Presentation on theme: "1950-2001 Important People, Events, and Developments."— Presentation transcript:
Important People, Events, and Developments
Early 1960’s The Cold War is heating up! 1960: John F. Kennedy becomes president. 1961: The Berlin Wall is built by Eastern Germany (communist) to keep people from escaping.
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: The U.S. learns that the Soviet Union built missile launching pads in Cuba (who is communist). –President Kennedy orders: U.S. Navy to block Soviet ships carrying missiles to Cuba. Troops to Florida in case we needed to invade Cuba.
Cuba is 90 miles from Florida!
Whew! An agreement was reached after 13 days. –The Soviet Union would remove missiles from Cuba. –The U.S. would not invade Cuba. The “hot line” was set up between Washington and Moscow. Both sides decided to limit nuclear testing to protect citizens.
Vietnam War Vietnam- A country in Asia North= Communists invades the South. The U.S. helps the South in hopes of stopping the spread of communism. America was divided over this war- –Doves vs Hawks –debt
1970’s President Nixon visits China and the Soviet Union. –Improved relationships –Trading partners –Collaborate on scientific and cultural projects –Arms control Vietnam War ends –1973: cease-fire, American troops leave –1975: North Vietnam wins= communism
Civil Rights Movement Fight for –EQUALity- laws that guaranteed constitutional rights to all citizens regardless of race. –End discrimination (unfair treatment) –End segregation (separate) Restaurants, movies, hotels, restrooms, water fountains, school
Brown v. Board of Education 1954: Topeka, Kansas Linda Brown- –3 rd grader –walked one mile to black school when white school was much closer. –Tried to go to white school, but principal refused. Thurgood Marshall- –Linda Brown’s lawyer –Said separate schools violated the 14 th Amendment –Supreme Court agreed and school segregation ended.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Boycott: to stop using or buying something in protest 1955: Montgomery, Alabama Rosa Parks –Refused to give up her bus seat to a white man and was arrested. Martin Luther King, Jr. –Led the nonviolent boycott of buses. –After a year, segregation of public transportation ended Cost bus company a lot of money. Supreme Court ruling
March on Washington 1963: Washington, D.C. 250,000 people gathered to get Congress’ attention to vote yes to pass civil rights laws. They wanted equal rights and quality education for African Americans. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.
“I Have a Dream” “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” Martin Luther King made an impact because he encouraged peaceful methods to make a difference.
Civil Rights Act 1964: Outlawed discrimination based on color, race, or religion in places like restaurants, hotels, motels, and theaters. Enforced an end to segregated schools (no federal money if segregated). Said all races, male or female, should have equal chances to get a job.
Voting Rights Act th and 19 th Amendments gave African American men and women the right to vote. Some southern states gave literacy tests to keep blacks from voting. This law put an end to the tests!
Assassinations President John F. Kennedy –1963: Dallas, TX: riding in a parade –He was a very popular president Robert F. Kennedy –1968: Los Angeles, CA: after speech at hotel –Was running for Democratic nomination for president Martin Luther King, Jr. –1968: Memphis, TN: balcony of hotel –Riots broke out across the country
TV –1950: 1% of American homes have a TV –1960: 90% –Today: about 99% have at least one –Changed How Americans got their news (newspapers, radio) Entertainment Experience events all over the world
Space Exploration Began in the 1960’s Showed scientific talents of the U.S. Space Race: to the moon –Soviets launched the 1 st satellite in 1957 and 1 st man in 1961 –1961: 1 st American in space –July 29, 1969: America wins! Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon! Satellites improved communication Space research led to useful products: smoke detectors, cordless tools, joysticks
Peace in the Middle East Palestine: A strip of land on the Mediterranean Sea Arabs and Jews have lived there for thousands of year. It has had many different rulers. Divided by religious, cultural, and political differences.
Palestine 1947: The U.N. divides it into a Jewish state (Isreal) and Arab state. The Arab countries rejected this and attacked Israel in Israel won and took over even more land. U.S. presidents meet with leaders to help bring peace. (1978 Jimmy Carter, 1993 & 2000 Bill Clinton) –U.S. support of Israel has angered many Arab countries.
Afghanistan Area of rich oil fields 1979: Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan America –reduced trade with the Soviet Union. –stopped supporting arms control. –1980: President Carter kept American athletes from participating in the Olympic Games because they were held in Moscow. 1988:Soviets removed troops
The Soviet Union Late 1980’s: communism was struggling –economic problems –restless citizens Mikhail Gorbachev- new leader, new changes –allowed freedom of speech –allowed citizens to own businesses –met with president Reagan
The Cold War Ends 1989: The Berlin wall comes down!
A New Eastern Europe 1991: Gorbachev outlawed the Communist party 15 republics that made up the Soviet Union declared their independence (largest: Russia) Economies were in ruins. Old hatreds between people came to the surface. The U.S. helps protect the rights of people in other countries. –Bosnia –Kosovo
The Gulf War AKA “Operation Desert Storm” 1990: Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, took over U.S. ally Kuwait- major producer of oil President Bush sent troops to protect neighbor and ally Saudi Arabia 27 countries attacked Iraq and pushed them out of Kuwait within 7 months.
9/11 Terrorism: A deliberate use of violence to promote a cause September 11, 2001: The worst act of terrorism in U.S. history –4 hijacked American commercial planes 2 planes crashed in to the twin towers of the World Trade Center 1 plane crashed into the Pentagon, the nation’s military headquarters in Washington, D.C. 1 plane crashed into an empty field near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (the White House, U.S. Capitol were thought to be targets)
World Trade Center: Twin Towers
9/11 Twin Towers
American Flight 93
War on Terrorism President George Bush said America would fight back. –Find those responsible –Prevent terrorist activities all over the world Includes –Increasing security –Searching for terrorists –Destroying terrorist camps –Forming alliances with other countries –Dealing with countries that let terrorists live there –Finding who gives terrorists money –Putting America’s military in position for action
Computers and the Internet Personal computers were developed in the late 1970s to help businesses be more productive. People started buying them for their homes. The internet is a way of using a personal computer to get information and communicate.
How did they change American life? With the computer and internet, people can: –work from home –research information –exchange information quickly –go to school online –communicate quickly –buy stuff