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Adapted from: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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1 Adapted from: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Cover Slide The American Pageant Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion Adapted from: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 America Becomes a Colonial Power

3 Essential Question: Why did America join the imperialist club at the end of the 19c?

4 America Turns Outward Background: End of the Civil War to the 1880s:
US = very isolationist 1890s: began to expand onto the world stage, why? rising exports manufacturing capability power, and wealth overseas markets needed to sell goods “yellow press” or “yellow journalism” (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) missionaries inspired by Reverend Josiah Strong’s Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Its Present Crisis Strong spoke for civilizing and Christianizing savages.

5 America Turns Outward Darwin’s influence:
People interpreted survival-of-the-fittest to mean that the US = the fittest needed to take over other nations to improve them. Remember: Europeans had carved up Africa and China by this time. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s 1890 book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, argued that every successful world power once held a great navy. helped start a naval race among the great powers moved the U.S. to naval supremacy motivated the U.S. to look to expanding overseas.

6  America Turns Outward Secretary of State James G. Blaine pushed his “Big Sister” policy sought better relations w/ Latin America 1889, he presided over the first Pan-American Conference, held in Washington D.C. Other diplomatic affairs US & Germany almost went to war over the Samoan Islands over whom could build a naval base there Italy & US almost fought due to the lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans, U.S.& Chile almost went to war after the deaths of 2 US sailors at Valparaiso in 1892.

7 America Turns Outward Venezuela & Britain
strengthening the Monroe Doctrine British Guiana & Venezuela had been disputing their border for many years when gold was discovered, the situation worsened the U.S., (President Grover Cleveland) sent a note written by Secretary of State Richard Olney to Britain informing them that the British actions were trespassing the Monroe Doctrine U.S. controlled things in the Americas.

8 America Turns Outward GB & Venezuela (cont)
British replied—said was none of the U.S's business. Cleveland replied Created a committee to set new boundary & if GB would not accept it, then U.S. implied it would fight for it. GB didn’t want to fight --fear of the damage to its merchant trade & the Dutch Boers of South Africa were about to go to war & Germany’s Kaiser Wilhem -- beginning to challenge Britain's power GB sees benefits of an alliance w/ the "Yankees" began a period of "patting the eagle's head," instead of "twisting the lion's tale." referred to as the Great Rapprochement or reconciliation.

9 1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908

10 1. Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade: 1870-1914

11 2. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History:

12 3. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race

13 4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905

14 5. Closing the American Frontier

15 Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific"

16 Spurning the Hawaiian Pear
From the 1820s, when the 1st U.S. missionaries came, the US had always liked the Hawaiian Islands Treaties signed in 1875 & 1887 guaranteed commercial trade U.S. rights to priceless Pearl Harbor Hawaiian sugar=very profitable in 1890, the McKinley Tariff raised the prices on this sugar, raising its price.

17 U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii
Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s

18 U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in by virtue of economic treaties.

19 Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

20 U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff 1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

21 Spurning the Hawaiian Pear
Americans felt that the best way to offset this was to annex Hawaii opposed by its Queen Liliuokalani in 1893, desperate Americans in Hawaii revolted Succeeded--Hawaii seemed ready for annexation Grover Cleveland became president again investigated the coup found it to be wrong delayed the annexation of Hawaii until he basically left office.

22 To The Victor Belongs the Spoils
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898

23 Cuba

24 Cubans Rise in Revolt 1895--Cuba revolted agst Spain
citing years of misrule Cubans torched their sugar cane fields hoped that such destruction would either make Spain leave or America interfere (the American tariff of 1894 had raised prices on it anyway) America supported Cuba situation worsened…Spanish General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler came to Cuba Tried to crush the revolt put many civilians into concentration camps & killed many.

25 Spanish Misrule in Cuba

26 Cubans Rise in Revolt American public clamored for action,
spurred on by the yellow press, but Cleveland would do nothing. yellow press competed agst each other to come up w/more sensational stories Hearst even sent artist Frederick Remington to draw pictures of often-fictional atrocities he drew Spanish officials brutally stripping & searching an American woman in reality, Spanish women, not men, did such acts.

27 Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy

28 Cubans Rise in Revolt Dupuy de Lôme Letter (Spanish minister to Washington): February 9, 1898, ridiculed President McKinley published by Hearst February 15, 1898, the U.S. battleship U.S.S. Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor killed 260 officers & men. Despite an unknown cause, America was war-mad and therefore Spain received the blame.

29 De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.
Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.

30 Cubans Rise in Revolt Hearst called down to Cuba, “You supply the pictures, I’ll supply the story.” What really happened? an accidental explosion had basically blown up the ship—a similar conclusion to what Spanish investigators suggested—but America ignored them. American public wanted war McKinley privately didn’t like war or the Wall Street didn’t want war because it would upset business

31 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism William Randolph Hearst
Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst

32 Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana

33 Cubans Rise in Revolt April 11, 1898, the president sent his war message to Congress anyway, since: (1) war with Spain seemed inevitable (2) America had to defend democracy (3) opposing a war could split the Republican party and America. Congress also adopted the Teller Amendment proclaimed that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom and not conquer it.

34 Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila
On paper, at least, Spanish had advantage over U.S. more troops a supposedly better army younger (& seemingly more daring) generals Navy Secretary John D. Long & his assistant secretary, T. Roosevelt modernized U.S. navy February 25, 1898, Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey, commanding the American Asiatic Squadron at Hong Kong told him to take over the Philippines. Dewey did so brilliantly, completely taking over the islands from the Spanish.

35 Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

36 Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila
August 13, 1898, American troops arrived & captured Manila They collaborated w/ Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to overthrow the Spanish rulers. On July 7, 1898, U.S. annexed Hawaii (so that it could use the islands to support Dewey, supposedly) Hawaii received full territorial status in 1900.

37 The Confused Invasion of Cuba
Spanish sent warships to Cuba American ground troops, led by General William R. Shafter, were ill-prepared for combat in the tropical environment i.e. they had woolen long underwear “Rough Riders,” regiment of volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt & Colonel Leonard Wood rushed to Cuba & battled at El Caney stormed up San Juan Hill.

38 The Confused Invasion of Cuba
Soon afterwards--August 12, 1898 Spain signed an armistice. IF the Spaniards had held out for a few more months, they might have won American army was plagued w/ dysentery, typhoid, & yellow fever

39 The “Rough Riders”

40 The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
How prepared was the US for war?

41 The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. The U. S. becomes an imperial power!

42 America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire
When U.S. took Philippines, uproar broke out, why? until now, US had mostly acquired territory from the American continent even with Alaska, Hawaii, & the other scattered islands, there weren’t many people living there. Anti-Imperialist League is formed: firmly opposed to this new imperialism of America members included Mark Twain, William James, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie. Even the Filipinos wanted freedom & denying that to them was un-American.

43 The American Anti-Imperialist League
Founded in 1899. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

44 America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire
Expansionists say that the Philippines could become another Hong Kong. British writer Rudyard Kipling wrote about “The White Man’s Burden,” urging America to keep the Philippines and “civilize them.” In the Senate, the treaty was almost not passed finally, William Jennings Bryan argued for its passage said that the sooner the treaty was passed, the sooner the U.S. could get rid of the Philippines. The treaty passed by only one vote.

45 Puerto Rico

46 Puerto Rico: 1898 1900 - Foraker Act. 1901-1903  the Insular Cases.
PR became an “unincorporated territory.” Citizens of PR, not of the US. Import duties on PR goods  the Insular Cases. Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions. Congress had the power to decide these rights. Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!

47 Puerto Rico: 1898 1917 – Jones Act.
Gave full territorial status to PR. Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US. PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws. PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections. A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.

48 Perplexities in Puerto Rico & Cuba
America couldn’t improve it that much Did rid of yellow fever w/ the help of General Leonard Wood and Dr. Walter Reed 1902: U.S. walks away from Cuba encouraged Cuba to write & pass the Platt Amendment, which became their constitution (1) the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy (2) that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba (3) that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay.

49 Cuban Independence? Platt Amendment (1903)
Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Senator Orville Platt

50 New Horizons in Two Hemispheres
Spanish-American War lasted only 113 days: AFFIRMED AMERICA’S PRESENCE AS A WORLD POWER. America’s actions after the war made its German rival jealous Made Latin American neighbors suspicious Narrowed the bloody chasm b/w the U.S. North & South, which had been formed in the Civil War.

51 The Philippines

52 “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines
The Filipinos had assumed that they would receive freedom after the Spanish-American War they didn’t they revolted against the U.S. Insurrection began on February 4, 1899, led by Emilio Aguinaldo took his troops into guerrilla warfare after open combat proved to be useless Stories of atrocities abounded rebellion was broken in 1901 when U.S. soldiers invaded Aguinaldo’s headquarters & captured him

53 Emilio Aguinaldo July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
Leader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence

54 “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines
President McKinley formed a Philippine Commission in 1899 deal with the Filipinos in its second year, the organization was headed by William Howard Taft He developed a strong attachment for the Filipinos, calling them his “little brown brothers.” Americans tried to assimilate the Filipinos, islanders resisted finally got their independence on July 4, 1946.

55 William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines
Great administrator.

56 China

57 Hinging the Open Door in China
Background: Following its defeat by Japan in , China had been carved into “spheres of influence” by the European powers. Americans = alarmed churches worried about their missionary strongholds businesses feared that they would not be able to export their products to China.

58 Hinging the Open Door in China
Secretary of State John Hay dispatched his famous Open Door note: urged the European nations to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participate became the “Open Door Policy.” All the powers already holding spots of China didn’t like only Italy, which had no sphere of influence of its own, accepted unconditionally. Russia didn’t accept it at all Other nations did, on certain conditions, Thus, China was “saved” from being carved up.

59 The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay.
Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.

60 Hinging the Open Door in China
Boxers’ Rebellion (1900) super-patriotic group known as the “Boxers” revolted & took over the capital of China, Beijing, taking all foreigners hostage, including diplomats a multi-national force broke the rebellion powers made China pay $333 million for damages, U.S. eventually received $18 million Fearing that the European powers would carve China up for good, now, John Hay officially asked that China not be carved.

61 The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
“55 Days at Peking.”

62 The Open Door Policy

63 America as a Pacific Power

64 Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?
Election of 1900: McKinley sits on his front porch & Bryan actively & personally campaigns Theodore Roosevelt’s (McKinley’s VP choice) active campaigning took the momentum away from Bryan’s. Bryan’s supporters concentrated on imperialism—a bad move Americans were tired of the subject McKinley’s supporters claimed that “Bryanism,” not imperialism, was the problem, if Bryan became president, he would shake up the prosperity that was in America at the time; McKinley won easily.

65 TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick
William McKinley is assassinated 6 months after election Theodore Roosevelt = the youngest president ever at age 42 TR promised to carry out McKinley’s policies. Born into a rich family graduate from Harvard highly energetic and spirited his motto = “Speak softly and carry a big stick,” or basically, “Let your actions do the talking.”

66 TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick
Roosevelt developed into a master politician a maverick uncontrollable by party machines he believed that a president should lead =the “first modern president.”

67 Panama

68 Building the Panama Canal
Background: during the Spanish-American War, the battleship U.S.S. Oregon had been forced go around the tip of South America to join the fleet in Cuba Such a waterway would also make defense of the recent island acquisitions easier (i.e. Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii).

69 Building the Panama Canal
the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain had forbade the construction by either country of a canal in the Americas without the other’s consent and help, but Nullified in 1901 by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

70 Building the Panama Canal
A Nicaraguan route = possible place for a canal opposed by the old French Canal Company that was eager to build in Panama Wanted to salvage something from their costly failure there. Their leader = Philippe Bunau-Varilla. The U.S. finally chose Panama after Mount Pelée erupted and killed 30,000 people.

71 Building the Panama Canal
U.S. negotiated a deal that would buy a 6-mile-wide strip of land in Panama for $10 million and a $250,000 annual payment treaty was retracted by the Colombian government, which owned Panama TR = furious wanted construction of the canal to begin before the 1904 campaign.

72 Building the Panama Canal
TR & the U.S. decided time for action November 3, 1903, another revolution in Panama began with the killing of a Chinese civilian and a donkey when Colombia tried to stop it, the U.S., citing an 1846 treaty with Colombia, wouldn’t let the Colombian fleet through Panama =recognized by the U.S. 15 days later, Bunau-Varilla, the Panamanian minister despite his French nationality, signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gave a widened (6x10 mi.) Panamanian zone to the U.S. for $15 million.

73 Building the Panama Canal
1904, construction began on the Panama Canal problems with landslides and sanitation occurred. Colonel George Washington Goethals finally organized the workers Colonel William C. Gorgas exterminated yellow fever. When TR visited Panama in 1906, he was the first U.S. president to leave America for foreign soil. canal was finally finished & opened in 1914, at a cost of $400 million.

74 TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)

75 TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine
Latin American nations like Venezuela & the Dominican Republic were having a hard time paying their debts to their European debtors Britain & Germany decided to send force to South America to make the Latinos pay

76 TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine
TR feared that if European powers interfered in the Americas to collect debts, they might then stay in Latin America =blatant violation of the Monroe Doctrine so he issued his Roosevelt Corollary stated that in future cases of debt problems, the U.S. would take over and handle any intervention in Latin America on behalf of Europe, thus keeping Europe away & the Monroe Doctrine intact. said in effect, no one could bully Latin America except the U.S. Corollary didn’t bear too well with Latin America, whose countries once again felt that Uncle Sam was being overbearing.

77 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905
Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .

78 Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!

79 Japan

80 Roosevelt on the World Stage
Background: 1904--Japan attacked Russia (Russia had been in Manchuria) & proceeded to administer a series of humiliating victories until the Japanese began to run short on men they approached Theodore Roosevelt to facilitate a peace treaty Treaty of Portsmouth (in NH, 1905) both sides met, & though both were stubborn (Japan wanted all of the strategic island of Sakhalin while the Russians disagreed) TR negotiated a deal in which Japan got half of Sakhalin but no indemnity for its losses. TR: Receives the Nobel Peace Prize for this America lost allies in Russia & Japan, neither of which felt that it had received its fair share of winnings.

81 Japanese Laborers in California
After the war, many Japanese immigrants poured into California, and fears of a “yellow peril” arose again. The showdown came in 1906 after the San Francisco earthquake when the city decreed that, due to lack of space, Chinese, Japanese, & Korean children should attend a special school became an international issue, but TR settled it eventually. San Francisco would not displace students while Japan would keep its laborers in Japan.

82 Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908
A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries. The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools. 1908  Root-Takahira Agreement pledged the U.S. and Japan to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.

83 America's New Role

84 The Cares of a Growing Family

85 Constable of the World

86 Roosevelt on the World Stage
To impress the Japanese, Roosevelt sent his entire battleship fleet, “The Great White Fleet,” around the world for a tour, and it received tremendous salutes in Latin America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan, helping relieve tensions.

87 The Great White Fleet: 1907

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