:1f, 6, 11; 10:13; 11:1, 8, 13, 22, 27f; 13:5, 19; 15:5; 17:20; 19:9; 26:13, 17f; 27:1, 10; 28:1, 9, 13, 15, 45; 30:8, 10f, 16; 31:5; Jos. 22:3, 5; Jdg. 2:17; 3:4; 1 Sam. 13:13; 1 Ki. 2:3, 43; 3:14; 6:12; 8:58, 61; 9:6; 11:34, 38; 13:21; 14:8; 18:18; 2 Ki. 17:13, 16, 19, 34, 37; 18:6, 36; 23:3; 1 Chr. 28:7f; 29:19; 2 Chr. 7:19; 8:13ff; 14:3; 17:4; 19:10; 24:20f; 29:15, 25; 30:6, 12; 31:21; 34:31; 35:10, 15f; Ezr. 7:11; 9:10, 14; 10:3; Neh. 1:5, 7, 9; 9:13f, 16, 29, 34; 10:30, 33; 11:23; 12:24, 45; 13:5; Est. 3:3; Job 23:12; Ps. 19:9; 78:7; 89:32; 112:1; 119:6, 10, 19, 21, 32, 35, 47f, 60, 66, 73, 86, 96, 98, 115, 127, 131, 143, 151, 166, 172, 176; Prov. 2:1; 3:1; 4:4; 6:20, 23; 7:1f; 10:8; 13:13; 19:16; Eccl. 8:5; 12:13; Isa. 29:13; 36:21; 48:18; Jer. 32:11; 35:14, 16, 18; Dan. 9:4f; Mal. 2:1, 4

25 Devarim 6 1 Now this is the commandment (mitzvah, or “covenant”), the statutes (chukim) and the judgments (mishpatim) which YHWH your Elohim has commanded me to teach you, that you might do them in the land where you are going over to possess it, 2 so that you and your son and your grandson might fear YHWH your Elohim, to keep all His statutes (chukim) and His commandments (mitzvot) which I command you, all the days of your life, and that your days may be prolonged.

26 Shemot Now YHWH said to Moshe, "Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the Torah and the Mitzvah (commandment or covenant) which I have written for their instruction."

27 Shmot Then YHWH said to Moshe, "How long do you refuse to keep My commandments (mitzvot) and My instructions (torot)? 29 "See, YHWH has given you the sabbath; therefore He gives you bread for two days on the sixth day. Remain every man in his place; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day."

28 Chukah “chukah” enactment, statute, order “Chukak” has the primary meaning of cutting in or engraving in stone as hewing a tomb in the rock (Isa 22:16) and as drawing a picture on a brick (Ezek 4:1) or a wall (Ezek 23:14). It may also describe writing on the palm of one's hand (Isa 49:16) or in a book (Isa 30:8; Job 19:23). Thus, “something prescribed, a statute, a prescribed limit or boundary” “cut in stone”

29 Chok (masculine form) in Tanak Gen. 47:22, 26; Exod. 5:14; 12:24; 15:25f; 18:16, 20; 29:28; 30:21; Lev. 6:11, 15; 7:34; 10:11, 13ff; 24:9; 26:46; Num. 18:8, 11, 19; 30:17; Deut. 4:1, 5f, 8, 14, 40, 45; 5:1, 31; 6:1, 17, 20, 24; 7:11; 11:32; 12:1; 16:12; 17:19; 26:16f; 27:10; Jos. 24:25; Jdg. 5:15; 11:39; 1 Sam. 30:25; 1 Ki. 3:14; 8:58, 61; 9:4; 2 Ki. 17:15, 37; 1 Chr. 16:17; 22:13; 29:19; 2 Chr. 7:17; 19:10; 33:8; 34:31; 35:25; Ezr. 7:10f; Neh. 1:7; 9:13f; 10:30; Job 14:5, 13; 23:12, 14; 26:10; 28:26; 38:10; Ps. 2:7; 50:16; 74:11; 81:5; 94:20; 99:7; 105:10, 45; 119:5, 8, 12, 23, 26, 33, 48, 54, 64, 68, 71, 80, 83, 112, 117f, 124, 135, 145, 155, 171; 147:19; 148:6; Prov. 8:29; 30:8; 31:15; Isa. 5:14; 10:1; 24:5; Jer. 5:22; 31:36; 32:11; Ezek. 11:12; 16:27; 20:18, 25; 36:27; 45:14; Amos 2:4; Mic. 7:11; Zeph. 2:2; Zech. 1:6; Mal. 3:7, 22

30 Chukah (fem form) in Tanak Gen. 26:5; Exod. 12:14, 17, 43; 13:10; 27:21; 28:43; 29:9; Lev. 3:17; 7:36; 10:9; 16:29, 31, 34; 17:7; 18:3ff, 26, 30; 19:19, 37; 20:8, 22f; 23:14, 21, 31, 41; 24:3; 25:18; 26:3, 15, 43; Num. 9:3, 12, 14; 10:8; 15:15; 18:23; 19:2, 10, 21; 27:11; 31:21; 35:29; Deut. 6:2; 8:11; 10:13; 11:1; 28:15, 45; 30:10, 16; 2 Sam. 22:23; 1 Ki. 2:3; 3:3; 6:12, 35; 9:6; 11:11, 33f, 38; 2 Ki. 17:8, 13, 19, 34; 23:3; 2 Chr. 7:19; Job 13:27; 38:33; Ps. 18:23; 89:32; 119:16; Jer. 5:24; 10:3; 31:35; 33:25; 44:10, 23; Ezek. 5:6f; 8:10; 11:20; 18:9, 17, 19, 21; 20:11, 13, 16, 19, 21, 24; 23:14; 33:15; 37:24; 43:11, 18; 44:5, 24; 46:14; Mic. 6:16

31 Shemot 'Now this day will be a memorial to you, and you shall celebrate it as a feast to YHWH; throughout your generations you are to celebrate it as a permanent ordinance. 17 'You shall also observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this very day I brought your hosts out of the land of Mitzraim; therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as a permanent ordinance. 43 YHWH said to Moshe and Aharon, "This is the ordinance of the Pesach: no foreigner is to eat of it….

32 Shemot "You shall charge the sons of Yisrael, that they bring you clear oil of beaten olives for the light, to make a lamp burn continually. 21 "In the tent of meeting, outside the veil which is before the testimony, Aharon and his sons shall keep it in order from evening to morning before YHWH; it shall be a perpetual statute throughout their generations for the sons of Yisrael.

33 Devarim 4 "Now, O Yisrael, listen to the statutes (chukim) and the judgments (mishpatim) which I am teaching you to perform, so that you may live and go in and take possession of the land which YHWH, the Elohim of your fathers, is giving you. 2 "You shall not add to the word which I am commanding (tzavah) you, nor take away from it, that you may keep the commandments (mitzvah) of YHWH your Elohim which I command (tzavah) you.

34 Mishpat (mishpat) justice, judgment, ordinance The primary sense of “shaphat” is to exercise the processes of government, to decide a case, to arbitrate a righteous solution to a quarrel. Thus, “judgment, justice, litigation, procedure, sentence (verdict), ruling” 1. To act as ruler 2. to decide cases of controversy as judge in civil, domestic, and religious cases 3. such words as deliver, vindicate, condemn, punish, and related words of judicial executive import are justly used in the translations.

35 Justice

36 Mishpat in Tanak Gen. 18:19, 25; 40:13; Exod. 15:25; 21:1, 9, 31; 23:6; 24:3; 26:30; 28:15, 29f; Lev. 5:10; 9:16; 18:4f, 26; 19:15, 35, 37; 20:22; 24:22; 25:18; 26:15, 43, 46; Num. 9:3, 14; 15:16, 24; 27:5, 11, 21; 29:6, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 37; 35:12, 24, 29; 36:13; Deut. 1:17; 4:1, 5, 8, 14, 45; 5:1, 31; 6:1, 20; 7:11f; 8:11; 10:18; 11:1, 32; 12:1; 16:18f; 17:8f, 11; 18:3; 19:6; 21:17, 22; 24:17; 25:1; 26:16f; 27:19; 30:16; 32:4, 41; 33:10, 21; Jos. 6:15; 20:6; 24:25; Jdg. 4:5; 13:12; 18:7; 1 Sam. 2:13; 8:3, 9, 11; 10:25; 27:11; 30:25; 2 Sam. 8:15; 15:2, 4, 6; 22:23; 1 Ki. 2:3; 3:11, 28; 5:8; 6:12, 38; 7:7; 8:45, 49, 58f; 9:4; 10:9; 11:33; 18:28; 20:40; 2 Ki. 1:7; 11:14; 17:26f, 33f, 37, 40; 25:6; 1 Chr. 6:17; 15:13; 16:12, 14; 18:14; 22:13; 23:31; 24:19; 28:7; 2 Chr. 4:7, 20; 6:35, 39; 7:17; 8:14; 9:8; 19:6, 8, 10; 30:16; 33:8; 35:13; Ezr. 3:4; 7:10; Neh. 1:7; 8:18; 9:13, 29; 10:30; Job 8:3; 9:19, 32; 13:18; 14:3; 19:7; 22:4; 23:4; 27:2; 29:14; 31:13; 32:9; 34:4ff, 12, 17, 23; 35:2; 36:6, 17; 37:23; 40:8; Ps. 1:5; 7:7; 9:5, 8, 17; 10:5; 17:2; 18:23; 19:10; 25:9; 33:5; 35:23; 36:7; 37:6, 28, 30; 48:12; 72:1f; 76:10; 81:5; 89:15, 31; 94:15; 97:2, 8; 99:4; 101:1; 103:6; 105:5, 7; 106:3; 111:7; 112:5; 119:7, 13, 20, 30, 39, 43, 52, 62, 75, 84, 91, 102, 106, 108, 120f, 132, 137, 149, 156, 160, 164, 175; 122:5; 140:13; 143:2; 146:7; 147:19f; 149:9; Prov. 1:3; 2:8f; 8:20; 12:5; 13:23; 16:8, 10f, 33; 17:23; 18:5; 19:28; 21:3, 7, 15; 24:23; 28:5; 29:4, 26; Eccl. 3:16; 5:7; 8:5f; 11:9; 12:14; Isa. 1:17, 21, 27; 3:14; 4:4; 5:7, 16; 9:6; 10:2; 16:5; 26:8f; 28:6, 17, 26; 30:18; 32:1, 7, 16; 33:5; 34:5; 40:14, 27; 41:1; 42:1, 3f; 49:4; 50:8; 51:4; 53:8; 54:17; 56:1; 58:2; 59:8f, 11, 14f; 61:8; Jer. 1:16; 4:2, 12; 5:1, 4f, 28; 7:5; 8:7; 9:23; 10:24; 12:1; 17:11; 21:12; 22:3, 13, 15; 23:5; 26:11, 16; 30:11, 18; 32:7f; 33:15; 39:5; 46:28; 48:21, 47; 49:12; 51:9; 52:9; Lam. 3:35, 59; Ezek. 5:6ff; 7:23, 27; 11:12, 20; 16:38; 18:5, 8f, 17, 19, 21, 27; 20:11, 13, 16, 18f, 21, 24f; 21:32; 22:29; 23:24, 45; 33:14, 16, 19; 34:16; 36:27; 37:24; 39:21; 42:11; 44:24; 45:9; Dan. 9:5; Hos. 2:21; 5:1, 11; 6:5; 10:4; 12:7; Amos 5:7, 15, 24; 6:12; Mic. 3:1, 8f; 6:8; 7:9; Hab. 1:4, 7, 12; Zeph. 2:3; 3:5, 8, 15; Zech. 7:9; 8:16; Mal. 2:17; 3:5, 22

37 Shemot 21:1-24 “Now these are the ordinances (mishpatim) which you are to set before them” The mishpatim are judgments or decisions made – the application of the righteous laws (chukim) of YHWH in common and uncommon situations – “ruling”

38 Devarim 4 Now, O Yisrael, listen to the statutes (chukim) and the judgments (mishpatim) which I am teaching you to perform, so that you may live and go in and take possession of the land which YHWH, the Elohim of your fathers, is giving you. 2 "You shall not add to the word which I am commanding you, nor take away from it, that you may keep the commandments (mitzvah) of YHWH your Elohim which I command you. 5 See, I have taught you statutes and judgments just as YHWH my Elohim commanded me… 8 "Or what great nation is there that has statutes and judgments as righteous as this whole law (torah) which I am setting before you today?

39 Devarim 5 1 Hear, O Yisrael, the statutes (chukim) and the judgments (mishpatim) which I am speaking today in your hearing, that you may learn them and observe them carefully. 2 "YHWH our Elohim made a covenant with us at Horeb. 3 "YHWH did not make this covenant with our fathers, but with us, with all those of us alive here today. 4 "YHWH spoke to you face to face at the mountain from the midst of the fire,

40 Devarim 6 20 "When your son asks you in time to come, saying, 'What do the testimonies (edot) and the statutes (chukim) and the judgments (mishpatim) mean which YHWH our Elohim commanded you?' 24 "So YHWH commanded us to observe all these statutes (chukim), to fear YHWH our Elohim for our good always and for our survival, as it is today.

41 7 I will praise you with an upright heart as I learn your righteous laws (mishpatim). 62 At midnight I rise to give you thanks for your righteous laws (mishpatim). 75 I know, Yehovah, that your laws (mishpatim) are righteous, and in faithfulness you have afflicted me. 106 I have taken an oath and confirmed it, that I will follow your righteous laws (mishpatim). 137 Righteous are you, Yehovah, and your laws (mishpatim) are right.

42 138 The statutes you have laid down are righteous; they are fully trustworthy. 144 Your testimonies are forever right; give me understanding that I may live. 160 All your words are true; all your righteous laws (mishpatim) are eternal. 164 Seven times a day I praise you for your righteous laws (mishpatim). 172 May my tongue sing of your word, for all your commands are righteous.

43 Mishmeret (mishmeret) obligation, service, guard The basic idea of the root is "to exercise great care over." This meaning can be seen to underlie the various semantic modifications seen in the verb: In combination with other verbs the meaning is "do carefully or diligently". Secondly it expresses the careful attention to be paid to the obligations of a covenant, to laws, statutes, etc. – and even the commandments of the covenant as “guardians” or “things that watch over” us. Frequently the verb is used to speak of personal discipline, the need to take heed in respect to one's life and actions

44 Mishmeret in Tanak Gen. 26:5; Exod. 12:6; 16:23, 32ff; Lev. 8:35; 18:30; 22:9; Num. 1:53; 3:7f, 25, 28, 31f, 36, 38; 4:27f, 31f; 8:26; 9:19, 23; 17:25; 18:3ff, 8; 19:9; 31:30, 47; Deut. 11:1 Jos. 22:3; 1 Sam. 22:23; 2 Sam. 20:3; 1 Ki. 2:3; 2 Ki. 11:5ff; 1 Chr. 9:23, 27; 12:30; 23:32; 25:8; 26:12; 2 Chr. 7:6; 8:14; 13:11; 23:6; 31:16f; 35:2; Neh. 7:3; 12:9, 45; 13:30; Isa. 21:8; Ezek. 40:45f; 44:8, 14ff; 48:11; Hab. 2:1; Zech. 3:7; Mal. 3:14

45 Devarim 11:1 You shall therefore love YHWH your Elohim, and always keep His guardians (mishmeret), His orders (chukim), His righteous applications (mishpatim), and His commandments (mitzvot).

46 Edah (edût) testimony, witness, This word, derived from edûd "to repeat," "to do again," has the sense of repetition and permanence. Most frequently this word has a temporal sense. It is used to indicate the continuance of a past or present event ("Abraham still stood before the Lord," Gen 18:22), of a custom ("people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places," 1Kings 22:44), and of an attribute ("I am still as strong," Josh 14:11). Constancy can be expressed by this term. d[e ed Witness. This word, appearing some sixty- seven times in the OT, is also derived from the root edud meaning "return" or "repeat, do again." The semantic development apparently is that a witness is one, who by reiteration, emphatically affirms his testimony

47 Witness A witness was needed for various transactions such as the sale of property (Jer 32:10, 12, 25, 44) and the act of redemption (Ruth 4:9, 10, 11). Inanimate objects could be witnesses: stones (Gen 31:48), altar (Josh 22:27, 28), moon (Psa 89:37 [H 38]), and a poem (Deut 31:19, 21, 26). The nation of Israel was viewed as God's witness (Isa 43:9, 10; Isa 44:8, 9). In Gen 21:30 animals were symbolic witnesses in the making of a treaty.

48 Edah in Tanak Gen. 4:19f, 23; 21:30; 31:52; 36:2, 4, 10, 12, 16; Exod. 12:3, 6, 19, 47; 16:1f, 9f, 22; 17:1; 34:31; 35:1, 4, 20; 38:25; Lev. 4:13, 15; 8:3ff; 9:5; 10:6, 17; 16:5; 19:2; 24:14, 16; Num. 1:2, 16, 18, 53; 3:7; 4:34; 8:9, 20; 10:2f; 13:26; 14:1f, 5, 7, 10, 27, 35f; 15:24ff, 33, 35f; 16:2f, 5f, 9, 11, 16, 19, 21f, 24, 26; 17:5ff, 10f; 19:9; 20:1f, 8, 11, 22, 27, 29; 25:6f; 26:2, 9f; 27:2f, 14, 16f, 19ff; 31:12f, 16, 26f, 43; 32:2, 4; 35:12, 24f; Deut. 4:45; 6:17, 20; Jos. 9:15, 18f, 21, 27; 18:1; 20:6, 9; 22:12, 16ff, 20, 30; 24:27; Jdg. 14:8; 20:1; 21:10, 13, 16; 1 Ki. 8:5; 12:20; 2 Chr. 5:6; Job 15:34; 16:7; 28:8; 40:10; Ps. 1:5; 7:8; 22:17; 25:10; 68:31; 74:2; 78:56; 82:1; 86:14; 93:5; 99:7; 106:17f; 111:1; 119:2, 22, 24, 46, 59, 79, 95, 119, 125, 138, 146, 152, 167f; 132:12; Prov. 5:14; 25:20; Isa. 61:10; 64:5; Jer. 4:30; 6:18; 30:20; 31:4; Ezek. 16:11, 13; 23:40; Hos. 2:15; 7:12

49 Devarim 6 17 "You should diligently keep the commandments of YHWH your Elohim, and His testimonies (edot) and His statutes (chukim) which He has commanded you.

50 Piqud instructions, procedures, precept (thing appointed, charge). Instruction, procedure, regulation, inspection (something watching over you), custodian, supervisor From dq;P' (paqad) number (census?), reckon, visit, punish, appoint, attend to with care or take note. The basic meaning is to exercise oversight over a subordinate, either in the form of inspecting or of taking action to cause a considerable change in the circumstances of the subordinate

51 Piqud in Tanak Ps. 19:9; 103:18; 111:7; 119:4, 15, 27, 40, 45, 56, 63, 69, 78, 87, 93f, 100, 104, 110, 128, 134, 141, 159, 168, 173

52 Imrah utterance, speech, saying, word - From amar - say, speak, say to one self (think), intend, command, promise

53 Imrah in Tanak Gen. 4:23; Deut. 32:2; 33:9; 2 Sam. 22:31; Ps. 12:7; 17:6; 18:31; 105:19; 119:11, 38, 41, 50, 58, 67, 76, 82, 103, 116, 123, 133, 140, 148, 154, 158, 162, 170, 172; 138:2; 147:15; Prov. 30:5; Isa. 5:24; 28:23; 29:4; 32:9; Lam. 2:17

54 Yeshua Did Not Abolish the Torah 17 "Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18 I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear (Matthew 5)

55 Peter’s Confession 13 When Yeshua came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do people say the Son of Man is?" 14 They replied, "Some say Yochanan the Immerser; others say Eliyahu; and still others, Yeremiah or one of the prophets." 15 "But what about you?" he asked. "Who do you say I am?" 16 Shimon Kepha answered, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living Elohim.“ (Matthew 16)

56 Though the Sanhedrin, made up of primarily Pharisees and Sadducees, were unable to correctly discern the true identity of Yeshua, Peter had a clear perception, because he was being led by the Set-apart Spirit. The Sanhedrin refused to comply with the Torah of Mosheh and were subsequently blinded to the truth of Yeshua’s identity, but Kepha had an open mind and heart and was ready to receive the truth.

57 On this Rock I will Build My Assembly 17 Yeshua replied, "Blessed are you, Shimon son of Yonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven. 18 And I tell you that you are Kepha, and on this rock I will build my assembly, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.

58 The Word Play (in Greek) Scholars have noticed in the Greek New Testament manuscripts a probable word play on the name Peter (in Greek, "Petros") and the rock (Greek, "petra") on which Messiah would build. Since Peter is a "rock" and since Jesus would build on a "rock," then clearly Peter is the foundation of the church. Right?

59 The Word Play (in Hebrew) There is a different word play in this passage in the Hebrew text. The Hebrew word for stone is even and the Hebrew word for "I will build" is evneh. Thus, in the Hebrew manuscripts of Matthew's gospel, Messiah said to Peter, "You are a stone (even) and I will build (evneh) on you my house of prayer." The word play is not on "Peter" and "rock" as some think. The name "Peter" does not even occur in his statement.

60 Peter Calls All Believers “Stones” As you come to him, the living Stone-- rejected by men but chosen by Elohim and precious to him-- you also, like living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to Elohim through Yeshua Messiah. (1 Peter 2:4-5)

61 What House is to be Built? For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth. All the sinners of my people shall die by the sword, which say, The evil shall not overtake nor prevent us. In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old (Amos 9:9-11 KJV).

62 James Explains What Peter Taught Simeon has explained how Elohim first concerned himself to select from among the Gentiles a people for his name. The words of the prophets agree with this, as it is written, 'After this I will return, and I will rebuild the fallen tent of David; I will rebuild its ruins and restore it, so that the rest of humanity may seek Yehovah, namely, all the Gentiles I have called to be my own,' says Yehovah, who makes these things known from long ago (Acts 15:14- 18, citing Amos 9).

63 Peter Speaks on Shavuot But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Yoel: 'And in the last days it will be,' Elohim says, 'that I will pour out my Spirit on all people, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy, and your young men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy (Acts 2:16-18).

64 It will so happen that everyone who calls on the name of Yehovah will be delivered. For on Mount Zion and in Yerushalayim there will be those who survive, just as Yehovah has promised; the remnant will be those whom Yehovah will call. For look! In those days and at that time I will return the exiles to Yehudah and Yerushalayim (Yoel 2:32-3:1).

65 The Keys of the Kingdom 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven."

66 The Keys to the House of David "At that time I will summon my servant Eliakim, son of Hilkiah. I will put your robe on him, tie your belt around him, and transfer your authority to him. He will become a protector of the residents of Yerushalayim and of the people of Yehudah. I will place the key to the house of David on his shoulder. When he opens the door, no one can close it; when he closes the door, no one can open it. (Yeshayahu 22:20-22)

67 To the angel of the congregation in Philadelphia write the following: "This is the solemn pronouncement of the Set-apart One, the True One, who holds the key of David, who opens doors no one can shut, and shuts doors no one can open" (Revelation 3:7) The “key” is the authority to rule

68 The "keys of the reign of the heavens" about which Yeshua spoke to Peter is the authority given to the disciples of Yeshua to manage and reign over his body by the use of the rules (Hebrew, chukot) and right-rulings (Hebrew, mishpatim) of the Torah. These tools ("keys") are the means by which to instruct and manage the body of Messiah. They are the laws and judgments by which all of Israel is to live.

69 The Laws of the Land Now this is the commandment - the rules and right-rulings that Yehovah your Elohim instructed me to teach you so that you may carry them out in the land where you are headed.... (Devarim 6:1)

70 Is there any authority to change the laws and rulings of the Torah? All false religions take upon themselves the authority to change God’s Law or have as a leader one who alone or a select group of people who can properly interpret the Law

71 Now, Yisrael, pay attention to the rules and right-rulings I am about to teach you, so that you might live and go on to enter and take possession of the land that Yehovah, the Elohim of your ancestors, is giving you. Do not add a thing to what I command you nor subtract from it, so that you may keep the commandments of Yehovah your Elohim that I am delivering to you (Devarim [Deuteronomy] 4:1,2).

72 You must be careful to do everything I am commanding you. Do not add to it or subtract from it! (Devarim 12:32). Yehovah, your Instructions endure; they stand secure in heaven. (Psalm 119:89) Long ago I realized that you ordained your rules to last. (Psalm 119:152) Your justice endures, and your law is reliable. (Psalm 119:142)

73 Binding and Loosing “whatever you bind on earth shall be having been bound in the heavens, and whatever you loosen on earth shall be having been loosened in the heavens” The periphrastic future perfect tense of the Greek text. It is constructed by attaching the future tense of the "to be" verb to the perfect participle of the action verbs.

74 It essentially means, "when this judgment is 'bound,' it shall already have been bound in heaven" and "when the judgment is 'loosed' (released), it shall already have been released in heaven." The action, when declared by the disciples, will at that point in time already have been done by heaven. Why?

75 Does this authority enable Yeshua’s disciples to decide on their own how to judge the body of Messiah? (This is Roman Catholic teaching) Can a leader make his own decision about how to judge someone?

76 Messiah Will Judge the Nations...and many nations will come, saying, "Come on! Let's go up to Yehovah's mountain, to the temple of Ya'acov's Elohim, so he can teach us his commands, and we can live by his laws." For Zion will be the source of instruction, and Yehovah's teachings will proceed from Yerushalayim. He will arbitrate between many peoples, and mediate for many distant nations. (Micah 4:2,3)

77 Paul Exercises His Authority in Corinth It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and of a kind that does not occur even among pagans: A man has his father's wife. And you are proud! Shouldn't you rather have been filled with grief and have put out of your fellowship the man who did this? (1 Corinthians 5:1-2)

78 The Torah Judgment "'Do not have sexual relations with your father's wife; that would dishonor your father.(Leviticus 18:8) "'Everyone who does any of these detestable things-- such persons must be cut off from their people. (Leviticus 18:29)

79 Paul’s Judgment of the Immoral One 3 Even though I am not physically present, I am with you in spirit. And I have already passed judgment on the one who did this, just as if I were present. 4 When you are assembled in the name of our Master Yeshua and I am with you in spirit, and the power of our Master Yeshua is present, 5 hand this man over to Satan, so that the sinful nature may be destroyed and his spirit saved on the day of Yehovah. (1 Corinthians 5)

80 Redirect! 6 The punishment inflicted on him by the majority is sufficient for him. 7 Now instead, you ought to forgive and comfort him, so that he will not be overwhelmed by excessive sorrow. 8 I urge you, therefore, to reaffirm your love for him. (2 Corinthians 2)

81 If any of you has a dispute with another, dare he take it before the ungodly for judgment instead of before the saints? 2 Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more the things of this life! 4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such matters, appoint as judges even men of little account in the assembly! 1 Corinthians 6

82 Worship in Prayer


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