Presentation on theme: "Nurturing the Reflective Practitioner: Enhancing pedagogical robustness through active inquiry. Presented at: Redesigning Pedagogy Conference 3."— Presentation transcript:
1Nurturing the Reflective Practitioner: Enhancing pedagogical robustness through active inquiry. Presented at: Redesigning Pedagogy Conference to 5 June 2013 Presented by: Mary George Cheriyan (Chairperson) Jarina Peer Tan Yen Chuan Masturah Abdul Aziz Lucille Yap Yeo Jun Han
2The 4 Presentations in the Symposium Enhancing pedagogical robustness through active inquiry.By MARY George CheriyanThe Benefits and Challenges of Practitioner Inquiry: Teachers’ PerspectivesBy Jarina PEER, Tan YEN CHUAN, MASTURAH Abdul AzizEffective Questioning, Effective LearningBy LUCILLE Yap, Yeo JUN HANCorrelations between Article Review and Watson- Glaser Critical Thinking AppraisalBy AZAHAR Bin Mohamed Noor
4Reflective PracticeReflective practice is the habit of inquiring and investigating a problem situation in order to understand how to frame a solution (Donald Schon,1983)RationaleTo provide a sense of ownership in the knowledge constructedTo develop high levels of professional expertise to improve student learning outcomes
5The Moral-Ethical Dimension in Reflective Practice: Attitudes (Dewey, 33) Open-mindednessRespect for diversityHumilityHope in the learnerResponsibilityConsiders consequencesMakes meaning of experiences for teacher & learnerWhole-heartedness/ EngagementCurious about subjectand impact of teaching on learningTeaching as an artistryRefines & hones the craft
6Assertion: Reflective Practice boosts teacher professionalism to challenge assumptions of pedagogical practices, be current with estd principles of practice; refine craftCalibrecultivates professional confidence- articulate professional beliefs; learn from othersDiscoursethink & observe critically; frame & challenge theories and models.Knowledge Creation
7Assertion: Reflective Practice strengthens theory-practice nexus Knowledge for Practice: Teachers learn content & pedagogical knowledge from researchers & apply it.Knowledge in Practice: Teachers derive practical teaching knowledge from experience, reflection & inquiryKnowledge of Practice: Teachers generate knowledge by making their classrooms and school sites for inquiry, connecting their work to larger issues, and take a critical perspective on the theory and research of others3 levels of teacher knowledge and inquiry (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1999)
8PeRL Research Ecosystem How and in what ways can teachers be supported in their development as thoughtful, reflective practitioners, so that they may be active contributors to the teaching community?
9PeRL Research Ecosystem Infrastructure & Tools Schoolwide: driven by Specialists; policy implicationsPractitioner Inquiry: conducted by indv/ grp of teachers to inquire into a classrm or departmental practiceProtocols submissionOversightEthicsGuidancePlatformsPeRL Research EcosystemResearch Office:-Defines categories-Call for proposals-ProtocolsBuild capacity –Assign PeRL Advisors-TrainingInfrastructure & Tools-Software-Website: Resource & RepositoryIdea Incubation- Newsletter: trends-align to school’s curriculum reviewKnowledge Sharing-Nomination for presentations-Publish in In-house magazineKnowledge creation/sharing-Integrate with fraternity-ResearchBenefits and challenges faced within this ecosystem by teachers who have embarked on Practitioner Inquiry
10Is Good teaching hinged on reflection ? YesIs Good teaching hinged on systematic inquiry? ie, research design, data gathering and analysis?Possibly: impact on teacher professionalismIf the goal is to share it with the larger educational fraternity,… it is necessary.
12Dr. Jarina Peer, Ms. Tan Yen Chuan, Ms. Masturah Aziz The Motivations, Benefits and Challenges of Practitioner Inquiry: Teachers’ PerspectivesDr. Jarina Peer, Ms. Tan Yen Chuan, Ms. Masturah Aziz
13RationaleTo develop an understanding of the factors that influence teachers’ readiness in embarking on Practitioner Inquiry (PI) byinvestigating the motivations, benefits and challenges faced by themlooking at the support system in place
14ContextSeveral teachers in this school have been involved in practitioner inquiry projects; however, there are emerging issues related to this effort to promote PI in the school asteachers are not researchers and some teachers may not have the necessary research knowledgeexperienced teachers often have sufficient tacit knowledge to be able to reflect and improve their pedagogy without researchthe ability to do research was not perceived to be a core competency of a teacherSeveral teachers in this school have been involved in practitioner inquiry projects; however, there are concerns involved with cultivating a culture of informed practice in the school. It is acknowledged that teachers are not researchers and some teachers may not have the necessary research knowledge. Many also pondered over whether a role of an effective classroom teacher requires embarking on a research because the ability to do research was not perceived to be a core competency of a teacher and the experienced ones often have sufficient tacit knowledge to be able to reflect and improve their pedagogy without research.Structures like curriculum review and preparation time are already in place to cultivate a habit of reflective practice and PeRL is now looking at lifting the baseline towards encouraging and enabling teachers into a path of a systematic inquiry.
15ContextRGS PeRL is now looking at lifting the baseline towards encouraging and enabling teachers into a path of a systematic inquiryFocus is on RGS PeRL facilitated researchWe are there, that’s why we can ask these questions to bring us to the next level. Perl wants to extend the culture of PI to staff in the school –facilitating PI (but main objective/role is to conduct research that drives policies –PeRL driven research)Several teachers in this school have been involved in practitioner inquiry projects; however, there are concerns involved with cultivating a culture of informed practice in the school. It is acknowledged that teachers are not researchers and some teachers may not have the necessary research knowledge. Many also pondered over whether a role of an effective classroom teacher requires embarking on a research because the ability to do research was not perceived to be a core competency of a teacher and the experienced ones often have sufficient tacit knowledge to be able to reflect and improve their pedagogy without research.Structures like curriculum review and preparation time are already in place to cultivate a habit of reflective practice and PeRL is now looking at lifting the baseline towards encouraging and enabling teachers into a path of a systematic inquiry.
16Research Question Overarching research question: “What are the factors that influence teacher readiness in embarking on practitioner inquiry?”Guiding research questions:What are the motivations, benefits and challenges faced by teachers on embarking on practitioner inquiry?What are the infrastructure and system in place to support a culture of informed practice?The overarching research question is “What are the factors that influence teacher readiness in embarking on practitioner inquiry (PI)?”The research questions guiding this study are as below:What are the motivations, benefits and challenges faced by teachers on embarking on practitioner inquiry?What are the infrastructure and system in place to support a culture of informed practice?
17Literature ReviewThe Teacher Growth ModelDue to the multi-faceted nature of teacher’s work, this implies that having a repertoire of strategies and content mastery is not sufficient for a teacher to be a competent professional in the 21st century.The teacher will have to pursue professional development through multiple modes of learning, which include reflective practice, research-based practice, conferences and mentoring etc. (Ministry of Education, 2012)
18Literature Review Teacher Leadership Teachers are leaders when they function in professional communities to affect student learning; contribute to school improvement; inspire excellence in practice; and empower stakeholders to participate in educational improvement (Childs-Bowen, Moller, & Scrivner, 2000, p. 28)
19Literature Review Teacher Motivation Sylvia & Hutchinson (1985) concluded: “Teacher motivation is based in the freedom to try new ideas, achievement of appropriate responsibility levels, and intrinsic work elements.They explain that true job satisfaction is derived from the gratification of higher-order needs, “social relations, esteem, and actualization” rather than lower-order needs.
20Methodology & Data Collection Methods Methodology: A case study approachTo develop a deep understanding on the factors influencing teacher’s readiness in embarking on practitioner inquiry.Data Collection MethodsDocument Analysis3 Focus Groups Discussions2 InterviewsSecondary data: Needs Analysis SurveyData Collection Methods
21Conclusion: Drawing and Verifying Data Analysis MethodsData CollectionData ReductionConclusion: Drawing and VerifyingData Display(Miles & Huberman, 1994)Thematic analysis was used to identify recurring patterns in the dataconclusions were drawn and verified through the review and defining of emergent themesoverarching concept and final themes were emerged based on the similarities, differences, patterns and relationship of the data
22Findings Summary A shared vision drives a culture of informed practice the role of PI within the school’s strategic directionPI is a Viable Solution for:Theory-Practice NexusTeacher ProfessionalismTeacher’s beliefs and preferences about reflective practice and teacher professionalism motivate their decisionA shared vision shapes the way staff members go about their work and strong leaders play a significant role in building this culture, which, once established, is deeply embedded in the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of staff members.(Picucci, 2002).Tacit knowledgemetacognitionTeacher mentoringColleagues feedbackother viable alternative solutions for improving teaching and learning or professional development.justification of the investment of time and effortof which findings are productively used for improvement and innovation. is also a significant factor, as personal beliefs and preferences will play a part in theA School Culture which emphasizes and advocates the importance of PI and actively engages its teachers into conducting an inquiry is needed. The foundation of the culture begins with having a Shared Vision of the role of PI and the direction in which the school wishes to take with PI. This however, can only be done if the school is convinced in the usefulness of PI and that it is a highly regarded Viable Solution of which findings are productively used for improvement and innovation. Teachers’ Perception of PI is also a significant factor, as personal beliefs and preferences will play a part in the decision to embark on a PI. Most teachers may not wish to embark on a PI if it is to inform their own lessons, or for professional development, as they have other viable alternative solutions for improving teaching and learning or other viable alternatives for professional development. This is also with the consideration of the investment needed in PI in terms of time and effort. Thus, a Shared Vision may also play a large role in shaping teacher’s beliefs and preferences in the methods employed for teaching and learning, and their choice for professional development.
23Professional Development FindingsRegard PI as a contribution comparable to the other established contributions a teacher can make to the schoolSupport PI efforts visibly and notably such that it becomes a collective responsibilityBelieve in and advocate in the usefulness of a PI as a Viable SolutionInvestment needed in structures which promote and support PI and productively use findingsRelationship-building platforms are needed to foster colleagues’ support and participationImprovements in student learning and curriculum are achieved through investigation, evaluation, etc.PI affords recognition of work, exposure, opportunities & training for career advancementPassion and interest may lead teachers to pursue PI for their own personal satisfactionShared VisionManagement SupportRecognitionSupportValue of PIInfrastructureSupport StructureRelationshipsTeachers’ PerceptionImproving T&LProfessional DevelopmentPersonal InterestManagement has to recognize PI as a valuable contribution to the school, and thus, embarking on a PI has to be a highly regarded contribution which is comparable to the other established contributions a teacher can make to the school.Management has to be visibly and notably supportive of PI efforts such that it becomes a collective responsibility e.g. by providing infrastructure (elaborated later), encouragement, etc.Management has to believe in and advocate the value of a PI, i.e. the usefulness of a PI. Thus, PI must be seen as a Viable Solution (elaborated later), or best solution in some cases.Management has to invest in structures which promote and support PI in order to make it more feasible to be carried out, as well as concrete ways in which findings generated can be productively used for the benefit of the school.Examples include provisioning for time management (teacher scheduling, etc.), investment in rigor of research (e.g. more time, [training and resources] for a more rigorous research), etc. Infrastructure also includes enabling structures or provisions for findings from PI to be followed-up/scaled up, and possibilities of using findings to support curriculum changes, whole level scrutiny, etc.Relationships play an important role for teachers beginning to have an interest in research, or teachers who wish to conduct a PI but have no prior experience as they prefer to work in pairs or in a group.Relationships are also important to teachers who have already embarked in a PI or have prior research knowledge as they have to consider doing scale up or follow up of their PIs in which colleagues’ support and participation is an important factor.PI provides a platform for career development in terms of personal achievement whereby teachers are able to gain recognition for their work or build their portfolio.teachers’ perception of PI is a large factor influencing teacher’s readiness in embarking on PI. Data shows that the key reasons why teachers would embark on a PI is to improve teaching and learning, as well as to advance their professional development. Teachers also embark on PI to pursue their own personal interest.PI as a Viable Solution
24Findings Final Themes Supporting Evidences Management Support - Recognition- Support- Value of PI“There must be more extrinsic motivation, in terms of giving them [teachers] time and recognition of what they do.”“Although there are encouragement for teachers to do PI, but it is more of teachers’ own initiative …”“The higher management sees the usefulness and support you in doing the PI.”Infrastructure- Support Structure- Relationships“You need to set up a kind of task force, start up a committee, identify someone who is able to spearhead, e.g. someone who is trained in doing research, but also at the same time getting people in the department to work together to gather data from many classes. The support.”“When you work as a team, you need to work with people who are able to do it and want to do it.”Teachers’ Perception of PI- Improving T&L- Professional Development- Personal Interest“Embark on PI to find an answer to solve a concern about something/ a problem.”“The topics that I choose to do action research will be those that can show improvement in students’ standards and command of language/ writing.”“Have the opportunity to collaborate with external researchers/ teachers/ colleagues with common interest/ common discipline.”“Action research has always been something that I wanted to do.”Teachers Perceptions part: This is an impt evidence pertaining to yr earlier lit review abt teacher leadership & shd be emphasised.
25Findings Challenges to Teachers’ Readiness in embarking on PI Challenges surfaced allow identification of strengths and Areas for Improvement (AFIs), and will be elaborated further in the next section.Challenges identified from data are:More tangible value attributed to PI is neededRecognition of teachers’ contributions in terms of teaching and learning and professional developmentFine-tuning existing structuresThe resistance to change when findings are proposed to be implemented on a bigger scaleViable Alternative Solutions which may seem more attractive than PILack of interest in conducting researchEnhancing teacher competencies and confidence(in RGS context)Barriers identified from data are:More tangible value attributed to PI is needed to build teacher confidence in PI as a method/solutionRecognition of teachers’ contributions not only in terms of teaching and learning but as a personal achievement in career developmentMore Infrastructure needed to supplement existing structuresReducing the resistance to change when findings are proposed to be implemented on a bigger scaleViable Alternative Solutions which may seem more attractive than PILack of interest in conducting researchMore opportunities and training needed to build up teacher competencies and confidenceSome of this info needs to reviewed/rephrased.; eg, unlike any other org, there is already a in-house research lab with full-time staff. U r scoring yr own goal)..While there are important findings from the data which outlines the broad concepts shaping a culture of PI and inadvertently teachers’ readiness in embarking on PI, it is also useful to highlight the barriers surfaced from the data in order to identify areas for improvement, which will be elaborated further in the Recommendations section.Based on the findings, the barriers which influence teachers’ readiness in conducting PI are as below:- Lack of Value (highly regarded, effort)- Lack of Recognition (valued contribution)- Lack of infrastructure (time management issues) (use of findings)- Lack of support structure (partnership)- Resistance to change (implementation of findings)- Viable Alternative Solutions- Lack of Interest- Lack of Support Structure- Lack of Support- Lack of Opportunity
26Discussion & Recommendation A Shared Vision to Promote a Culture of PIStrengthRGS promotes a culture of PI, thus, an infrastructure has been set up in the form of RGS PeRL.Areas of ImprovementThis Shared Vision has to be instilled across all levels, through1) Management articulation of PI as a strategic focus2) Improved Infrastructural SupportTo bring it to the next level, a Shared Vision and a conviction of PI as a Viable Solution to improve teaching and learning has to be created and instilled across all levelsThis can be achieved through1) Management Support1a)Senior Management Support1b)Middle Management Support2) Improved Infrastructural Support
27Discussion & Recommendation 1) Management SupportStrengthsBased on the document analysisRGS supports PI as a viable solution to strengthen the theory-practice nexus and enhance teacher professionalism.RGS PeRL provides support and structures to drive PI as a school-wide approachAFIsTo embed PI in the school culture, the school management will need to incorporate PI within the school’s strategic directionIt is recognised & acknowledged as valuable. So, the problem is dealing more with the transition of embedding it in the culture & processes.Area of Concern: based on barriers in prev slideManagement SupportManagement support is needed to build a culture of PI in a school. At the highest level, management has to recognize that PI is a viable solution to improve teaching and learning, as well as a key contributor to teacher growth/capacity. Thus, PI has to be acknowledged as a highly regarded contribution which is comparable to the other established contributions a teacher can make to the school, and that it is the direction in which the school wishes to take. Effectively, management should undertake the role of instructional leadership to drive PI as a school-wide approach.The needs analysis data also supports this notion, as 15% of the teachers who indicated interest in embarking on a PI mentioned they would like to consult their superiors before deciding to embark on a PI, which highlights the importance of the role that the middle management plays.“Today’s teachers don't necessarily look for answers from an instructional leader. But they need to know that their leader understands and appreciates their work and recognizes their challenges and frustrations” (Hoerr, 2008, p. 2)
28Discussion & Recommendation Management SupportRecommendationPI needs to be recognized as a valid contribution to the school byAttributing it as equivalent to that of a departmental dutyIncluding it in work review discussionsDepartment Heads should be the drivers of the PI momentum within their department to ensure knowledge creation and sharing. They should be informed of research opportunities and be aware of research opportunities within the department. They should be aware of the teachers embarking on PI and they should ensure continuity of the PI and its productive implementation of findings, be it level-wide or department wide.
29Discussion & Recommendation Management SupportBased on the Needs Analysis: 15% would like to consult their superiors before embarking on PI“Today’s teachers don't necessarily look for answers from an instructional leader. But they need to know that their leader understands and appreciates their work and recognizes their challenges and frustrations” (Hoerr, 2008, p. 2)Management SupportManagement support is needed to build a culture of PI in a school. At the highest level, management has to recognize that PI is a viable solution to improve teaching and learning, as well as a key contributor to teacher growth/capacity. Thus, PI has to be acknowledged as a highly regarded contribution which is comparable to the other established contributions a teacher can make to the school, and that it is the direction in which the school wishes to take. Effectively, management should undertake the role of instructional leadership to drive PI as a school-wide approach.The needs analysis data also supports this notion, as 15% of the teachers who indicated interest in embarking on a PI mentioned they would like to consult their superiors before deciding to embark on a PI, which highlights the importance of the role that the middle management plays.“Today’s teachers don't necessarily look for answers from an instructional leader. But they need to know that their leader understands and appreciates their work and recognizes their challenges and frustrations” (Hoerr, 2008, p. 2)
30Discussion & Recommendations Management SupportRecommendationsKey personnel should lead by example.The Heads need to consciously and decisively apply PI findings to curriculum improvement, e.g.Review pedagogical approachesUtilize proposed solutions to Areas For Improvement (AFIs) in their own departmentsEffective school leadership today must combine the traditional school leadership duties and include a deep involvement with specific aspects of teaching and learning and effective instructional leaders are intensely involved in curricular and instructional issues that directly affect student achievement (Cotton, 2003). The new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),
31Discussion What Works RGS PeRL’s integration with school’s curriculum Infrastructure (Work Structure and Support Structure)What WorksRGS PeRL’s infrastructure for PI provides critical oversight:Protocol: Call for Proposals, Documentation & Statement of EthicsTraining via in-house and external workshopsMentorshipDisseminationRGS PeRL’s integration with school’s curriculumTheory practice nexus/indigenized researchTeacher professionalisma systemic framework which drives the fundamental aspects of conducting an inquirya support structure which makes the embarking of PI a collective responsibility (training, mentorship)Infrastructure (Work Structure and Support Structure)With support from the management that embarking on a PI is indeed the school’s direction, an infrastructure is required to facilitate the process and provide tangible support to teachers embarking on PI. This infrastructure consists of a system which drives the fundamental aspects of conducting an inquiry (e.g. protocol submission system), a support structure which makes the embarking of PI a collective responsibility (training, mentorship) as well as concrete measures to promote PI and drives the implementation of findings in a productive cycle.According to the needs analysis, 61% of the all the teachers who completed the survey indicated that they would like to develop their research skills, reflecting the focus group data of the need for support structure in the development of skills for the teachers.
32Discussion & Recommendations Infrastructure (Work Structure and Support Structure)AFIsMeeting teachers’ higher aspirations to apply their research beyond their own practice.Enhancing PI rigor and standardsAddressing teachers sense of readiness: 61% of the all the teachers who completed the needs survey indicated that they would like to develop their research skillsRecommendationPeRL needs to evaluate and respond to the evolution of reflective practice in the schoolPeRL advisors act as a bridge between teachers embarking on PI and Headsbalance to avoid dis-incentivizing teachers(teacher leadership-to be narrated)-needs analysis Reflects focus group data of the need for support structure in the development of skills for the teachers.Other kinds of support for teachers embarking of PI can be provided by increasing the recommended timeline to 2 years. The proposed structure starts of with the year-end review, where department identified the AFIs, set up a committee/task force that works on the identified AFI as a PI to work on it to address the situation.
33Discussion 3) Teachers’ Perception of PI A. Value of PI Improving teaching and learningProfessional DevelopmentRecognitionExposure & OpportunitiesNetworking and CollaborationAcquisition of skills and competenciesPI allows multiple platforms for teachers to build their portfolios and expand their careerrecognition for their contributions to the educational fraternityexposure and opportunities for growthRelationship-building through networking and collaborationAcquisition of a range of skills and competenciesSoft skills, research skills, competencies in different areas of pedagogy PI provides bountiful options for professional development and holistic development.Improving teaching and learningPI affords teachers a mode of investigation when they wish to explore a certain issue or idea, or when there is a need for problem solving. PI is also embarked on when evaluation is needed to review implementations or tested strategies to gain evidence of their outcomes. Teachers also conduct a PI when they wish to validate their beliefs and gather evidences to support their efforts in implementing a strategy or initiative.PI is also embarked on as a form of documented or systematic reflection on classroom instruction.Teachers are also aware of the outcomes of embarking on a PI, such as the benefits to students (visible improvements to student learning), contributions to changes in the curriculum as well as to develop their skills and competencies in pedagogical approaches. According to the data analysis, teachers believe that PI allows them to achieve greater confidence in their methods and better understand pedagogical strategies employed to benefit the students.
34Discussion 3) Teachers’ Perceptions of PI B. Personal Interest An inherent motivation to conduct PI is due toan interest or aptitude in conducting researchthe desire to try new things and venture into new frontiersa passion in their niche areas of pedagogyan interest in a field such as ICT which integrates well with pedagogyPersonal InterestSome teachers may have an inherent interest or aptitude in conducting research, or the desire to try new things and venture into new frontiers. In other instances, an interest in a field such as ICT or a passion in their niche areas of pedagogy may prompt teachers into conducting a PI to build their knowledge base or contribute to the field of knowledge that they have a special passion in.
35ConclusionIt is hoped that insights from the study will inform the school on how toEnhance teacher professionalismStrengthen the theory-practice nexus which drives the school culture of informed practiceUltimately, such initiatives may boost teacher readiness in embarking on PI, and in the long run, contribute to the development of a robust professional learning community.
36Further StudiesCulture of PI in the school should be re-visited to track improvementsImplementation of some of the recommendations outlined may assist in the formation of a Professional Learning Community (PLC)a study conducted in the near future may then shed some important findings on the feasibility, viability and sustainability for the school to construct a PLC from a bottom up approach, instead of top down approachAs part of future studies, the culture of PI in the school should be re-visited in a year or two based on the recommendations that were implemented. Also, another hypothesis emerging from this study is that the implementation of some of the recommendations outlined in this study will assist in the formation of a Professional Learning Community (PLC), coined Reflective Practice Community (RPC) in RGS. Thus, another study which may be conducted in two or three years on this strand may shed light on such a phenomenon, if it occurs. Future studies may then shed important findings on the feasibility, viability and sustainability for the school to construct an RPC from a bottom up approach, instead of top down approach, which may be of interest to the educational fraternity at large.
37LimitationsThe participants varied in their involvement of PI, hence there may be a lack of in-depth descriptions about some aspects of the topic discussed.Due to time constraints, member checks were not conducted where participants could provide feedback to check the accuracy of their interview transcripts.The new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),
38ReferencesAli Callicoatte Picucci, A. B., Rahel Kahlert, & Andy Sobel. (2002). Shaping school culture. Principal Leadership, Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to Research in Education: Wadsworth Publishing. Auerbach, C. F., & Silverstein, L. B. (2003). Qualitative data: an introduction to coding and analysis: NEW YORK University Press. Bromley, D. B. (1986). The case-study method in psychology and related disciplines: Wiley. Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (1993). Inside/Outside: Teacher Research and Knowledge: Teachers College Press. Cotton, K. (2003). Principals and student achievement [electronic resource]: what the research says: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Dana, N. F., Gimbert, B., & Silva, D.Y. (1999). Teacher inquiry: Staff development for the 21st century. Pennslvania Educational Leadership, 18(2), Dewey, J. (1933). Democracy and education. New York: Free Company. Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings: State University of New York Press.The new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),
39ReferencesHoerr, T. R. (2007). The Principal Connection/ What is Instructional Leadership? Informative Assessment, 65(4), Hubbard, R. S., Shagoury, R., & Power, B. M. (2003). The Art of Classroom Inquiry: A Handbook for Teacher-Researchers: Heinemann. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook: SAGE Publications. PeRL, R. (2012). RGS PeRL Handbook Singapore: Raflles Girls' School Pedagogical Research Lab. Punch, K. F. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: SAGE Publications. Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2005). Qualitative interviewing: the art of hearing data: Sage Publications. Sylvia, R. D., and T. Hutchinson. (1985). What makes Ms. Johnson teach? A study of teacher motivation. Human Relations(38), Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods: SAGE Publications.The new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),
40RGS PeRL Team Involved Mrs. Mary Cheriyan – Director, RGS PeRL Dr Jarina Peer, Head, ResearchMs. Tan Yen Chuan, Teacher-SpecialistMs. Masturah Abdul Aziz, Research ExecutiveThe new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),
41We Would Like to Thank Tan Ean Kiam Foundation Staff of RGS who were involved in the studyThe new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),
42RE-DESIGNING Pedagogy CONFERENCE 3rd – 5th June 2013 Effective questioningEffective learning- Inquiry into Inquiry-byMrs Lucille Yap-Chua Puay LanMr Yeo Jun Han
43RESEARCH DESIGNResearch questionContextArea of study focus & intent
44How can a positive questioning attitude enhance student learning? RESEARCH QUESTIONHow can a positive questioning attitude enhance student learning?
45CONTEXT‘….. questions asked during a lesson are those initiated by the teacher and only rarely by the students, and that questions do not emerge spontaneously from students; rather, they have to be encouraged. In cases in which students do ask questions during lessons, they are usually informative ones.’(Dillion, 1988)
46CONTEXT‘The content of a question can indicate the level of thinking of the person who raised it. In general, the cognitive level of a certain question is determined by the type of answer it requires.’(Yarden, Brill, and Falk, 2001)Purposeful inquiry does not happen spontaneously. It must be learned.(Baird, 1990, p 184)
47AREA OF STUDY FOCUSThis study focuses on the ability of upper secondary Geography students*, who learn Geography through the inquiry approach, to ask meaningful and geographically relevant questions.* 1 Year 3 class & 3 Year 4 classes
48INTENTFoster a positive questioning attitude in high-ability girls; to seek information for its own sake as much as for its usefulness.Develop the students’ ability to ask more and better questions resulting from an inquiry-based instruction.1. A desirable questioning attitude is one that explores instead of exploits, cooperates instead of confronts, and empathizes rather than shows apathy.2. Dillon (1988) noted that usually questions asked during a lesson are those initiated by the teacher and only rarely by the students, and that questions do not emerge spontaneously from students; rather, they have to be encouraged
49INTENTCreate a safe and non-threatening environment in which students are given opportunities to pose questions.Establish and maintain communication with students.
51METHODOLOGY STEPS IN ACTION RESEARCH Identify Research Question Inform students of intended Action ResearchPresent FindingsSTEPSINACTIONRESEARCHDesign and conduct pre-QuestionnairePresent findings and make recommend-ationsQuestioning tools eg Round-table questioningCollate and interpret dataInfuse questioning tools into classroom instructionDesign and conduct post-Questionnaire
58fINDINGS & DISCUSSIONs characteristics of effective questioningStudent metacognitionStudent ATTITUDE and Perception- Others (Outcomes)
59FINDINGS: Characteristics of Effective Questioning I. WAIT TimeOne has to wait after asking a question before answering it oneself or going on to ask further questions or making further points.QuestionsPre-TestPost-TestThe teacher gives me WAIT time before Ianswer his/her questions.72.5%96.7%2. I use WAIT time to think about answers.92.7%I give WAIT time to my classmates whenasking questions.52.5%84.6%Importance of WAIT TIME:We need time to reflect on past experiences if we are to gain new understandings.• We need time to think before speaking.• We need time to think out loud and complete our thoughts.Waiting is a sign that you want thoughtful participation. (Wang, 2003)
60DISCUSSION: Characteristics of Effective Questioning I. WAIT TimeThe provision of WAIT time allows for metacognition, and an increase in frequency and length of student responses (including unsolicited responses).WAIT time has to be applied judiciously: the optimal wait time for a given question depends on the cognitive level of the question and student expectations.
61FINDINGS: Characteristics of Effective Questioning II. Higher-order Thinking, HoT (Critical & Creative)Higher-order thinking is more than the learning of facts and concepts. It requires more cognitive processes and it involves the learning of complex judgmental skills such as decision making and problem solving.QuestionsPre-TestPost-TestI ask questions to justify a decision or an outcome.67.5%93.5%I ask questions to examine multipleviewpoints or perspectives.61.7%92.7%I ask questions that allow me to apply knowledge or a procedure to a familiar or unfamiliar task.62.5%Dead questions like "Is this going to be on the test?", imply the desire not to think.Dead questions reflect dead minds. (Paul, 2000 )
62DISCUSSION: Characteristics of Effective Questioning II. Higher-order ThinkingHigher level order of questioning from Bloom’s taxonomy, like questions that require analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, can trigger a higher level of thinking.Questions drive thinking; high-order questions drive our thought beneath the surface of things and force us to deal with ambiguity and complexity. No questions equals no understanding, and thereby, no learning.Higher-order thinking skills, though difficult to teach and learn, can be developed as such skills are valuable: they are more likely to be applied and usable in real-world situations.
63FINDINGS: Student Metacognition Knowledge and control of one’s thought and learning processes; being able to know how to learn, to monitor one’s own understanding, to reflect about one’s understanding, and to strategize about how to resolve one’s confusions. QuestionsPre-TestPost-TestI think and formulate responses to questions asked in class.67.5%93.5%I answer questions at the appropriatecognitive level.65.0%89.4%I can explain the thinking that led to my answers in class.74.2%To make an individual metacognitively aware is to ensure that the individual has learned how to learn." (Garner, 1988)
64DISCUSSION: Student Metacognition The questioning attitude could increase metacognition, or an awareness of thinking, in students. Metacognition calls for elaboration and application of one’s learning which can result in enhanced understanding.In brief, time for reflection in order to engage oneself in monitoring-planning-evaluation would inspire learners’ engagement with higher order thinking and reasoning.
65FINDINGS: Student Attitudes and Perceptions Student attitudes and perceptions affect the learners’ mental climate of the classroom. If students have positive attitudes and perceptions, they have a mental climate conducive to learning; a sense of acceptance and a sense of comfort and order.QuestionsPre-TestPost-Test1. I am comfortable asking questions in class.56.6%82.9%2. I am confident in asking questions in class.73.2%3. I ask a mix of different types of questions at all cognitive levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, evaluation and synthesis.38.3%75.6%Brand Identity is the art of shaping perceptions. If you can measure current perceptions, determine ideal perceptions, then implement the right brand identity to help align the two you can start to affect the behaviors of your stakeholders which in turn will drive business performance.Attitudes and perceptions affect the classroom climate. (Marzano, 1992)
66DISCUSSION: Student Attitudes and Perceptions Student attitudes and perceptions drive motivation and behaviour. When students are convinced of the value of questioning, they wouldcultivate a positive questioning attitude,develop their questioning skills to seek clarifications and to broaden and deepen their body of knowledge andhave a mental climate conducive to learning .Teachers need to continually foster and reinforce positive attitudes and perceptions about the learning climate and model theway.Achieve academic success
67OTHER FINDINGS: Outcomes 97.6% - Questioning is a skill that can be developed.82.1% - My questioning skills have improved.95.1% - My capacity as a learner has increased through questioning.65.8% - I have developed the art of questioning.86.2% - My academic performance has improved through questioning.94.3% - I have developed a critical mind through questioning.Questioning Thinking Learning
68STUDENT VOICES“demoralised over my last Geography grades ….. doubting my ability in the subject …. I was in a way ‘forced to question’ and put my best effort into completing my work. The questioning part really enriched my Geography learning experience.Throughout the course of the past eight months, the questioning has really benefitted me in my learning. Usually I would hardly think of any questions after reading a text to check my understanding. Now I am able to generate more questions on a topic, greatly benefitting me in my studies.”(Shirley Wang, class 412, 2012)
69STUDENT VOICES“this session is really fun. Though we have done it in Philo class before, it feels different doing it in Geography class. It pushed me to ask other sorts of questions, rather than just those to check for factual understanding. I could also clarify my doubts on the spot. I hope we get to do this again even though the preparation work might be heavy and time-consuming.”(Justina, class 301, 2012)
70CONCLUSIONAs classroom practitioners, we know that effective questioning is critical to student learning and student academic success. Therefore, the need to develop a questioning mind in our students is essential.The inquiry-driven approach to teaching and learning requires constant practice and reinforcement if inquiry is to be integrated into classroom instructional practices.Higher-order thinking skills, including metacognitive awareness and metacognitive development, are complex and require a supportive (positive and affective) environment.Metacognition is diverse. It includes both understanding and control of cognitive processes. These constructs are themselves complex.Metacognition is typically presented in science education literature as involving active monitoring,conscious control, and regulation of mental processes(Bairdand White, 1996;Butler, 2002; Flavell, 1987;Gunstone, 1994; Mintzes, Wanderseeand Novak, 1998;Thomasand McRobbie, 2001; White, 1993, 1998) and as such, understanding student metacognition can elucidate their learning.An effective learning environment in which students are given ample opportunities and time to develop their questioning skills would develop the students’ ability to ask more and better questions about phenomenon around them.
71CLOSING REMARK“What’s in a question, you ask? Everything. It is a way of evoking stimulating response or stultifying inquiry. It is, in essence, the very core of teaching.” (John Dewey, 1933)
72REFERENCESWang,C.M. and Ong, Grace (2003), Questioning Techniques for Active Learning, in Ideas on Teaching, Volume 1, Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning (CDTL), National University of Singapore.Walsh, J.A. & Sattes, B.D. (2005), Quality Questioning: Research-based Practice to Engage Every Learner, Corwin Press, Australia.Marzano, R.J. (1992), A Different Kind of Classroom : Teaching with Dimensions of Learning, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,ASCD, Alexandria,VA.
73Nurturing the Reflective Practitioner Correlations between Article Review and Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking AppraisalAzahar M Noor5 June 2013Study was conducted and completed in 2012 as part of fulfillment of Masters Degree with specialisation in Gifted Education.
74Critical ThinkingMOE’s “Desired Outcomes of Education” states that: by the end of post-secondary education, students should be able to think critically. Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) as used in Raffles Programme proposed that curriculum for the gifted should be differentiated and organised around high level thinking skills.
75Research Questions1. What is critical thinking? Is there a correlation between students’ performance in the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and their performance in the Article Review (AR)?Hypothesis: Since both are tools to measure critical thinking, there should be a correlation between students’ performance in both tests.
76Some Definitions of CTVanTassel-Baska (2006) included four process elements: to judge or evaluate, comparing and contrasting ideas, to generalise from concrete to the abstract, and to synthesise information within or across disciplines.Yeap, L.L. (2004) observed that critical thinking determines the credibility of certain facts and sources, detects biasness, evaluates the soundness of arguments and distinguishes the relevant from the irrelevant.
77Paul, R. (2007) defined critical thinking as thinking that analyses thought, that assesses thought, and that transforms thought for the better.Lipman, M. (1991) defined critical thinking as thinking that facilitates judgement, because it relies on criteria, is self-correcting, and is sensitive to context.Richard Paul and Lipman added the aspect of metacognition.
78Defining Critical Thinking Teachers may lack clarity as to what CT really means.Defining CT may be complex due to:- variety of definitions and,- it involved multitude of skills eg Paul, R (1990) identified 9 micro skills and 16 macro abilities related to critical thinking.Researcher felt that
79Before we seek to measure and develop CT, there needs to be clarity and consistency in defining CT. Hence, identifying the core characteristics of Critical Thinking can serve as a guide and working definition for teachers.
801. Critical Thinking involves High Order Cognitive Skills 3 Core Elements1: CT involves evaluating the validity and falsity of an assertion. Some definitions use the term “argument” instead of “assertion”.2: CT involves making a judgement that relies on criteria. Some definitions may emphasise “making generalisations” instead of “making a judgement”.3: CT involves metacognitive self-evaluation. Some definitions use the term “self-correcting”.
812. Critical Thinking involves Disposition to think critically Role of affective dispositionsHalpern, D. F. (1998) ..the thinker must be willing to put in the required mental effort as he may choose not to engage in critical thinking even if he has excellent critical thinking skills.Paul, R. (1990): identified nine traits of critical thinking, in which he emphasised the intellectual and moral commitments necessary for a person to improve the quality of his thinking.Implication to Teachers ?My research did not focus on CT dispositions but this is an important aspect to develop CT in learners.
82Is there a correlation between students’ performance in the WGCTA and their performance in the AR? Why is this question important?AR as a Proprietary InstrumentValidation: concurrent validity test
83What is Article Review?An assessment tool used in RP for Social Studies curriculum in Yr 3 and 4.Seen and Unseen Article – differing viewpoints onan issue.On assessment day, students must bring theSeen Article into the exam room with theirannotations.Purpose of having 2 articles: In real life, there bound to be differing perspectives to any issue. Second, the “other” article not reviewed serves as resource / contextual knowledge. Thirdly, we intentionally want to present conflicting opinions for them to resolve.
84The Five Critical Thinking Domains Tested in WGCTA Inference: Students are required to draw conclusions from certain observed or supposed facts. Recognition of Assumption: In this test, students are required to decide for each given statement, whether an assumption is made, or not made, by the person.Deduction: Students are required to judge whether a conclusion necessarily follows from a statement.Interpretation: Students are required to read a short paragraph and decide, for each of the given conclusion, whether the conclusion logically follows, or does not follow.Evaluation of Argument: Students are given a series of questions. Each question is followed by several arguments. Students are required to decide if an argument is strong or weak. For an argument to be strong, it must be both important and directly related to the question.
85Recognition of Assumption WGCTA’s 5 DomainsInferenceRecognition of AssumptionDeduction:Interpretation:Evaluation of Argument:AR CT SkillsAn impt skill for AR.Students required to identify & qn assumptions. Overlap but more difficult in AR. In WGCTA, student just makes a “yes” / “no” choice.Skill is part of close reading but not assessedEvaluation of article is assessed eg has the author presented a convincing argument … ?
86Skills in AR which are NOT tested in WGCTA Comparative analysis: The 2 contrasting articles will demand skills in comparison.Making a judgement: Students are required to make a judgement on an issue, based on the contrasting views presented in the 2 articles given. In making a judgement, students have to develop their own criteria, consider contextual realities and present their views on the issue given.Comparative analysis and making a judgement put AR at a higher level of sophistication in terms of CT skills
87Methodology 96 Year 4 students selected. Stratified sampling (interval of 5 names)Data:AR End of Year Assessment scoresWGCTA test scores conducted in Term 4SPSS was used to run correlations testAt the point of study in early 2012, the 2011 WGCTA test scores which students sat for in November 2011 were not available. Hence this study used 2010 test scores of AR and WGCTA of SAME students.For Year 4s, we have 15 classes of 30 students (average) in each class.
88The mean score for the total WGCTA was 82. 63% The mean score for the total WGCTA was 82.63%. This placed the 96 students at percentile based on Grade 11 norms- this showed a high level of CT skillsThere was a marked difference between the mean scores of top and average performers in the AR.Little difference in WGCTA scores (Top vs Aveg)
89Is there a Correlation? Terms Correlation measures the relationship between 2 variables (+ or -). Correlation does not equal causation.Statistically significant = the result does not happen by chance. Significance level was set at 0.05.If result = > 0.05, means it is not statistically significantIf result is < 0.05, means only less than 5% that the result happen by chance. Result is thus statistically significant.
90Results of correlations test The correlation between the TOTAL WGCTA scores and AR scores was not significant.Results for 4 domains of “Recognition of Assumptions”, “Deduction”, “Interpretation” and “Evaluation of Arguments”were also not significant.Only “Inference” scores were statistically significant, but the strength of correlation between “Inference” and AR scores was weak.Results were not expected : (
91ConclusionDifferent format: WGCTA used multiple-choice format while AR is essay writing. Hence language could be a major influence in the results eg a student may have high CT skills, but may not be able to express their ideas clearly. Teachers may grade the essays for clarity of expression.The other skills tested in the AR have substantial influence on students’ performance. These are not captured in WGCTA esp comparing and contrasting skillsIf a student is able to prepare for AR, the need to apply CT is diminished.
92ImplicationsPerhaps expand the 3 criteria rubric to four to sharpen assessment on CT skills that the AR seeks to develop and assess.Review implementation, reduce spotting and pre-prepared answers.WGCTA showed the students have high CT. How do we translate high CT to high performance in the AR? Makes CT more salient in class.Not able to validate AR yet.
93Follow-up Sharing within Humanities Department. Social Studies team decided on:Rubric was revised to 4 criteria effective 2012The team reflected on how we can teach CT more explicitly.WGCTA shows lower scores in Inference skills which we deemed as “more basic” and “easier”. Introduced Argument Mapping in 2013 as build inference skills and accuracy in reading an integral skill to CT.Before you even evaluate, make judgment, it is necessary to read closely, read accurately and understand what the author is saying. This is also something we teachers have observed ie students can be too quick to judge or disagree with an argument without giving time to understand and ask: how can that view be correct?
94Interestingly ………When WGCTA scores were compared with overall SS grades Correlation between total WGCTA scores and SS grades was highly significant --> CT skills have an influence on students’ SS performance (AR, PT and CBA).“Inference” and “Evaluation” domains are also statistically significant (but not the other 3 domains), although the strength of the correlations is weak.
95Thank YouCONTACT INFORMATIONPedagogical Research LabRaffles Girls’ School (Secondary)20 Anderson RoadSingaporeDID: (+65)Fax: (+65) Web:The new structure that the school is implementing later this year is to provide the teachers the scaffolding is by creating three Tiers of research (Tier 1, 2 and 3),