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New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 1 A New Solution for Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe July 3 2008, 2nd Open meeting.

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Presentation on theme: "New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 1 A New Solution for Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe July 3 2008, 2nd Open meeting."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 1 A New Solution for Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe July , 2nd Open meeting for KEK

2 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 2 I. The Lore that Despairs the Experimenter BAU; KM; Heavenly TH; Belle’04,   A K  and P EW II. Going Up a Hill... Embark; Constraints; Consistency; b → s CP Phase III.... (maybe) Becoming a Mountain sin 2  B s ; A FB ;  m D ; [K L →   ] exp exp exp (exp) IV. Soaring to the Starry Heavens CPVBAU Redux Boxes, Penguins, Yukawas; CPVBAU Redux V. Towards Solution of BAU CPV — Dominance ; Phase Trans. — Strong Coupling ? VI. LHC ? sin 2  B s Confirmation VII. Conclusion Outline s b 4 ; b ’, t ’ Discovery

3 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 3 I. The Lore that Despairs the Experimenter

4 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 4 Oblig é Dispair

5 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 5

6 Sakharov Conditions: Matter Universe Antimatter → Matter if: (1) Proton Decay (Baryon # Violation) (2) Matter-antimatter Asymm. (CP Violation) (3) Out of Equilibrium Sakharov (1967) Particle Physics Astrophysics

7 Electroweak Baryogenesis !? Antimatter → Matter if: (1) Proton Decay (Baryon # Violation) (2) Matter-antimatter Asymm. (CP Violation) (3) Out of Equilibrium Sakharov (1967) Particle Physics Astrophysics Continue Search for CP Violation Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov, 1986 ✔ Too Small ! EWPhT a crossover ! (not strong enough...) Challenge

8 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 8 WMAP Too Small in SM CPV in KM B.A.U. from CPV in KM ? Why? Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM) Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV is common (unique) area of triangle in SM masses too small ! CPV Phase

9 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 9

10 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 10 Heavenly TH “Affleck-Dine”, SUSY etc.: Scalars Extra Scalars (strongly) coupled to H 0 Leptogenesis: Heavy Majorana Neutrinos ⊕ LFV/CPV Decay ⊕ B/L Violation (“ EW Baryogenesis”) More Scalars!   Popular ! Driving   study for neutrinos. But, “ Heavenly ” — Could be(come) Metaphysics

11 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 11 P EW Z’Z’ Belle 2004 PRL: Seed by “yours truly”

12 ICHEP 2004, Beijing A CP (B  K    ) A CP ( K    ) = 0.04  0.05  M BB New K    : 728  53 hint that A CP ( K    )  A CP ( K    ) ? (2.4  ) Large EW penguin (Z 0 ) ? New Physics ? [also seen by BaBar] _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Sakai

13 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/  2005

14 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 14 Belle 2008 Nature: Simple Bean Count   A = A K       A K      =     0.07  0.03 vs   0.020

15 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 15 Experiment is Firm   A K  ~ 0 expected       0.028> 5    > 5  Why a Puzzle ? ? _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Large C ? Large EWPenguin ? A lot of (hadronic) finesse Need NP CPV Phase P EW has practically no weak phase in SM ? t, ? Baek, London, PLB653, 249 (2007) World

16 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 16 Wisdom from Peskin P EW C

17 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 17 “I must say that I am very skeptical that the new Belle result is new physics -- a larger than expected color suppressed amplitude is an explanation that is ready at hand. On the other hand, I felt that it was necessary to push the new physics interpretation when writing for the Nature audience, people outside of high energy physics, because this is why the result is potentially newsworthy.” Peskin (private communication) color suppressed Ya, ya!   anyway ! Need   anyway ! I ’ ll keep crawlin ’.

18 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 18 II. Going Up a Hill... _d_d d  KK u u BB sb

19 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 19 My first B paper nondecoupling dimensions

20 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 20 My first B paper... also on 4th generation

21 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 21 Experiment is Firm   A K  ~ 0 expected       0.028> 5    > 5  Why a Puzzle ? ? _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Large C ? Large EWPenguin ? A lot of (hadronic) finesse ? t, ? Baek, London, PLB653, 249 (2007) World Need NP CPV Phase P EW has practically no weak phase in SM t, t ’ 4th Gen. in EWP Natural nondecouplin g

22 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 22 Going Up a Hill... _d_d d  KK u u BB sb, t ’, t ’ Embark

23 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 23 EW Precision - Disfavored by EW Precision ( see e.g. J. Erler hep-ph/ ; PDG06 4th Generation Still? - N counting? 4th “neutrino” heavy Massive neutrinos call for new Physics not 4th generation not in such great conflict with EWPrT Kribs, Plehn, Spannowsky, Tait, PRD ’ 07

24 RareB/CPV-BSM George W.S. Hou (NTU) KEKTC6 2/8/07 24 SM 3 Effective b  s Hamiltonian and t’ Effect

25 RareB/CPV-BSM George W.S. Hou (NTU) KEKTC6 2/8/07 25 t ➯ t, t ’ t t GIM Respecting Arhrib and WSH, EPJC’03 CPV Phase

26 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 26 _d_d d  KK u u BB sb t, t ’ WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05 LO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.   A  12% vs 15% (data) NLO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.  A  15%  S   0.11 SM3 input vs  0.34  0.2x (data) WSH, Li, Mishima, Nagashima, PRL’07   A = A K  +     A K  +    ~ 15% and Joining C & P EW Both and in Right Direction ! AA SS

27  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/06 27 Consistency and b  s  Predictions BR OK A CP ~ 0 far away beyond SuperB PDG ’06 SM3 Heavy t ’ effect decoupled for b  s 

28  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/06 28 “Typical” CKM Matrix b  s 4 x 4 Unitarity ➯ Z/K Constraints x ~ 0.22 b  d Satisfy b  d: ✓ Cannot tell triangle from quadrangle WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’05 s  bs  b Z  bb _ d  sd  s

29 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 29 →→ b → d “Triangle” and b → s Quadrangle b → s → b → s Quadrangle  → Area ~ (  ) 30x b → d Triangle Strength and Size of ~ SM3 negligible → b → d (almost Triangle)

30 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 30 III.... (maybe) Becoming a Mountain human ants

31 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 31 Fixed r sb ➯ Narrow  sb Range destructive destructive with top For r sb ~ 0.02 – 0.03, [ V cb ~ 0.04  sb Range ~ 60 ° - 70 ° CPV Finite CPV Phase B s Mixing Tevatron in 4/2006 ? Large CPV in B s Mixing WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 r sb CDF  range SM (high) sin 2  B s ~   0.7 Despite  m B s, B (b  s ll ) SM-like WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05

32 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 32 Sure thing by LHCb ca Sign Predicted ! sin 2  B s ~   0.7 Despite  m B s, B (b  s ll ) SM-like CDF  range SM (high) r sb ?  A K ,  S WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05 Large CPV in B s Mixing WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 Can Large CPV in B s Mixing Be Tevatron ?

33 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 33 sin 2  B s ~   0.7 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 arXiv: [hep.ex] arXiv: [hep.ex] sin 2  B s   0.64   0.16  0.14 arXiv: [hep.ph] UTfit Incredible !!! 3.7  ~2.5   ± ?

34 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 34 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 (hep-ph/ ) 4th Generation ? Did not ask for this ! Tevatron can compete w/ LHCb iff | sin 2  B s |   

35 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 35 CDF now interested in 4th generation.

36 229M 386M Ali, Mannel, Morozumi, PLB273, 505 (1991) (F L and) A FB (and A I ) favor the “opposite-sign C 7 model” (F L and) A FB (and A I ) favor the “opposite-sign C 7 model” Fourth Generation PRD 77, (2008) Quoted by Tsybychev at FPCP08 Eigen at FPCP fb -1 data: LHCb MC (2 fb  ) a: SM; b: 4 Gen. better

37 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 37 PDG06 m b ’ = 230 GeV From 4 x 4 Unitarity x =  m/  ~ plausible w/ Sizable (but not huge) CPV in Mixing ~  15% D Mixing (Short-distance Only) N.B. SM LD could generate y ~ 1%, x ≈ y [ Falk, Grossman, Ligeti, (Nir,) Petrov]

38 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 38 IV. Soaring to the Starry Heavens

39 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 39 t, t ’ On Boxes and Z Penguins Z

40 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 40 On Boxes and Z Penguins GIM, charm,  K small   ’/  , K   (still waiting) heavy top, sin2    Z dominance for heavy top 1986  2002 Most Flavor/CPV learned from these diagrams

41 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 41 GIM, charm,  K small   ’/  , K   (still waiting) heavy top, sin2    Z dominance for heavy top 1986  2002 All w/ 3-generations, Just wait if there’s a 4th D ! b’, t LHC BsBsBsBs A FB Nondecoupling ∵ Large Yukawa ! On Boxes and Z Penguins

42 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 42 Large Yukawa !

43 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 43 WMAP Too Small in SM CPV in KM B.A.U. from CPV in KM ? Why? Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM) Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV masses too small ! is common (unique) area of triangle in SM CPV Phase

44 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 44 WMAP Too Small in SM CPV in KM B.A.U. from CPV in KM ? is common (unique) area of triangle in SM CPV Phase If shift by One Generation in SM4 (need 3 generation in KM) Only fac. 30 in CPV per se ~ 10  15 Gain Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings ! WSH, arXiv: [hep/ph] Moriond QCD Providence Nature would likely use this !? Enough CPV?

45 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 45 Only fac. 30 in CPV per se ~ 10  15 Gain Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings ! b → s → b → d 10   15

46 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 46 V. Towards Solution of BAU

47 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 47 CPV for BAU: Dominance Jarlskog ’ 85, 3 generations Jarlskog’87, n generations “ 3 cycles ” also Gronau, Kfir, Loewy ’87 J (1,2,3) small 4 generations: 3 indep. phases long and short d-s degenerate generation only ! Effectively 3 generations (on v.e.v. scale)

48 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/ generations: 3 indep. phases b → s → b → d 4 generations: 3 indep. phases → b → s Quadrangle  → Area ~ (  ) 30x b → d Triangle (almost Triangle) If V us shrinks to a point Difference in area b → s for b → s Small 2nd argument that is predominant CPV

49 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/ st Order Phase Trans. for BAU ? Ran out of time, and knowledge... Fok & Kribs: Not possible in 4th generation Conjecture: Could Strong Yukawa’s do it ? Beyond Unitarity Limit Holdom

50 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 50 VI. LHC ? sin 2  B s Confirmation — “Easy” for LHCb b ’, t ’ Discovery — Straightforward at LHC

51 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 51 VII. Conclusion ~ 10  15 Gain 10   15 Even if O (1) Enough CPV for B.A.U. Maybe there is a 4th Generation

52 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 52

53 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 53 Backup

54 RareB/CPV-BSM George W.S. Hou (NTU) KEKTC6 2/8/07 54 Box/EWP Sensitivity to 4th Gen. nondecoupling QCD penguin EW penguin (No New Operators)  g less sensitive

55 RareB/CPV-BSM George W.S. Hou (NTU) KEKTC6 2/8/07 55 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05 A CP ( K    ) ~  12, A CP ( K    ) ~ ? ☞ A CP ( K    ) almost independent of t ’ ☞ A CP ( K   )  A CP ( K  ) > 0.1 demands  sb ~  /2 Large m t ’ and r sb Large Effect  LO PQCD

56 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 56 Opposie Sign

57 4th generation George W.S. Hou (NTU) Flavour/LHC 2/ th generation not excluded favored allowed Arhrib and WSH Yanir Hattori, Hasuike and Wakaizumi Independently

58 4th generation George W.S. Hou (NTU) Flavour/LHC 2/06 58 and Prospects Just Around Corner! (SM3-like) ~  to   ! Defintely BSM if measured ! Phase

59  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/ x 4 Unitarity ➯ Constraints We need to deal with mixing matrix in detail to keep Unitarity From b → s study SM3 Kaon b  s b  d impose Cross Check !

60  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/06 60 Constrain s  d from K Physics (J. Bijnens et al.) (E. Pallante et al.) Therefore…. well-satisfy ! “Standard” No SM3 solution (shaded )

61  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/06 61 well-satisfy Hard to tell apart (non-trivial) with present precision ∵ stringent s  d vs V ub ~ 0.01 e -i  Disfavored

62  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/06 62 enhanced to or even higher !! In general larger than !! Implication for Rate could be enhanced up to almost two orders !! Grossman-Nir Current E391A U.L. Very hard to measure SM 3 ∵ Large CPV Phase

63  m B s /  m D / A J/  K George W.S. Hou (NTU) ICHEP’06, 7/29/06 63 (Too) Large/Imaginary “Typical” CKM Matrix 4 x 4 Unitarity ➯ Z/K/D Connections  e  i   e  i  SM LD NP SD Data Driven

64 New Solution for BAU George W.S. Hou (NTU) 2nd Open sBelle, 7/3/08 64


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