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CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, 2008 1 CP Violation for the Heaven and the Earth — Sighting the 4th Generation ? December 15, 2008, NTU-UCDavis.

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Presentation on theme: "CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, 2008 1 CP Violation for the Heaven and the Earth — Sighting the 4th Generation ? December 15, 2008, NTU-UCDavis."— Presentation transcript:

1 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CP Violation for the Heaven and the Earth — Sighting the 4th Generation ? December 15, 2008, NTU-UCDavis NTU

2 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Story of a star-gazing ant Can all this be understood from my vantage ?

3 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, I. Genesis 1:1, BAU, and CP Violation II. The Abyss: BAU and CPV in Standard Model III. Walking on Earth Experiment & Phenomenology IV. Heavenly: CPV in KM4 Sufficient for BAU ? V. Discussion Dominant CPV ; Towards Tevatron/LHC ; EWSB? VI. Conclusion: Carried to Heaven ? Outline WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05; PRD’05; PRD’07 Belle, Nature, 452, 20 (2008) WSH, arXiv: [hep/ph] b → s CPV 4 Abyss

4 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, I. Genesis 1:1, BAU, and CP Violation

5 Matter ! Matter Matter (?) Antimatter: 0%

6 CPV & BAU (& U): The Sakharov View Bang Us 13Byr Baryon Number V iolation CP Violation Deviation from Equilibrium Pair Annihilation (  Cosmic Microwave Background ) Matter left ! Equal Matter -Antimatter (1967)

7 Discovery Discovery of CP Violation Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 138 (1964) Sakharov Stimulated by...

8 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CPV II. The Abyss: BAU and CPV in Standard Model WMAP Too Small in SM Abyss

9 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Complex Dynamics: KM Sector of SM V CKM Unitary 3x3 “Rotation” Need presence of all 3 generations to exhibit CPV in Standard Model

10 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" discoverorigin "for the discovery of the origin of the predict broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 Photo: Universtity of ChicagoPhoto: KEK Photo: Kyoto University Yoichiro Nambu Makoto KobayashiToshihide Maskawa 1/2 of the prize 1/4 of the prize USA Japan Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago Chicago, IL, USA High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) Tsukuba, Japan Kyoto Sangyo University; Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan b (in Tokyo, Japan) b b CP Violation in SM 7 October 2008 B Factory

11 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, b  d transitions consistent with SM “Nontrivial”

12 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Unique CPV Phase: Common A rea of Triangle Wolfenstein Parametrization to O( 5 )

13 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CPV CPV so far only observed in KM... Nontrivial CPV Phase: A Nontrivial Jarlskog’s Invariant for CPV All like-charge quark pairs nondegenerate, Otherwise  Back to 2-gen. and CPV vanish

14 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, WMAP CPV in KM The Abyss: CPV in KM and B.A.U. Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV is common (unique) area of triangle in SM Masses too Small ! CPV Phase Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM) Small, but not Too small Too Small in SM EW Phase Transition Temperature The Lore ~ v.e.v.

15 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Why Repeat ? “Flavor Problem” v.e.v. u, d, s, c, b quarks too light

16 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, IV. Walking on Earth the Experimentalist and Phenomenology b → s CPV

17 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Oblig é Dispair

18 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Belle 2008 Nature: Simple Bean Count   A = A K       A K      =     0.07  0.03 vs   Difference Is Large ! Paoti Chang’s talk

19 ICHEP 2004, Beijing A CP (B  K    ) A CP ( K    ) = 0.04  0.05  M BB New K    : 728  53 Large EW penguin (Z 0 ) ? New Physics ? [also seen by BaBar] _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Sakai Saga Towards Belle Nature Paper... hint that A CP ( K    )  A CP ( K    ) ? (2.4  )

20 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, P EW Z ’ Belle 2004 PRL: Seed by “yours truly” Y. Chao, P. Chang et al.

21 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Wisdom from Peskin P EW C “hadronic”

22 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, “I must say that I am very skeptical that the new Belle result is new physics -- a larger than expected color suppressed amplitude is an explanation that is ready at hand. On the other hand, I felt that it was necessary to push the new physics interpretation when writing for the Nature audience, people outside of high energy physics, because this is why the result is potentially newsworthy.” Peskin (private communication) Ya, ya!   anyway ! Need   anyway ! I ’ ll keep crawlin ’... color suppressed

23 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Going Up a Hill... The Crawlin ’ of one Ant

24 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, My first B paper nondecoupling dimensions WSH, Willey, Soni <

25 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Decoupling Thm: Heavy Masses are decoupled in QED/QCD ∵ ∵ Appear in Propagator Nondecoupling: Yukawa Couplings Q Appear in Numerator Subtlety of Spont. Broken Gauge Theory dynamical

26 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Going Up a Hill... _d_d d  KK u u BB sb, t ’, t ’ Embark The Crawlin ’ of one Ant

27 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, My first B paper... on 4th generation also

28 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, EW Precision - Disfavored by EW Precision ( see e.g. J. Erler hep-ph/ ; PDG06 4th Generation Still? - N counting? 4th “neutrino” heavy Massive neutrinos call for new Physics not 4th generation not in such great conflict with EWPrT Kribs, Plehn, Spannowsky, Tait, PRD ’ 07

29 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, This is Still the Standard Model

30 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, t ➯ t, t ’ t t GIM Respecting Arhrib and WSH, EPJC’03 CPV Phase

31 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, _d_d d  KK u u BB sb t, t ’ WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’ 05 LO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.   A  12% vs 15% (data)   A = A K  +     A K  +    ~ 15% and NLO PQCD ⊕ 4th Gen.  A  15%  S   0.11 SM3 input consistent with data Joining C & P EW Both and in Right Direction ! AA SS WSH, Li, Mishima, Nagashima, PRL’07 Can Account for Belle/BaBar Direct CPV Difference

32 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, “Typical” CKM Matrix b  s 4 x 4 Unitarity ➯ Z/K Constraints x ~ 0.22 b  d Satisfy b  d: ✓ Cannot tell triangle from quadrangle WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’05 s  bs  b Z  bb _ d  sd  s Nontrivial Extract Information from Constraints

33 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CPV in B d and B s Mixing in SM b → s → b → d Measured by Belle/BaBar sin 2  B s = – 0.04 in SM3 Measure in B s  J/     sin  s CDF sin  s D ∅ sin 2  B d

34 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Prediction: Large CPV in B s Mixing b → s Strength and Size of → b → d Despite  m B s, B (b  s ll ) SM-like WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05 sin 2  B s ~  0.4 to  0.7 No Hadronic Uncertainty... t, t ’  0.04 SM

35 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Fixed r sb ➯ Narrow  sb Range destructive destructive with top For r sb ~ 0.02 – 0.03, [ V cb ~ 0.04  sb Range ~ 60 ° - 70 ° CPV Finite CPV Phase B s Mixing Tevatron in 4/2006 ? WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 r sb CDF  range SM (high) sin 2  B s ~   0.7 Despite  m B s, B (b  s ll ) SM-like WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05  0.04 SM Prediction: Large CPV in B s Mixing

36 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Sure thing by LHCb ca (?) Sign Predicted ! Despite  m B s, B (b  s ll ) SM-like CDF  range SM (high) r sb ?  A K ,  S WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRL’05 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 Can Large CPV in B s Mixing Be Tevatron ? sin 2  B s ~   0.7  0.04 SM Prediction: Large CPV in B s Mixing

37 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, arXiv: [hep.ex] arXiv: [hep.ex] Further ICHEP’08 Updates (CDF/DØ/fitters) : Strengthen ! sin 2  B s ~   0.7 WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 arXiv: [hep.ph] UTfit Incredible !!! sin 2  B s   0.64   0.16   ~2.5   ± ? (already in 05) PRL’08

38 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD’07 (hep-ph/ ) 4th Generation ? Did not ask for this ! Tevatron can compete w/ LHCb iff | sin 2  B s |   

39 CKM September 11, 2008D. Tonelli- Fermilab (Conservative) outlook % of CDF ‘clones’ that would observe a 5σ-effect, as a function of βs βsβs Probability of 5σ observation --- 8/fb (~2010) Assumptions Δ Γ s = 0.1 ps -1 Constant data-taking efficiency No analysis improvements. No external constraints (A SL, lifetimes) used /fb (~2009) CDF future will probably be better than that. And DØ will contribute too. Observation by 2010 if Central Value Stays ! sin 2  B s =  sin  s = sin  s

40 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, III. Heavenly: CPV in KM Sufficient for BAU ? If... KM4

41 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, WMAP CPV in KM B.A.U. from CPV in KM ? Why? Jarlskog Invariant in SM3 (need 3 generation in KM) Normalize by T ~ 100 GeV masses too small ! is common (unique) area of triangle in SM CPV Phase Too Small in SM

42 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CPV in KM B.A.U. from CPV in KM ? in SM CPV Phase If shift by One Generation in SM4 (need 3 generation in KM) Order 1 ~ 30 ~ 10  15 Gain Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings ! WSH, arXiv: [hep/ph] Moriond QCD Providence Nature would likely use this !? Enough CPV? Too Small in SM WMAP

43 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CPV The Abyss between CPV in SM3 vs BAU Heaviness of t ’ and b ’ bridged in SM4 by Heaviness of t ’ and b ’ Why wasn’t this clearly pointed out in past 20 years ?

44 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, EW Precision - Disfavored by EW Precision ( see e.g. J. Erler hep-ph/ ; PDG06 4th Generation Still? - N counting? 4th “neutrino” heavy Massive neutrinos call for new Physics not 4th generation not in such great conflict with EWPrT Kribs, Plehn, Spannowsky, Tait, PRD ’ 07 (To Me) CPV Source for BAU Overrides These Concerns !

45 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, V. Discussion Dominance of CPV/BAU Tevatron/LHC Verification Large Yukawa: Source for EWSB ?

46 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Only Only fac. 30 in CPV per se ~ 10  15 Gain Gain mostly in Large Yukawa Couplings ! b → s → b → d 10   15 quadrangle from comprehensive study WSH, Nagashima, Soddu, PRD05 This part will shrink a bit.

47 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, C PV for BAU: Dominance Jarlskog’85, 3 generations Jarlskog’87, n generations “ 3 cycles ” also Gronau, Kfir, Loewy ’87 J (1,2,3) very small 4 generations: 3 indep. phases long and short d-s degenerate generation only ! Effectively 3 generations (on v.e.v. scale) suppressed by m s, m c

48 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, sin 2  B s “Evidence” by 2009 ? “Observe” by 2010 ? t ’ Search Ongoing: m t ’ > % CL Tevatron sin 2  B s “Confirmation” — “Easy” for LHCb b ’, t ’ Discovery — Straightforward/full terrain LHC Agenda of Taiwan-CMS Tevatron/LHC Verification Unequivocal BSM... if true When ? Robin Erbacher’s talk

49 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, b ’ t ’ Find b ’, t ’, or Rule LHC 4 th 4 th generation? — The jury is out … In era of LHC, can Directly Search for b’, t ’ Once and For All ! It’s a Duty. Strategy Considerations ( ) All Tools Well shielded training ground — All Tools ☞ Move on to Greener Pastures ~ 2 years Publish early — Large Cross Section - If “Limits”, then easy to publish - If “Signal”, Lucked Out! Sighting Vision ~ Early ’ 06 Well shielded Publish early

50 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, b ’ Signatures For m b’ < m t +M W = 255 GeV b’  cW dominance b’  tW * dominance for sizable for suppressed Kinematic suppressed for m b’ ≲ 230 GeV For m b’ > m t +M W = 255 GeV b’  tW dominance; FCNC searchable tt(bar)WW → bb(bar)W  W  W  W  Initial discovery should consider b’  cW ~ b’  bZ, bH ~ b’  tW * cc(bar)WW; cWbZ; cWbH; tc(bar)WW * ; tt(bar)W * W * ; tW * bZ; tW * bH; Bonus !! Rich Signature 4 W’s + 2b’s Heavy Q related To EWSB ?

51 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15,

52 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15,

53 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, discover "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry symmetry in subatomic physics" "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" Thoughts on the other 1/2 Nobel Prize Photo: Universtity of ChicagoPhoto: KEK Photo: Kyoto University Yoichiro Nambu Makoto KobayashiToshihide Maskawa 1/2 of the prize 1/4 of the prize USA Japan Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago Chicago, IL, USA High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) Tsukuba, Japan Kyoto Sangyo University; Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan b (in Tokyo, Japan) b b SSB Could EWSB be due to b’ and t’ above unitarity bound ~ GeV ? Bob Holdom: N – J-L Gustavo Burdman: “Holographic”

54 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, VI. Conclusion: Heaven Ho ~ 10  15 Gain 10   15 Even if O (1) Enough CPV for B.A.U. Maybe there is a 4th Generation ! Will Really Know in ~ 3–5 years ! Heaven on Earth LHC sin 2  B Tevatron by 2010

55 CPV BAU Earth (EW + KM4) Universe (Genesis)

56 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15,

57 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Backup

58 Dark Energy: ~70% Dark Matter: ~25% Matter (and More !!) Universe: No Antimatter Antimatter: 0% ~25% ! ~70% !

59 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Heavenly TH “Affleck-Dine”, SUSY etc.: Extra Scalars (strongly) coupled to H 0 Leptogenesis: Heavy Majorana Neutrinos ⊕ LFV/CPV Decay ⊕ B/L Violation (“ EW Baryogenesis”) More Scalars!   Popular ! Driving   study for neutrinos. But, “ Heavenly ” — Could be(come) Metaphysics Scalars Let’s first find One Scalar.

60 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15,

61 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, enhanced to or even higher !! In general larger than !! Implication for Rate could be enhanced up to almost two orders !! Grossman-Nir Current E391A U.L. Very hard to measure SM 3 ∵ Large CPV Phase

62 ElectroMagnetism: Charge e is Real. “We” Understand: Gauge Charge is Real. How CP Violation Appears Complex Coupling Imagine a Complex Coupling : True, or, Possible, for Yukawa ( 湯川 ) Coupling of quarks/leptons to Higgs boson(s)... Quantum Interference Amplitude More Interesting Quantum Interference in Amplitude More Interesting i in Dynamics: Source of CPV (everyone can feel

63 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, CP Asymmetry needs both CP Conserv/Violating Phase Particle Process Anti Particle Process CP Violation Primer i QM i dyn

64 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Experiment is Firm   A K  ~ 0 expected       0.028> 5    > 5  Why a Puzzle ? ? _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Large C ? Large EWPenguin ? A lot of (hadronic) finesse Need NP CPV Phase P EW has practically no weak phase in SM ? t, ? Baek, London, PLB653, 249 (2007) World

65 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Experiment is Firm   A K  ~ 0 expected       0.028> 5    > 5  Why a Puzzle ? ? _d_d d  KK u u BB sb Large C ? Large EWPenguin ? A lot of (hadronic) finesse ? t, ? Baek, London, PLB653, 249 (2007) World Need NP CPV Phase P EW has practically no weak phase in SM t, t ’ 4th Gen. in EWP Natural nondecouplin g

66 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, On Boxes and Z Penguins GIM, charm,  K small   ’/  , K   (still waiting) heavy top, sin2    Z dominance for heavy top 1986  2002 Most Flavor/CPV learned from these diagrams/processes

67 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, GIM, charm,  K small   ’/  , K   (still waiting) heavy top, sin2    Z dominance for heavy top 1986  2002 All w/ 3-generations, Just wait if there’s a 4th D ! b’, t LHC BsBsBsBs A FB Nondecoupling ∵ Large Yukawa ! On Boxes and Z Penguins

68 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, →→ b → d “Triangle” and b → s Quadrangle b → s → b → s Quadrangle  → Area ~ (  ) 30x b → d Triangle Strength and Size of negligible → b → d (almost Triangle) ~ SM3

69 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Consistency and b  s  Predictions BR OK A CP ~ 0 far away beyond SuperB PDG ’06 SM3 Heavy t ’ effect decoupled for b  s 

70 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Large Yukawa ! YuReKawa ! ca. late summer 2007 … The Eureka Moment Large t, t ’ Yukawa

71 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, Soaring to the Starry Heavens Can all this be understood from my vantage ?

72 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, generations: 3 indep. phases b → s → b → d 4 generations: 3 indep. phases → b → s Quadrangle  → Area ~ (  ) 30x b → d Triangle (almost Triangle) If V us V ub shrinks to a point Difference in area b → s for b → s Small 2nd argument that is predominant CPV measured emergent

73 J.-T. Wei 2008/07/31 ICHEP2008 Instead flipped C 7... BABAR, arXiv: Preliminary W.-S. Hou, A. Hovhannisyan, and N. Mahajan, PRD 77, (2008) 657M 386M (=s/m B 2 =q 2 /m B 2 ) complex wilson coefficients SM 4th generation (SM4) 2fb -1 MC study of LHCb (~7000 K*ll events) Belle Deviation from SM3 Strengthened !

74 CPV George W.S. Hou (NTU) NTU/UCD, Dec. 15, st Order EW Phase Trans. for BAU ? Ran out of time, and knowledge... Fok & Kribs: Not possible in 4th generation Conjecture: Could Strong Yukawa’s do it ? Beyond Unitarity Limit Holdom (or, Holographic) (perturbative)


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