Presentation on theme: "Warm-up questions Why was the Battle of the Marne so important? What role did taxi’s play in the war effort? What was the immediate cause of WW1? Who."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up questions Why was the Battle of the Marne so important? What role did taxi’s play in the war effort? What was the immediate cause of WW1? Who was the assassin?
Map 25.3: The Eastern Front, 1914- 1918
The Widening of the War August 1914: Ottoman Empire enters the war Battle of Gallipoli, April 1915 May 1915: Italy enters the war against Austria-Hungary September 1915: Bulgaria enters the war on the side of the Central Powers Middle East Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935) April 1917: Entry of the United States The United States tried to remain neutral Sinking of the Lusitania, May 7, 1915 Return to unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917 United States enters the war, April 6, 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, 1917
The Eastern Front
Russians are winning at first – Russia starts having issues at home – Battle of Tanneburg Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Dec 1917) – Lenin took Russia out of the war but forced to give Germans ¼ of Russian territory
Land given up in treaty
Ottoman Empire Gallipoli Campaign – British and Australian forces failed to take Dardanelles as a step toward taking Constantinople and defeating the Turks Allies want to attack Dardanelles Strait dividing Asia from Europe Capture and conquer Ottoman Empire’s capital at Constantinople
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
T. E. Lawrence & the “ Arab Revolt ”, 1916-18
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
Germany Starts Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germans take out an add to stop Americans from coming to Europe via Boat
British Blockade Attempts to starve out the Germans
The Sinking of the Lusitania
Lusitania – May 7, 1915 British Ocean Liner From New York - Liverpool Sank in 18 minutes 1,195 lost 1,959 on board 128 Americans Off the Coast of Ireland One torpedo Two Explosions???
NOTICE! Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 1915.
“He kept us out of War” Re-elected 1916 Zimmerman Telegram Zimmerman Telegram – Jan. 16, 1917 German Ambassador Telegram German Ambassador in Mexico March 1 – published US April 6 - declaration
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming! The Main Reason we enter the war is due to Germany’s Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Americans in the Trenches
The Home Front: The Impact of Total War Government Centralization Conscription Draft huge numbers of Men Effects on Economies Public Order and Public Opinion Dealing with unrest Defense of the Realm Act Propaganda Social Impact of Total War Labor benefits New roles for women Male concern over wages Women began to demand equal pay Gains for women
Involve everyone in civilian population Propaganda machines in full force – Dehumanize the enemy News is Censored Mass Conscription
Economic efforts at home Economic production was totally refocused on war effort – Examples Battle of Verdun more projectiles used than every single war prior In one battle –1917 a 19 day artillery shelling –Used up all of the shells carried by 321 trains –Output of 55,000 factory workers who worked for a year.
Leaders of Industrial Transition Walter Rathenau – Jewish German industrialist – Sets up War Raw Materials Board Ration / distributes everything Creates synthetics Recycle Beat the British Blockade – States socialism is a viable economic blueprint for a society
Auxiliary Service law – 1916 – All German Men 17-60 had to work in jobs crucial to the war effort
Women and the War Effort
Women replaced male factory workers who were now fighting in the war – 43% of labor force in Russia – Changing attitudes of women resulted in increased rights after the war in – Britain, Germany, Austria and U.S.
Financing the War
French Women Factory Workers
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Red Cross Nurses
Women in the Army Auxiliary
Russian Women Soldiers
Rationing of food and scarce commodities was instituted People financed the war by buying WAR BONDS Each side tries to “starve out” the other side
Spies “ Mata Hari ” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy! “ Mata Hari ” e Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle e German Spy!
France– Create a dictatorship during the war Germany became the world’s first totalitarian regime in order to control the war effort British economy is largely planned and regulated Labor unions: saw increased influence and prestige die to increased demand for labor War promoted greater social equity, thus blurring class distinctions and lessening the gap between rich and
End of War Argonne Offensive--Spring 1918 – Germans transferred divisions from east (after defeating Russia) to the western front and mounted a massive offensive
US is there to meet them US soldiers are FRESH and READY