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Лингвострановедение США и Великобритании Направление подготовки 031100 «Лингвистика", квалификация: бакалавр (вечерняя форма обучения) ИИЯ МКП Беркович.

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Presentation on theme: "Лингвострановедение США и Великобритании Направление подготовки 031100 «Лингвистика", квалификация: бакалавр (вечерняя форма обучения) ИИЯ МКП Беркович."— Presentation transcript:

1 Лингвострановедение США и Великобритании Направление подготовки «Лингвистика", квалификация: бакалавр (вечерняя форма обучения) ИИЯ МКП Беркович Т.А. British Symbols

2 CONTENT 2 1.Ключевые понятия: Британские острова, Соединенное королевство, завоевание англосаксов, Британская монархия, Парламент, национальный характер, коренное население Америки, первые европейские поселенцы в Америке, формирование США и война за независимость, государственное устройство США. 2. Вопросы для самопроверки: 1.Describe the location of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Are there any differences in the climate of some parts of Great Britain? 3.3. What can you say about the capital of Great Britain? 4.4. Speak on early invasions The rise and fall of British Empire. Why did they happen?

3 3 6. Geographical position of the USA. 7. The discovery of America and early Americans. 8. Struggle for independence. 9. The US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. 10. What were the reasons of the Civil War? 3. Список рекомендуемой литературы: 1. Лингвострановедение США= American Culture Studies: учебное пособие/ Михайлов Н.Н., Михайлов М.Н. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», Англия и Англичане / Павловская А.В. – М.: МГУ им. Ломоносова, Все о Великобритании/ Коробов А.И. – Харьков: Фолио, Великобритания: монархия, история, культура. Книга по страноведению на английском языке. / В. М. Павлоцкий – СПб.: КАРО, Страноведение. Англия. Н.М. Нестерова. Ростов-на-Дону, 2006.

4 4 The United Kingdom of Great Britain

5 Union Jack 5 THE BRITISH FLAG, KNOWN AS THE UNION JACK, IS A COMBINATION OF THREE FLAGS: THE SAINT ANDREW’S CROSS, THE SAINT PATRICK’S CROSS AND THE SAINT GEORGE’S CROSS. THE RED UPRIGHT CROSS ON THE WHITE FIELD IS ST. GEORGE’S CROSS –THE PATRON SAINT OF ENGLAND. THE DIAGONAL WHITE CROSS ON THE BLUE FIELD IS ST. ANDREW’S CROSS – THE PATRON SAINT OF SCOTLAND. THE RED DIAGONAL CROSS ON THE WHITE FIELD IS ST. PATRICK’S CROSS – THE PATRON SAINT OF IRELAND. IT WAS SET UP IN 1801 AFTER THE LAST OF THE THREE ACTS OF UNION. UNION JACK PRESENTS THE COMBINATION OF COLOURS AND CROSSES REFLECTING THE PECULIARITIES OF THE EXISTING AT THAT TIME NATIONAL FLAGS OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. THE NAME, THE COLOURS AND CROSSES SYMBOLIZE THE UNION OF THE UNITED PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

6 6 Flags and Saints THE SAINT PATRICK’S CROSS IS THE FORMER FLAG OF IRELAND. SAINT PATRICK IS THE PATRON SAINT OF IRELAND. HE WAS BORN ABOUT AD 390. HE CONVERTED THE IRISH TO CHRISTIANITY AND IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE GOT RID OF ALL THE SNAKES IN IRELAND. SAINT PATRICK’S DAY IS CELEBRATED ON 17 MARCH.

7 7 Flags and Saints

8 8 THE SAINT ANDREW’S CROSS IS THE SCOTTISH FLAG. SAINT ANDREW, A FISHERMAN, WAS ONE OF THE 12 APOSTLES WHO FOLLOWED JESUS CHRIST. PAINTINGS OF SAINT ANDREW OFTEN SHOW HIM BEING KILLED ON AN X-SHAPED CROSS. SAINT ANDREW’S DAY IS CELEBRATED ON 30 NOVEMBER. HE IS THE PATRON SAINT OF BOTH SCOTLAND AND RUSSIA.

9 9 Flags and Saints

10 10 IRELAND HAS THE RED HAND AS ONE OF ITS SYMBOLS TODAY. THIS IS THE BANNER OF ULSTER IRELAND. THE RED HAND WAS TAKEN AS THE SYMBOL IN 1600 BC.

11 11 Royal Family

12 12 History of "God Save The Queen" Though usually attributed to Arne, there is good ground for believing it is really the work of Henry Carey, a singer and composer. It is said to have been written sometime between 1736 and 1740, but was first heard in public at a dinner in 1740 to celebrate the taking of Portobello by Admiral Vernon. Carey sang it as his own composition. The oldest copy is in "Harmonia Anglicana" of 1743 to which Carey was one of the chief contributors. Several similar earlier airs exist in a manuscript of 1619 attributed to Dr. John Bull, an organist in the Chapel Royal during the reign of James I. In the same book is a song called "God Save the King", but the music is different. The Scots claim it is based on an old carol of 1611 called "Remember O thou man" or "Franklyn is fled away" of It has also been traced to Purcell in As a phrase from the Coverdale Bible of 1535, "God Save the King" was used as a naval watchword to which the countersign was "Long to reign over us". For a long time the song was used as an expression of personal loyalty to the king and in translation it was used in Prussia, Denmark, and in Russia until 1833 when Czar Nicholas commissioned a new version. The tune has also been used in Sweden, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and the United States. GOD SAVE THE QUEEN is sung in the United Kingdom as a matter of tradition. It has never been proclaimed the national anthem by an Act of Parliament or a Royal Proclamation.

13 13 God Save The Queen God save our gracious Queen Long live our noble Queen, God save the Queen: Send her victorious, Happy and glorious, Long to reign over us: God save the Queen. O Lord, our God, arise, Scatter thine enemies, And make them fall: Confound their politics, Frustrate their knavish tricks, On thee our hopes we fix: God save us all. Thy choicest gifts in store, On her be pleased to pour; Long may she reign: May she defend our laws, And ever give us cause To sing with heart and voice God save the Queen.

14 14 Emblems A BRITISH LION IS ACTUALLY A “LION PASSANT GARDANT” – A WALKING LION, LOOKING OUT AT YOU FULL FACE, AND WAS FIRST USED BY ROLLO, DUKE OF NORMANDY (FATHER OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR). THE LION PASSANT GARDANT STANDS FOR “ RESOLUTION AND PRUDENCE”.

15 15 Emblems THE SCOTS ALSO HAVE A LION AS THEIR HERALDIC EMBLEM: THEIRS IS A RED LION RAMPANT (STANDING ON ITS HIND LEGS, LOOKING STRAIGHT FORWARD). THE SCOTS MADE THEIR RED LION STAND UP: READY TO FIGHT.

16 16 Emblems DAVID’S HARP”ERIN GO BRAGH” = “IRELAND FOREVER” WAS THE NATIONAL BANNER OF IRELAND FOR MANY CENTURES. THE ARMS OF NORTH IRELAND TODAY ALSO HAVE A RED LION STANDING UP.

17 17 Emblems THE ROYAL BANNER OF ENGLAND. THE LION IS THE EMBLEM OF ENGLAND, IT WAS FIRST USED BY ROLLO, DUKE OF NORMANDY( FATHER OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, WHO ADDED THE SECOND LION). THE THIRD WAS ADDED BY HENRY II, AND HENRY VIII ADED A CROWN TO THE LION. IN HERALDY, THE LION STANDS FOR ‘DEATHLESS COURAGE’.

18 18 Emblems ROYAL BANNER OF THE KING OR QUEEN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND TODAY

19 19 The Royal Seal IN THE ROYAL SEAL WE SEE THE LIONS, AND THE UNICORN, THE HARP OF DAVID, AND THE STANDING RED LION. LIONS ARE WITH ROYAL CROWNS. THE WORDS:’DIEU ET MON DROIT’ WHICH MEAN ‘GOD AND MY RIGHT’ ARE LATIN. ‘HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE’ MEANS:” EVIL BE TO HIM WHO EVIL THINKS’

20 20 Icons and Symbols

21 21 Icons and Symbols BRITANNIA IS THE PERSONIFICATION OF BRITISH NATIONALISM. SHE IS PORTRAYED AS A YOUNG WOMAN IN A GOWN AND HELMET, SEATED BY THE SEA (“BRITANNIA RULES THE WAVES”). SHE IS HOLDING A TRIDENT IN ONE HAND AND A SHIELD, DECORATED WITH THE UNION FLAG, IN THE OTHER. THE ROMANS CALLED THEIR NEWLY-CONQUERED PROVINCE, JUST ACROSS THE SEA, BRITANNIA, AND THE COINAGE OF THE DAY FEATURED THE IMAGE OF A WOMAN IN ARMOUR. THIS IMAGE WAS NOT USED ON COINS AGAIN UNTIL THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES II, AND BRITANNIA BECAME A POPULAR FIGURE IN 1707 WHEN SCOTLAND, WALES AND ENGLAND WERE FINALLY UNITED TO FORM GREAT BRITAIN/ SHE WAS IMMORTALISED IN 1740 WHEN JAMES THOMPSOM WROTE THE WORDS OF “RULE BRITANNIA” AND SET IT TO MUSIC BY THOMAS ARNE. THE SONG “RULE BRITANNIA” IS STILL SUNG EVERY YEAR ON THE LAST NIGHT OF THE “PROMS” –THE PROMENADE CONCERTS HELD IN THE ROYAL ALBERT HALL IN LONDON – WHEN THE WHOLE AUDIENCE JOINS IN A BURST OF NATIONALISTIC FERVOUR AND FLAG-WAVING, INVARIABLY DROWNING OUT THE SOLOIST WHO IS SUPPOSED TO BE DOING THE SINGING! BRITANNIA HAS CONTINUED TO FEATURE ON BRITISH COINS, MOSTLY ON COPPER (PENNY AND HALFPENNY) COINS BUT OCCASIONALLY ON SILVER, AND AT PRESENT IS TO BE SEEN ON THE 50P COIN.

22 22 Icons and Symbols When Britain first, at heaven's command, Arose from out the azure main, Arose, arose, arose from out the a-azure main, This was the charter, the charter of the land, And guardian angels sang this strain: Rule Britania! Britannia rule the waves. Britons never, never, never shall be slaves. The nations, not so blest as thee, Must in their turn, to tyrants fall, Must in,must in, must in their turn, to tyrants fall, While thou shalt flourish, shalt flourish great and free, The dread and envy of them all. Rule Britannia! Britannia rule the waves. Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.

23 23 Icons and Symbols THE BRITISH HAVE JOHN BULL. HE IS A FICTIONAL CHARACTER,USED TO PERSONIFY THE BRITISH NATION, AND IS ALWAYS DEPICTED AS AN ELDERLY GENTLEMAN,RATHER PORTLY IN BUILD,WEARING FULL RIDING KIT COMPLETE WITH BREECHES AND BOOTS, AND A UNION JACK WAISTCOAT. HE WAS CREATED BY JOHN ARBUTHNOT ( ) A SCOTTISH AUTHOR, SCIENTIST, AND PHYSICIAN WHO WROTE FIVE SATIRICAL PAMPHLETS IN 1712 ON THE POLITICS OF THE DAY, USING JOHN BULL AS THE TYPICAL ENGLISHMAN. THE CHARACTER OBVIOUSLY STRUCK A CHORD AND HE HAS PERSISTED EVER SINCE: THE PICTURE COMES FROM A 1916 BRITISH ARMY RECRUITING POSTER.

24 24 Icons and Symbols THE BULLDOG SYMBOLISES THE VERY ESSENCE OF BRITISHNESS. HE IS SOLID, RELIABLE, UNSHAKEABLY LOYAL, VERY INDIVIDUAL, VERY NICE WHEN YOU GET TO KNOW HIM. HE ALSO BEARS A STARTLING RESEMBLANCE TO WINSTON CHURCHILL, BRITAIN’S GREAT WARTIME LEADER WHOSE MEMORY IS STILL HELD IN GREAT ESTEEM BY THE MAJORITY OF THE BRITISH.

25 25 Icons and Symbols THE ROBIN IS EVERYONE’S FAVOURITE BIRD : WHEN A NATIONAL NEWSPAPER CONDUCTED A POLL TO DECIDE BRITAIN’S NATIONAL BIRD MILLIONS VOTED, AND THE ROBIN WON BY A LANDSLIDE. THE ROBIN IS IMMEDIATELY RECOGNISABLE – NO OTHER BRITISH BIRD HAS THE SAME RED BREAST, WHISH IS PRESENT IN BOTH SEXES, AND IT IS THE ONE BIRD EVERYONE CAN IDENTIFY EVEN IF THEY CAN NAME NO OTHER BIRD! ROBINS ARE SO FAMILIA BECAUSE THEY ARE SO TAME : THIS SEEMS A CHARACTERISTIC OF BRITISH ROBINS, WHICH ELSEWHERE IN THEIR RANGE ARE SHY WOODLAND BIRDS. THEY KNOW THAT EVERYONE LOVES THEM!

26 26 Emblems THE RED ROSE BECAME THE EMBLEM OF ENGLAND AFTER THE WARS OF ROSES ( ) WHICH WAS THE WAR OF THE DYNASTIES FOR THE ENGLISH THRONE. ALL RIVALRY BETWEEN THE ROSES ENDEDBY THE MARRIAGE OF HENRY VII TUDOR (THE LANCASTRIAN WHOSE EMBLEM WAS THE RED ROSE) WITH PRINCESS ELIZABETH, THE DAUGHTER OF EDWARD IV (THE YORKIST WHOSE EMBLEM WAS THE WHITE ROSE ). THE RED ROSE HAS SINCE BECOME THE NATIONAL EMBLEM OF ENGLAND.

27 27 Icons and Symbols THE BOWLER HAT CONJURES UP AN INSTANT IMAGE OF BRITISHNESS. ORIGINALLY DESIGNED IN 1850 BY LOCK’S THE HATTERS FOR WILLIAM COKE II, LATER THE EARLOF LEICESTER, IT WAS ACTUALLY MADE BY THE HAT MAKER WILLIAM BOWLER. IT WAS FIRST CALLED THE ‘COKE’ BUT SOON BECAME KNOWN AS A ‘BOWLER’,PARTLY BECAUSE OF ITS MAKER BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF ITS BOWL-LIKE SHAPE. THE BOWLER HAT BECAME THE TRADEMARK OF SEVERAL WELL-KNOWN ENGLISHMEN : CHARLIE CHAPLIN (BORN IN LONDON) AND MORE RECENTLY JOHN STEED, THE ARCHETYPAL GENTLEMAN SPY. YOU WILL STILL SEE BOWLER HATS BEING WORN ON THE STREETS OF LONDON TODAY AS THEY FORM PART OF THE UNOFFICIAL ‘UNIFORM’ OF THE CITY GENT, ALWAYS ACCESSORISED WITH A ROLLED BLACK UMBRELLA.

28 28 Icons and Symbols THE BRITISH BOBBY IS ONE OF THE MOST CHERISHED ICONS, CALLED AFTER THE FOUNDER OF THE MODERN POLICE FORCE, SIR ROBERT PEEL. THE BRITISH POLICEMEN ARE NOT ROUTINELY ARMED AND THERE IS CONSIDERABLE PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR IT REMAINING THAT WAY; THE BRITISH HAVE A NATURAL AVERSION TO THE EVERYDAY USE OF GUNS, AND STILL YEARN FOR THE DAES WHEN THE LOCAL BOBBY COULD DISPENSE SUMMARY JUSTICE TO MISBEHAVING JUVENILES WITH A SWIFT CLOUT AS SOON AS HE CAUGHT THEM.

29 29 Использование материалов презентации Использование данной презентации, может осуществляться только при условии соблюдения требований законов РФ об авторском праве и интеллектуальной собственности, а также с учетом требований настоящего Заявления. Презентация является собственностью авторов. Разрешается распечатывать копию любой части презентации для личного некоммерческого использования, однако не допускается распечатывать какую-либо часть презентации с любой иной целью или по каким-либо причинам вносить изменения в любую часть презентации. Использование любой части презентации в другом произведении, как в печатной, электронной, так и иной форме, а также использование любой части презентации в другой презентации посредством ссылки или иным образом допускается только после получения письменного согласия авторов.


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