3Essential Question:Why did Americajoin the imperialistclub at the endof the 19c?
4 America Turns Outward Background: End of the Civil War to the 1880s: US = very isolationist1890s: began to expand onto the world stage, why?rising exportsmanufacturing capabilitypower, and wealthoverseas markets needed to sell goods“yellow press” or “yellow journalism” (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst)missionaries inspired by Reverend Josiah Strong’s Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Its Present CrisisStrong spoke for civilizing and Christianizing savages.
5 America Turns Outward Darwin’s influence: People interpreted survival-of-the-fittest to mean that the US = the fittestneeded to take over other nations to improve them.Remember: Europeans had carved up Africa and China by this time.Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s 1890 book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History,argued that every successful world power once held a great navy.helped start a naval race among the great powersmoved the U.S. to naval supremacymotivated the U.S. to look to expanding overseas.
6 America Turns OutwardSecretary of State James G. Blaine pushed his “Big Sister” policysought better relations w/ Latin America1889, he presided over the first Pan-American Conference, held in Washington D.C.Other diplomatic affairsUS & Germany almost went to war over the Samoan Islandsover whom could build a naval base thereItaly & US almost foughtdue to the lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans,U.S.& Chile almost went to warafter the deaths of 2 US sailors at Valparaiso in 1892.
7America Turns Outward Venezuela & Britain strengthening the Monroe DoctrineBritish Guiana & Venezuela had been disputing their border for many yearswhen gold was discovered, the situation worsenedthe U.S., (President Grover Cleveland)sent a note written by Secretary of State Richard Olney to Britaininforming them that the British actions were trespassing the Monroe DoctrineU.S. controlled things in the Americas.
8America Turns Outward GB & Venezuela (cont) British replied—said was none of the U.S's business.Cleveland repliedCreated a committee to set new boundary & if GB would not accept it, then U.S. implied it would fight for it.GB didn’t want to fight --fear of the damage to its merchant trade& the Dutch Boers of South Africa were about to go to war & Germany’s Kaiser Wilhem -- beginning to challenge Britain's powerGB sees benefits of an alliance w/ the "Yankees"began a period of "patting the eagle's head," instead of "twisting the lion's tale."referred to as the Great Rapprochement or reconciliation.
91. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
101. Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914
112. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History:
123. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s BurdenThe Hierarchy of Race
134. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905
16 Spurning the Hawaiian Pear From the 1820s, when the 1st U.S. missionaries came, the US had always liked the Hawaiian IslandsTreaties signed in 1875 & 1887guaranteed commercial tradeU.S. rights to priceless Pearl HarborHawaiian sugar=very profitablein 1890, the McKinley Tariff raised the prices on this sugar, raising its price.
17U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
18U. S. View of HawaiiansHawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in by virtue of economic treaties.
19Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
20U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty1890 – McKinley Tariff1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
21Spurning the Hawaiian Pear Americans felt that the best way to offset this was to annex Hawaiiopposed by its Queen Liliuokalaniin 1893, desperate Americans in Hawaii revoltedSucceeded--Hawaii seemed ready for annexationGrover Cleveland became president againinvestigated the coupfound it to be wrongdelayed the annexation of Hawaii until he basically left office.
22To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
24Cubans Rise in Revolt 1895--Cuba revolted agst Spain citing years of misruleCubans torched their sugar cane fieldshoped that such destruction would either make Spain leave or America interfere (the American tariff of 1894 had raised prices on it anyway)America supported Cubasituation worsened…Spanish General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler came to CubaTried to crush the revoltput many civilians into concentration camps & killed many.
26Cubans Rise in Revolt American public clamored for action, spurred on by the yellow press, but Cleveland would do nothing.yellow presscompeted agst each other to come up w/more sensational storiesHearst even sent artist Frederick Remington to draw pictures of often-fictional atrocitieshe drew Spanish officials brutally stripping & searching an American womanin reality, Spanish women, not men, did such acts.
28Cubans Rise in RevoltDupuy de Lôme Letter (Spanish minister to Washington):February 9, 1898, ridiculed President McKinleypublished by HearstFebruary 15, 1898, the U.S. battleship U.S.S. Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana Harborkilled 260 officers & men.Despite an unknown cause, America was war-mad and therefore Spain received the blame.
29De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
30Cubans Rise in RevoltHearst called down to Cuba, “You supply the pictures, I’ll supply the story.”What really happened?an accidental explosion had basically blown up the ship—a similar conclusion to what Spanish investigators suggested—but America ignored them.American public wanted warMcKinley privately didn’t like war or theWall Street didn’t want war because it would upset business
31“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism William Randolph Hearst Joseph PulitzerHearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!William Randolph Hearst
32Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
33Cubans Rise in RevoltApril 11, 1898, the president sent his war message to Congress anyway, since:(1) war with Spain seemed inevitable(2) America had to defend democracy(3) opposing a war could split the Republican party and America.Congress also adopted the Teller Amendmentproclaimed that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom and not conquer it.
34Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila On paper, at least, Spanish had advantage over U.S.more troopsa supposedly better armyyounger (& seemingly more daring) generalsNavy Secretary John D. Long & his assistant secretary, T. Roosevelt modernized U.S. navyFebruary 25, 1898, Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey, commanding the American Asiatic Squadron at Hong Kongtold him to take over the Philippines.Dewey did so brilliantly, completely taking over the islands from the Spanish.
35Theodore RooseveltAssistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.Imperialist and American nationalist.Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
36Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila August 13, 1898, American troops arrived & captured ManilaThey collaborated w/ Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to overthrow the Spanish rulers.On July 7, 1898, U.S. annexed Hawaii (so that it could use the islands to support Dewey, supposedly)Hawaii received full territorial status in 1900.
37The Confused Invasion of Cuba Spanish sent warships to CubaAmerican ground troops, led by General William R. Shafter, were ill-prepared for combat in the tropical environmenti.e. they had woolen long underwear“Rough Riders,”regiment of volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt & Colonel Leonard Woodrushed to Cuba & battled at El Caney stormed up San Juan Hill.
38The Confused Invasion of Cuba Soon afterwards--August 12, 1898Spain signed an armistice.IF the Spaniards had held out for a few more months, they might have wonAmerican army was plagued w/ dysentery, typhoid, & yellow fever
40The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?
41The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines.The U. S. becomes an imperial power!
42America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire When U.S. took Philippines, uproar broke out, why?until now, US had mostly acquired territory from the American continenteven with Alaska, Hawaii, & the other scattered islands, there weren’t many people living there.Anti-Imperialist League is formed:firmly opposed to this new imperialism of Americamembers included Mark Twain, William James, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie.Even the Filipinos wanted freedom & denying that to them was un-American.
43The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1899.Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.
44America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire Expansionists say that the Philippines could become another Hong Kong.British writer Rudyard Kipling wrote about “The White Man’s Burden,” urging America to keep the Philippines and “civilize them.”In the Senate, the treaty was almost not passedfinally, William Jennings Bryan argued for its passagesaid that the sooner the treaty was passed, the sooner the U.S. could get rid of the Philippines.The treaty passed by only one vote.
46Puerto Rico: 1898 1900 - Foraker Act. 1901-1903 the Insular Cases. PR became an “unincorporated territory.”Citizens of PR, not of the US.Import duties on PR goods the Insular Cases.Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.Congress had the power to decide these rights.Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!
47Puerto Rico: 1898 1917 – Jones Act. Gave full territorial status to PR.Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws.PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.
48 Perplexities in Puerto Rico & Cuba America couldn’t improve it that muchDid rid of yellow fever w/ the help of General Leonard Wood and Dr. Walter Reed1902: U.S. walks away from Cubaencouraged Cuba to write & pass the Platt Amendment, which became their constitution(1) the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy(2) that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba(3) that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay.
49Cuban Independence? Platt Amendment (1903) Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.Senator Orville Platt
50New Horizons in Two Hemispheres Spanish-American War lasted only 113 days:AFFIRMED AMERICA’S PRESENCE AS A WORLD POWER.America’s actions after the war made its German rival jealousMade Latin American neighbors suspiciousNarrowed the bloody chasm b/w the U.S. North & South, which had been formed in the Civil War.
52“Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines The Filipinos had assumed that they would receive freedom after the Spanish-American Warthey didn’tthey revolted against the U.S.Insurrection began on February 4, 1899,led by Emilio Aguinaldotook his troops into guerrilla warfare after open combat proved to be uselessStories of atrocities aboundedrebellion was broken in 1901 when U.S. soldiers invaded Aguinaldo’s headquarters & captured him
53Emilio Aguinaldo July 4, 1946: Philippine independence Leader of the Filipino Uprising.July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
54“Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines President McKinley formed a Philippine Commission in 1899deal with the Filipinosin its second year, the organization was headed by William Howard TaftHe developed a strong attachment for the Filipinos, calling them his “little brown brothers.”Americans tried to assimilate the Filipinos,islanders resistedfinally got their independence on July 4, 1946.
55William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.
57Hinging the Open Door in China Background:Following its defeat by Japan in , China had been carved into “spheres of influence” by the European powers.Americans = alarmedchurches worried about their missionary strongholdsbusinesses feared that they would not be able to export their products to China.
58Hinging the Open Door in China Secretary of State John Hay dispatched his famous Open Door note:urged the European nations to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participatebecame the “Open Door Policy.”All the powers already holding spots of China didn’t likeonly Italy, which had no sphere of influence of its own, accepted unconditionally.Russia didn’t accept it at allOther nations did, on certain conditions,Thus, China was “saved” from being carved up.
59The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equal access to trade in China.Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.
60Hinging the Open Door in China Boxers’ Rebellion (1900)super-patriotic group known as the “Boxers” revolted & took over the capital of China, Beijing, taking all foreigners hostage, including diplomatsa multi-national force broke the rebellionpowers made China pay $333 million for damages,U.S. eventually received $18 millionFearing that the European powers would carve China up for good, now, John Hay officially asked that China not be carved.
61The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Peaceful Harmonious Fists. “55 Days at Peking.”
64Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900? Election of 1900:McKinley sits on his front porch & Bryan actively & personally campaignsTheodore Roosevelt’s (McKinley’s VP choice) active campaigning took the momentum away from Bryan’s.Bryan’s supporters concentrated on imperialism—a bad moveAmericans were tired of the subjectMcKinley’s supporters claimed that “Bryanism,” not imperialism, was the problem,if Bryan became president, he would shake up the prosperity that was in America at the time;McKinley won easily.
65TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick William McKinley is assassinated 6 months after electionTheodore Roosevelt = the youngest president ever at age 42TR promised to carry out McKinley’s policies.Born into a rich familygraduate from Harvardhighly energetic and spiritedhis motto = “Speak softly and carry a big stick,” or basically, “Let your actions do the talking.”
66TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick Rooseveltdeveloped into a master politiciana maverick uncontrollable by party machineshe believed that a president should lead=the “first modern president.”
68Building the Panama Canal Background:during the Spanish-American War, the battleship U.S.S. Oregon had been forced go around the tip of South America to join the fleet in CubaSuch a waterway would also make defense of the recent island acquisitions easier (i.e. Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii).
69Building the Panama Canal the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain had forbade the construction by either country of a canal in the Americas without the other’s consent and help, butNullified in 1901 by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
70Building the Panama Canal A Nicaraguan route = possible place for a canalopposed by the old French Canal Company that was eager to build in PanamaWanted to salvage something from their costly failure there.Their leader = Philippe Bunau-Varilla.The U.S. finally chose Panama after Mount Pelée erupted and killed 30,000 people.
71Building the Panama Canal U.S. negotiated a deal that would buy a 6-mile-wide strip of land in Panama for $10 million and a $250,000 annual paymenttreaty was retracted by the Colombian government, which owned PanamaTR = furiouswanted construction of the canal to begin before the 1904 campaign.
72Building the Panama Canal TR & the U.S. decided time for actionNovember 3, 1903, another revolution in Panama began with the killing of a Chinese civilian and a donkeywhen Colombia tried to stop it, the U.S., citing an 1846 treaty with Colombia, wouldn’t let the Colombian fleet throughPanama =recognized by the U.S.15 days later, Bunau-Varilla, the Panamanian minister despite his French nationality, signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treatygave a widened (6x10 mi.) Panamanian zone to the U.S. for $15 million.
73Building the Panama Canal 1904, construction began on the Panama Canalproblems with landslides and sanitation occurred.Colonel George Washington Goethals finally organized the workersColonel William C. Gorgas exterminated yellow fever.When TR visited Panama in 1906, he was the first U.S. president to leave America for foreign soil.canal was finally finished & opened in 1914, at a cost of $400 million.
74TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904) Panama CanalTR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
75TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine Latin American nations like Venezuela & the Dominican Republic were having a hard time paying their debts to their European debtorsBritain & Germany decided to send force to South America to make the Latinos pay
76TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine TR feared that if European powers interfered in the Americas to collect debts, they might then stay in Latin America=blatant violation of the Monroe Doctrineso he issued his Roosevelt Corollarystated that in future cases of debt problems, the U.S. would take over and handle any intervention in Latin America on behalf of Europe, thus keeping Europe away & the Monroe Doctrine intact.said in effect, no one could bully Latin America except the U.S.Corollary didn’t bear too well with Latin America, whose countries once again felt that Uncle Sam was being overbearing.
77The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .
80Roosevelt on the World Stage Background:1904--Japan attacked Russia (Russia had been in Manchuria) & proceeded to administer a series of humiliating victories until the Japanese began to run short on menthey approached Theodore Roosevelt to facilitate a peace treatyTreaty of Portsmouth (in NH, 1905)both sides met, & though both were stubborn (Japan wanted all of the strategic island of Sakhalin while the Russians disagreed)TR negotiated a deal in which Japan got half of Sakhalin but no indemnity for its losses.TR: Receives the Nobel Peace Prize for thisAmerica lost allies in Russia & Japan, neither of which felt that it had received its fair share of winnings.
81 Japanese Laborers in California After the war, many Japanese immigrants poured into California, and fears of a “yellow peril” arose again.The showdown came in 1906 after the San Francisco earthquake when the city decreed that, due to lack of space, Chinese, Japanese, & Korean children should attend a special schoolbecame an international issue, but TR settled it eventually.San Francisco would not displace students while Japan would keep its laborers in Japan.
82Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S.Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries.The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools.1908 Root-Takahira Agreementpledged the U.S. and Japan to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.
86Roosevelt on the World Stage To impress the Japanese, Roosevelt sent his entire battleship fleet, “The Great White Fleet,” around the world for a tour, and it received tremendous salutes in Latin America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan, helping relieve tensions.