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Presentation on theme: "The American Pageant Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Adapted from: Ms. Susan M."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Pageant Chapter 27 Empire and Expansion Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Adapted from: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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4 America Turns Outward America Turns Outward Background:Background: –End of the Civil War to the 1880s: US = very isolationistUS = very isolationist –1890s: began to expand onto the world stage, why? rising exportsrising exports manufacturing capabilitymanufacturing capability power, and wealthpower, and wealth overseas markets needed to sell goodsoverseas markets needed to sell goods “yellow press” or “yellow journalism” (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst)“yellow press” or “yellow journalism” (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) missionaries inspired by Reverend Josiah Strong’s Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Its Present Crisismissionaries inspired by Reverend Josiah Strong’s Our Country: It’s Possible Future and Its Present Crisis –Strong spoke for civilizing and Christianizing savages.

5 America Turns Outward America Turns Outward Darwin’s influence:Darwin’s influence: –People interpreted survival-of-the-fittest to mean that the US = the fittest needed to take over other nations to improve them.needed to take over other nations to improve them. Remember: Europeans had carved up Africa and China by this time.Remember: Europeans had carved up Africa and China by this time. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s 1890 book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s 1890 book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, –argued that every successful world power once held a great navy. –helped start a naval race among the great powers –moved the U.S. to naval supremacy –motivated the U.S. to look to expanding overseas.

6 America Turns Outward America Turns Outward Secretary of State James G. Blaine pushed his “Big Sister” policySecretary of State James G. Blaine pushed his “Big Sister” policy –sought better relations w/ Latin America –1889, he presided over the first Pan-American Conference, held in Washington D.C. Other diplomatic affairsOther diplomatic affairs –US & Germany almost went to war over the Samoan Islands over whom could build a naval base thereover whom could build a naval base there –Italy & US almost fought due to the lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans,due to the lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans, –U.S.& Chile almost went to war after the deaths of 2 US sailors at Valparaiso in 1892.after the deaths of 2 US sailors at Valparaiso in 1892.

7 America Turns Outward Venezuela & BritainVenezuela & Britain –strengthening the Monroe Doctrine –British Guiana & Venezuela had been disputing their border for many years –when gold was discovered, the situation worsened –the U.S., (President Grover Cleveland) sent a note written by Secretary of State Richard Olney to Britainsent a note written by Secretary of State Richard Olney to Britain –informing them that the British actions were trespassing the Monroe Doctrine –U.S. controlled things in the Americas.

8 America Turns Outward GB & Venezuela (cont)GB & Venezuela (cont) –British replied—said was none of the U.S's business. –Cleveland replied Created a committee to set new boundary & if GB would not accept it, then U.S. implied it would fight for it.Created a committee to set new boundary & if GB would not accept it, then U.S. implied it would fight for it. –GB didn’t want to fight --fear of the damage to its merchant trade & the Dutch Boers of South Africa were about to go to war & Germany’s Kaiser Wilhem -- beginning to challenge Britain's power& the Dutch Boers of South Africa were about to go to war & Germany’s Kaiser Wilhem -- beginning to challenge Britain's power –GB sees benefits of an alliance w/ the "Yankees" began a period of "patting the eagle's head," instead of "twisting the lion's tale."began a period of "patting the eagle's head," instead of "twisting the lion's tale." referred to as the Great Rapprochement or reconciliation.referred to as the Great Rapprochement or reconciliation.

9 1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments:

10 American Foreign Trade: Commercial/Business Interests

11 2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan  The Influence of Sea Power on History:

12 3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race

13 4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905

14 5. Closing the American Frontier

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16 Spurning the Hawaiian Pear Spurning the Hawaiian Pear From the 1820s, when the 1 st U.S. missionaries came, the US had always liked the Hawaiian IslandsFrom the 1820s, when the 1 st U.S. missionaries came, the US had always liked the Hawaiian Islands Treaties signed in 1875 & 1887Treaties signed in 1875 & 1887 –guaranteed commercial trade –U.S. rights to priceless Pearl Harbor Hawaiian sugar=very profitableHawaiian sugar=very profitable in 1890, the McKinley Tariff raised the prices on this sugar, raising its price.in 1890, the McKinley Tariff raised the prices on this sugar, raising its price.

17 U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s

18 U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.

19 Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii for the Hawaiians!

20 U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.

21 Spurning the Hawaiian Pear Americans felt that the best way to offset this was to annex HawaiiAmericans felt that the best way to offset this was to annex Hawaii –opposed by its Queen Liliuokalani – in 1893, desperate Americans in Hawaii revolted Succeeded--Hawaii seemed ready for annexationSucceeded--Hawaii seemed ready for annexation Grover Cleveland became president againGrover Cleveland became president again –investigated the coup –found it to be wrong –delayed the annexation of Hawaii until he basically left office.

22 To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898

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24 Cubans Rise in Revolt Cuba revolted agst Spain1895--Cuba revolted agst Spain –citing years of misrule –Cubans torched their sugar cane fields hoped that such destruction would either make Spain leave or America interfere (the American tariff of 1894 had raised prices on it anyway)hoped that such destruction would either make Spain leave or America interfere (the American tariff of 1894 had raised prices on it anyway) America supported CubaAmerica supported Cuba situation worsened…Spanish General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler came to Cubasituation worsened…Spanish General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler came to Cuba –Tried to crush the revolt –put many civilians into concentration camps & killed many.

25 Spanish Misrule in Cuba

26 Cubans Rise in Revolt American public clamored for action,American public clamored for action, –spurred on by the yellow press, but Cleveland would do nothing. yellow pressyellow press –competed agst each other to come up w/more sensational stories Hearst even sent artist Frederick Remington to draw pictures of often-fictional atrocitiesHearst even sent artist Frederick Remington to draw pictures of often-fictional atrocities –he drew Spanish officials brutally stripping & searching an American woman –in reality, Spanish women, not men, did such acts.

27 Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy

28 Cubans Rise in Revolt Dupuy de Lôme Letter (Spanish minister to Washington):Dupuy de Lôme Letter (Spanish minister to Washington): –February 9, 1898, ridiculed President McKinley –published by Hearst February 15, 1898, the U.S. battleship U.S.S. Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana HarborFebruary 15, 1898, the U.S. battleship U.S.S. Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor –killed 260 officers & men. –Despite an unknown cause, America was war- mad and therefore Spain received the blame.

29 De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.

30 Cubans Rise in Revolt Hearst called down to Cuba, “You supply the pictures, I’ll supply the story.”Hearst called down to Cuba, “You supply the pictures, I’ll supply the story.” What really happened?What really happened? –an accidental explosion had basically blown up the ship—a similar conclusion to what Spanish investigators suggested—but America ignored them. American public wanted warAmerican public wanted war McKinley privately didn’t like war or theMcKinley privately didn’t like war or the Wall Street didn’t want war because it would upset businessWall Street didn’t want war because it would upset business

31 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!

32 Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana

33 Cubans Rise in Revolt April 11, 1898, the president sent his war message to Congress anyway, since:April 11, 1898, the president sent his war message to Congress anyway, since: –(1) war with Spain seemed inevitable –(2) America had to defend democracy –(3) opposing a war could split the Republican party and America. Congress also adopted the Teller AmendmentCongress also adopted the Teller Amendment –proclaimed that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom and not conquer it.

34 Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila On paper, at least, Spanish had advantage over U.S.On paper, at least, Spanish had advantage over U.S. –more troops –a supposedly better army –younger (& seemingly more daring) generals Navy Secretary John D. Long & his assistant secretary, T. Roosevelt modernized U.S. navyNavy Secretary John D. Long & his assistant secretary, T. Roosevelt modernized U.S. navy –February 25, 1898, Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey, commanding the American Asiatic Squadron at Hong Kong told him to take over the Philippines.told him to take over the Philippines. Dewey did so brilliantly, completely taking over the islands from the Spanish.Dewey did so brilliantly, completely taking over the islands from the Spanish.

35 Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

36 August 13, 1898, American troops arrived & captured ManilaAugust 13, 1898, American troops arrived & captured Manila They collaborated w/ Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to overthrow the Spanish rulers.They collaborated w/ Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to overthrow the Spanish rulers. On July 7, 1898, U.S. annexed Hawaii (so that it could use the islands to support Dewey, supposedly)On July 7, 1898, U.S. annexed Hawaii (so that it could use the islands to support Dewey, supposedly) –Hawaii received full territorial status in Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila

37 The Confused Invasion of Cuba Spanish sent warships to CubaSpanish sent warships to Cuba American ground troops, led by General William R. Shafter, were ill-prepared for combat in the tropical environmentAmerican ground troops, led by General William R. Shafter, were ill-prepared for combat in the tropical environment –i.e. they had woolen long underwear “Rough Riders,” “Rough Riders,” –regiment of volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt & Colonel Leonard Wood –rushed to Cuba & battled at El Caney stormed up San Juan Hill.

38 Soon afterwards--August 12, 1898Soon afterwards--August 12, 1898 –Spain signed an armistice. IF the Spaniards had held out for a few more months, they might have wonIF the Spaniards had held out for a few more months, they might have won –American army was plagued w/ dysentery, typhoid, & yellow fever The Confused Invasion of Cuba

39 The “Rough Riders”

40 The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” How prepared was the US for war?

41 The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. The U. S. becomes an imperial power!

42 When U.S. took Philippines, uproar broke out, why?When U.S. took Philippines, uproar broke out, why? –until now, US had mostly acquired territory from the American continent –even with Alaska, Hawaii, & the other scattered islands, there weren’t many people living there. Anti-Imperialist League is formed:Anti-Imperialist League is formed: –firmly opposed to this new imperialism of America –members included Mark Twain, William James, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie. –Even the Filipinos wanted freedom & denying that to them was un-American. America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire

43 The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

44 Expansionists say that the Philippines could become another Hong Kong.Expansionists say that the Philippines could become another Hong Kong. –British writer Rudyard Kipling wrote about “The White Man’s Burden,” urging America to keep the Philippines and “civilize them.” In the Senate, the treaty was almost not passedIn the Senate, the treaty was almost not passed –finally, William Jennings Bryan argued for its passage said that the sooner the treaty was passed, the sooner the U.S. could get rid of the Philippines.said that the sooner the treaty was passed, the sooner the U.S. could get rid of the Philippines. The treaty passed by only one vote.The treaty passed by only one vote. America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire

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46 Puerto Rico: 1898 Foraker Act Foraker Act.  PR became an “unincorporated territory.”  Citizens of PR, not of the US.  Import duties on PR goods  the Insular Cases.  Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.  Congress had the power to decide these rights.  Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!

47 Puerto Rico: – Jones Act.  Gave full territorial status to PR.  Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.  PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws.  PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.  A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.

48 CubaCuba –America couldn’t improve it that much –Did rid of yellow fever w/ the help of General Leonard Wood and Dr. Walter Reed –1902: U.S. walks away from Cuba –encouraged Cuba to write & pass the Platt Amendment, which became their constitution (1) the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy(1) the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy (2) that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba(2) that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba (3) that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay.(3) that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay. Perplexities in Puerto Rico & Cuba Perplexities in Puerto Rico & Cuba

49 Platt Amendment (1903) 1.Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt

50 New Horizons in Two Hemispheres Spanish-American War lasted only 113 days:Spanish-American War lasted only 113 days: –AFFIRMED AMERICA’S PRESENCE AS A WORLD POWER. –America’s actions after the war made its German rival jealous –Made Latin American neighbors suspicious –Narrowed the bloody chasm b/w the U.S. North & South, which had been formed in the Civil War.

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52 “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines The Filipinos had assumed that they would receive freedom after the Spanish- American WarThe Filipinos had assumed that they would receive freedom after the Spanish- American War –they didn’t –they revolted against the U.S. –Insurrection began on February 4, 1899, led by Emilio Aguinaldoled by Emilio Aguinaldo –took his troops into guerrilla warfare after open combat proved to be useless Stories of atrocities aboundedStories of atrocities abounded rebellion was broken in 1901 when U.S. soldiers invaded Aguinaldo’s headquarters & captured himrebellion was broken in 1901 when U.S. soldiers invaded Aguinaldo’s headquarters & captured him

53 Emilio Aguinaldo L eader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence

54 President McKinley formed a Philippine Commission in 1899President McKinley formed a Philippine Commission in 1899 –deal with the Filipinos –in its second year, the organization was headed by William Howard Taft He developed a strong attachment for the Filipinos, calling them his “little brown brothers.”He developed a strong attachment for the Filipinos, calling them his “little brown brothers.” Americans tried to assimilate the Filipinos,Americans tried to assimilate the Filipinos, –islanders resisted –finally got their independence on July 4, “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines

55 William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines Great administrator.

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57 Hinging the Open Door in China Background:Background: –Following its defeat by Japan in , China had been carved into “spheres of influence” by the European powers. Americans = alarmedAmericans = alarmed churches worried about their missionary strongholdschurches worried about their missionary strongholds businesses feared that they would not be able to export their products to China.businesses feared that they would not be able to export their products to China.

58 Secretary of State John Hay dispatched his famous Open Door note:Secretary of State John Hay dispatched his famous Open Door note: –urged the European nations to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and wanting to participate –became the “Open Door Policy.” All the powers already holding spots of China didn’t likeAll the powers already holding spots of China didn’t like –only Italy, which had no sphere of influence of its own, accepted unconditionally. Russia didn’t accept it at allRussia didn’t accept it at all Other nations did, on certain conditions,Other nations did, on certain conditions, Thus, China was “saved” from being carved up.Thus, China was “saved” from being carved up. Hinging the Open Door in China

59 The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.

60 Boxers’ Rebellion (1900)Boxers’ Rebellion (1900) –super-patriotic group known as the “Boxers” revolted & took over the capital of China, Beijing, taking all foreigners hostage, including diplomats –a multi-national force broke the rebellion powers made China pay $333 million for damages,powers made China pay $333 million for damages, U.S. eventually received $18 millionU.S. eventually received $18 million –Fearing that the European powers would carve China up for good, now, John Hay officially asked that China not be carved. Hinging the Open Door in China

61 The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Peaceful Harmonious Fists. “55 Days at Peking.”

62 The Open Door Policy

63 America as a Pacific Power

64 Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900? Election of 1900:Election of 1900: –McKinley sits on his front porch & Bryan actively & personally campaigns –Theodore Roosevelt’s (McKinley’s VP choice) active campaigning took the momentum away from Bryan’s. –Bryan’s supporters concentrated on imperialism—a bad move Americans were tired of the subjectAmericans were tired of the subject –McKinley’s supporters claimed that “Bryanism,” not imperialism, was the problem, if Bryan became president, he would shake up the prosperity that was in America at the time;if Bryan became president, he would shake up the prosperity that was in America at the time; McKinley won easily.McKinley won easily.

65 TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick William McKinley is assassinated 6 months after electionWilliam McKinley is assassinated 6 months after election Theodore Roosevelt = the youngest president ever at age 42Theodore Roosevelt = the youngest president ever at age 42 TR promised to carry out McKinley’s policies.TR promised to carry out McKinley’s policies. –Born into a rich family –graduate from Harvard –highly energetic and spirited –his motto = “Speak softly and carry a big stick,” or basically, “Let your actions do the talking.”

66 RooseveltRoosevelt –developed into a master politician –a maverick uncontrollable by party machines –he believed that a president should lead –=the “first modern president.” TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick

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68 Building the Panama Canal Background:Background: –during the Spanish-American War, the battleship U.S.S. Oregon had been forced go around the tip of South America to join the fleet in Cuba Such a waterway would also make defense of the recent island acquisitions easier (i.e. Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii).Such a waterway would also make defense of the recent island acquisitions easier (i.e. Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii).

69 the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain had forbade the construction by either country of a canal in the Americas without the other’s consent and help, butthe 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain had forbade the construction by either country of a canal in the Americas without the other’s consent and help, but Nullified in 1901 by the Hay-Pauncefote TreatyNullified in 1901 by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty Building the Panama Canal

70 A Nicaraguan route = possible place for a canalA Nicaraguan route = possible place for a canal –opposed by the old French Canal Company that was eager to build in Panama Wanted to salvage something from their costly failure there.Wanted to salvage something from their costly failure there. Their leader = Philippe Bunau-Varilla.Their leader = Philippe Bunau-Varilla. The U.S. finally chose Panama after Mount Pelée erupted and killed 30,000 people.The U.S. finally chose Panama after Mount Pelée erupted and killed 30,000 people. Building the Panama Canal

71 U.S. negotiated a deal that would buy a 6- mile-wide strip of land in Panama for $10 million and a $250,000 annual paymentU.S. negotiated a deal that would buy a 6- mile-wide strip of land in Panama for $10 million and a $250,000 annual payment –treaty was retracted by the Colombian government, which owned Panama –TR = furious wanted construction of the canal to begin before the 1904 campaign.wanted construction of the canal to begin before the 1904 campaign. Building the Panama Canal

72 TR & the U.S. decided time for actionTR & the U.S. decided time for action –November 3, 1903, another revolution in Panama began with the killing of a Chinese civilian and a donkey –when Colombia tried to stop it, the U.S., citing an 1846 treaty with Colombia, wouldn’t let the Colombian fleet through –Panama =recognized by the U.S. –15 days later, Bunau-Varilla, the Panamanian minister despite his French nationality, signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gave a widened (6x10 mi.) Panamanian zone to the U.S. for $15 million.gave a widened (6x10 mi.) Panamanian zone to the U.S. for $15 million. Building the Panama Canal

73 1904, construction began on the Panama Canal1904, construction began on the Panama Canal –problems with landslides and sanitation occurred. –Colonel George Washington Goethals finally organized the workers –Colonel William C. Gorgas exterminated yellow fever. When TR visited Panama in 1906, he was the first U.S. president to leave America for foreign soil.When TR visited Panama in 1906, he was the first U.S. president to leave America for foreign soil. canal was finally finished & opened in 1914, at a cost of $400 million.canal was finally finished & opened in 1914, at a cost of $400 million. Building the Panama Canal

74 Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)

75 TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine Latin American nations like Venezuela & the Dominican Republic were having a hard time paying their debts to their European debtorsLatin American nations like Venezuela & the Dominican Republic were having a hard time paying their debts to their European debtors –Britain & Germany decided to send force to South America to make the Latinos pay

76 TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine TR feared that if European powers interfered in the Americas to collect debts, they might then stay in Latin AmericaTR feared that if European powers interfered in the Americas to collect debts, they might then stay in Latin America =blatant violation of the Monroe Doctrine=blatant violation of the Monroe Doctrine so he issued his Roosevelt Corollaryso he issued his Roosevelt Corollary –stated that in future cases of debt problems, the U.S. would take over and handle any intervention in Latin America on behalf of Europe, thus keeping Europe away & the Monroe Doctrine intact. said in effect, no one could bully Latin America except the U.S.said in effect, no one could bully Latin America except the U.S. Corollary didn’t bear too well with Latin America, whose countries once again felt that Uncle Sam was being overbearing.Corollary didn’t bear too well with Latin America, whose countries once again felt that Uncle Sam was being overbearing.

77 The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power power.

78 Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!

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80 Roosevelt on the World Stage Background:Background: –1904--Japan attacked Russia (Russia had been in Manchuria) & proceeded to administer a series of humiliating victories until the Japanese began to run short on men –they approached Theodore Roosevelt to facilitate a peace treaty –Treaty of Portsmouth (in NH, 1905) both sides met, & though both were stubborn (Japan wanted all of the strategic island of Sakhalin while the Russians disagreed) both sides met, & though both were stubborn (Japan wanted all of the strategic island of Sakhalin while the Russians disagreed) TR negotiated a deal in which Japan got half of Sakhalin but no indemnity for its losses.TR negotiated a deal in which Japan got half of Sakhalin but no indemnity for its losses. –TR: Receives the Nobel Peace Prize for this –America lost allies in Russia & Japan, neither of which felt that it had received its fair share of winnings.

81 Japanese Laborers in California Japanese Laborers in California After the war, many Japanese immigrants poured into California, and fears of a “yellow peril” arose again.After the war, many Japanese immigrants poured into California, and fears of a “yellow peril” arose again. The showdown came in 1906 after the San Francisco earthquake when the city decreed that, due to lack of space, Chinese, Japanese, & Korean children should attend a special schoolThe showdown came in 1906 after the San Francisco earthquake when the city decreed that, due to lack of space, Chinese, Japanese, & Korean children should attend a special school –became an international issue, but TR settled it eventually. –San Francisco would not displace students while Japan would keep its laborers in Japan.

82 Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries. The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools  Root-Takahira Agreement pledged the U.S. and Japan to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.

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84 The Cares of a Growing Family

85 Constable of the World

86 To impress the Japanese, Roosevelt sent his entire battleship fleet, “The Great White Fleet,” around the world for a tour, and it received tremendous salutes in Latin America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan, helping relieve tensions.To impress the Japanese, Roosevelt sent his entire battleship fleet, “The Great White Fleet,” around the world for a tour, and it received tremendous salutes in Latin America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan, helping relieve tensions. Roosevelt on the World Stage

87 The Great White Fleet: 1907


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