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HUMANS IN THE BIOSPHERE  IN 1778, EUROPEANS ARRIVED ON THE ISLAND CHAIN OF HAWAII.  THEY CHANGED THE ISLANDS BY INTRODUCING RANCHING, PREDATORS, AND.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMANS IN THE BIOSPHERE  IN 1778, EUROPEANS ARRIVED ON THE ISLAND CHAIN OF HAWAII.  THEY CHANGED THE ISLANDS BY INTRODUCING RANCHING, PREDATORS, AND."— Presentation transcript:

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2 HUMANS IN THE BIOSPHERE  IN 1778, EUROPEANS ARRIVED ON THE ISLAND CHAIN OF HAWAII.  THEY CHANGED THE ISLANDS BY INTRODUCING RANCHING, PREDATORS, AND DISEASE.  LARGE AREAS HAVE BEEN PAVED FOR HOUSING SCHOOLS AND INDUSTRY; NATIVE HAWAIIAN SPECIES ARE GONE

3  ALL ORGANISMS THAT LIVE ON EARTH SHARE A LIMITED RESOURCE BASE  HUMAN POPULATION IS INCREASING; OUR PLANET IS NOT

4  INDUSTRY AND TECHNOLOGY GIVE HUMANS A STRONG ADVANTAGE IN COMPETING FOR FOOD, ENERGY, AND SPACE  HUMANS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ON THE PLANET

5  HUNTING AND GATHERING  AGRICULTURE  INDUSTRY  URBAN DEVELOPMENT

6  THIS USED TO BE THE PRIMARY MEANS OF SURVIVAL  PEOPLE LIVED IN SMALL GROUPS  HUNTING AND GATHERING CAUSED ONE OF THE MAJOR MASS EXTINCTIONS OF LARGE ANIMALS (WOOLY MAMMOTHS, GIANT SLOTHS, AND SABERTOOTH CATS)  PEOPLE STILL FOLLOW THIS WAY OF LIFE AND SUPPLEMENT THEIR DIET WITH THE MEAT OF WILD ANIMALS: SUBSISTENCE HUNTING  SUBSISTENCE HUNTING ALLOWS THE USE OF GUNS, SNOWMOBILES, TOOLS, ETC.

7  THE SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE WAS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT PROVIDED PEOPLE WITH A DEPENDABLE SUPPLY OF FOOD  HUMANS GATHERED IN LARGER SETTLEMENTS (TOWNS AND CITIES) AND DEVELOPED GOVERNMENT AND LAWS.

8  DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS (SHEEP, GOATS, COWS, PIGS, HORSES, DOGS) SUPPLIED HUMANS WITH MILK, WOOL, ETC.  OVERGRAZING CHANGED GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS, ERODED SOIL, AND PUT LARGE DEMANDS ON WATER SUPPLIES  TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE ( ) ALLOWED FOR THE EXCHANGE OF FOODS AROUND THE WORLD TO BEGIN

9  1800’S: IRRIGATION, NEW CROP VARIETIES, AND FARM MACHINES HELPED FARMERS INCREASE THEIR YIELDS TREMENDOUSLY  GREEN REVOLUTION: GOVERNMENTS AND SCIENTISTS INTRODUCED NEW, INTENSIVE FARMING PRACTICES THAT GREATLY INCREASED THE YIELDS OF RICE, WHEAT, ETC.

10  DEVELOPMENT OF NEW, HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE VARIETIES OF MAJOR FOOD CROPS=MIRACLE STRAINS  MONOCULTURE: LARGE FIELDS ARE CLEARED, PLOWED AND PLANTED WITH A SINGLE CROP YEAR AFTER YEAR  FARMERS RELY ON IRRIGATION, CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS, AND PESTICIDES  THE BENEFIT TO HUMANS FROM THE GREEN REVOLUTION IS NEW FARMING PRACTICES INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION AND PREVENTED FOOD SHORTAGES

11  INTENSIVE FARMING CAN DEPLETE ENERGY AND WATER SUPPLIES  MONOCULTURE ALLOWS PESTS TO REPRODUCE QUICKLY  PESTICIDES CARRY HARMFUL CHEMICALS  FERTILIZERS CAN INTERFERE WITH FOOD WEBS AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

12  HUMAN SOCIETY WAS TRANSFORMED BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  MOST ENERGY NEEDED TO PRODUCE POWER CAME FROM FOSSIL FUELS (COAL, OIL, NATURAL GAS)  URBAN CENTERS BECAME CROWDED AND PEOPLE MOVED FROM CITIES TO SUBURBS  INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES POLLUTE AIR, WATER, AND SOIL READ 6-1 IN YOUR BOOK AND COMPLETE YOUR GUIDED READING WORKSHEETS!!!

13  A RESOURCE IS SOMETHING THAT CAN BE DRAWN UPON TO TAKE CARE OF A NEED  A COMMON RESOURCE IS AN ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE OWNED BY MANY PEOPLE IN COMMON  “TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS”: ANY RESOURCE THAT IS OPEN TO EVERYONE (AIR, OCEANS) WILL EVENTUALLY BE DESTROYED BECAUSE EVERYONE CAN USE IT, BUT NO ONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PRESERVING IT

14 1. RENEWABLE: THEY CAN BE REGENERATED AND ARE REPLACEABLE (TREES); THEY CAN BE LIMITED THOUGH 2. NON-RENEWABLE: CANNOT BE REPLENISHED BY NATURAL PROCESSES; ONCE THEY ARE USED, THEY ARE GONE FOREVER (FOSSIL FUELS)

15  SUSTAINABLE USE: A WAY OF USING NATURAL RESOURCES AT A RATE THAT DOES NOT DEPLETE THEM ***UNLESS SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES ARE USED, HUMAN ACTIVITIES CAN DAMAGE/DEPLETE RESOURCES

16  IF MANAGED PROPERLY, SOIL IS RENEWABLE. IF NOT, IT WILL BE PERMANENTLY DAMAGED.  FERTILE SOIL: BEST FOR FOOD CROPS TO GROW; CONTAINS A MIXTURE OF HUMUS, SAND, CLAY AND ROCK  HUMUS IS MOSTLY TOPSOIL THAT ABSORBS AND RETAINS NUTRIENTS  PLOWING: REMOVES ROOTS THAT HOLD SOIL IN PLACE  SOIL EROSION=THE WEARING AWAY OF SURFACE SOIL BY WATER AND WIND

17  DESERTIFICATION: COMBINATION OF FARMING, OVERGRAZING AND DROUGHT THAT TURNS PRODUCTIVE AREAS INTO DESERTS

18 1. CONTOUR PLOWING: FIELDS ARE PLOWED ACROSS THE SLOPE OF THE LAND TO REDUCE EROSION 2. LEAVE THE STEMS AND ROOTS IN PLACE TO HELP HOLD SOIL

19 *VALUABLE FOR FOOD *FISHING HAS INCREASED, BUT FISH STOCKS IN FISHERIES ARE BEING HARVESTED FASTER THAN THEY CAN REPRODUCE=OVERFISHING

20  LIMIT THE CATCH OF FISH POPULATIONS: THE PROBLEM IS THAT OPEN OCEAN WATERS ARE OUTSIDE THE CONTROL OF ANY ONE SINGLE COUNTRY. AN EXAMPLE OF A COMMON RESOURCE THAT EVERYONE WANTS BUT NO ONE HAS INCENTIVE TO PROPERLY MANAGE  AQUACULTURE: FARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS  GOOD BECAUSE IT PRODUCES ANIMAL PROTEIN  IF IT ISNT MANAGED, THIS POLLUTES WATER WITH FISH WASTES

21  SMOG: MIXTURE OF CHEMICALS THAT OCCURS AS A GRAY-BROWN HAZE IN THE ATMOSPHERE; IT IS A COMBINATION OF SMOKE AND FOG, MOSTLY DUE TO AUTOMOBILE EXHAUSTS AND INDUSTRY EMISSIONS  POLLUTANT: HARMFUL MATERIAL THAT CAN ENTER THE BIOSPHERE THROUGH THE LAND, AIR, OR WATER  BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS SUCH AS NITRATES, SULFATES, AND PARTICULATES

22  PARTICULATES: MICROSCOPIC PARTICLES OF ASH AND DUST THAT CAUSE HEALTH PROBLEMS (MOST INDUSTRIES USE TECHNOLOGY TO CONTROL EMISSIONS)  COMBUSTION: RELEASES ACIDIC GASES CONTAINING NITROGEN AND SULFUR COMPOUNDS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. WHEN THEY COMBINE WITH WATER VAPOR, NITRIC AND SULFURIC ACIDS ARE FORMED AND FALL TO EARTH’S SURFACE AS ACID RAIN. ACID RAIN KILLS PLANTS, CHANGES SOIL CHEMISTRY, AND RELEASES MERCURY FROM THE SOIL WHICH IS TOXIC.

23  OVERALL, WATER IS A RENEWABLE RESOURCE. FRESHWATER IS LIMITED AS A RESOURCE.  POLLUTION THREATENS WATER SUPPLIES:  OIL SPILLS  IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF CHEMICALS LEADS TO THEIR SEEPAGE INTO STREAMS AND RIVERS  WASTE DISCARDED ON LAND SEEPS INTO SOIL AND ENTERS GROUNDWATER SUPPLIES  DOMESTIC SEWAGE CONTAINS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS THAT ENCOURAGES GROWTH OF ALGAE AND BACTERIA IN AQUATIC HABITATS  SEWAGE ALSO SPREADS DISEASE AMONG HUMANS AND ANIMALS

24  SUSTAINABLE USE=WATER CONSERVATION READ SECTION 6-2 IN YOUR BOOKS AND COMPLETE 6-2 ASSESSMENT PAGE 149

25  VARIETY IS ALSO KNOWN AS DIVERSITY.  BIODIVERSITY: THE SUM OF THE GENETICALLY BASED VARIETY OF ALL ORGANISMS IN THE BIOSPHERE  ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY: VARIETY OF HABITATS, COMMUNITIES, AND ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE LIVING WORLD  SPECIES DIVERSITY: NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPECIES IN THE BIOSPHERE  GENETIC DIVERSITY: SUM OF ALL DIFFERENT FORMS OF GENETIC INFORMATION CARRIED BY ALL ORGANISMS LIVING ON EARTH

26  SPECIES HAVE PROVIDED US WITH:  FOODS  MEDICINES  ANTICANCER DRUGS  PAINKILLERS  ANTIBIOTICS  HEART DRUGS  ANTIDEPRESSANTS

27  HUMAN ACTIVITY IS THE NUMBER ONE THREAT!  WE ALTER HABITATS, HUNT SPECIES TO EXTINCTION, INTRODUCE TOXIC COMPOUNDS INTO FOOD WEBS, AND INTRODUCE FOREIGN SPECIES TO A NEW ENVIRONMENT

28  EXTINCTION: OCCURS WHEN A SPECIES DISAPPEARS FROM ALL OR PART OF ITS RANGE  ENDANGERED SPECIES: SPECIES WHOSE POPULATION SIZE IS DECLINING AND IN DANGER OF EXTINCTION

29  WHEN LAND IS DEVELOPED, NATURAL HABITATS ARE DESTROYED. SPECIES VANISH AS A RESULT.  HABITAT FRAGMENTATION: LAND DEVELOPMENT SPLITS ECOSYSTEMS INTO PIECES; THESE PIECES BECOME “BIOLOGICAL ISLANDS”  ANY PATCH OF HABITAT SURROUNDED BY A DIFFERENT HABITAT *THE SMALLER THE ISLAND, FEWER SPECIES CAN LIVE THERE, RESULTING IN SMALLER POPULATIONS*

30  HUNTING HAS CAUSED EXTINCTION FOR MANY SPECIES  TODAY, ENDANGERED SPECIES ARE PROTECTED FROM HUNTING IN THE U.S.  AFRICA, SOUTH AMERICA, AND ASIA STILL ALLOW HUNTING OF ANIMALS FOR FOOD, FUR, HIDES, ETC.  CITES=CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES; IT BANS TRADE IN PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM AN AGREED UPON LIST OF ENDANGERED SPECIES

31  POLLUTION: SERIOUS PROBLEM THREATENING BIODIVERSITY; OCCURS WHEN TOXIC COMPOUNDS ACCUMULATE IN TISSUES OF ORGANISMS (EX. DDT) 1. DDT WAS THOUGHT TO BE “PERFECT”- REMAINS ACTIVE FOR A LONG TIME, KILLS MANY DIFFERENT INSECTS, AND WAS CHEAP 2. WHEN SPRAYED, DRAINED INTO WATER SUPPLIES

32 1. NON-BIODEGRADABLE: NOT BROKEN DOWN IN NATURE 2. NOT ELIMINATED FROM THE BODIES OF ORGANISMS AS THEY PICK IT UP DDT IS CONCENTRATED AND STORED IN AQUATIC PLANTS/ALGAE  HERBIVORES EAT PLANTS AND GET 10 TIMES THE CONCENTRATION THE PLANTS HAD  CARNIVORES EAT HERBIVORES AND DDT IS CONCENTRATED EVEN MORE=PROCESS OF BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION

33  BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION: CONCENTRATIONS OF A HARMFUL SUBSTANCE INCREASES IN ORGANISMS AT HIGHER TROPHIC LEVELS IN A FOOD CHAIN/WEB  BY THE 1970’S, DDT WAS BANNED IN THE U.S.  RACHEL CARSON WROTE A BOOK IN 1962, TITLED “SILENT SPRING” WHICH EXPLAINED THE RESULTS OF USING THE PESTICIDE DDT.

34  INVASIVE SPECIES: PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT HAVE MIGRATED TO PLACES WHERE THEY ARE NOT NATIVE; INCREASE THE POPULATIONS BECAUSE THE NEW HABITAT LACKS PARASITES AND PREDATORS THAT CONTROL THE POPULATION “BACK HOME”

35  CONSERVATION: WISE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES LIKE THE PRESERVATION OF HABITATS AND WILDLIFE  STRATEGIES FOR CONSERVATION: 1. CAPTIVE BREEDING PROGRAMS 2. FOCUS ON PROTECTING ENTIRE ECOSYSTEMS AS WELL AS SINGLE SPECIES 3. GOVERNMENT SETS ASIDE LAND, EXPANDS EXISTING AREAS AS PARKS/RESERVES 4. MARINE SANCTUARIES

36  THE NEED TO PROTECT BIODIVERSITY IS GREATEST IN COUNTRIES LEAST ABLE TO DO SO  RAINFOREST DESTRUCTION IS THE GREATEST THREAT TO BIODIVERSITY ON LAND  CONSERVATION BIOLOGISTS IDENTIFY “HOT SPOTS” WHERE SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF HABITATS AND SPECIES ARE IN DANGER OF EXTINCTION READ 6-3 IN YOUR TEXTBOOK AND COMPLETE GUIDED READING WORKSHEETS FOR THIS SECTION!!!

37  MANY BIOLOGISTS ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES OF GLOBAL CHANGE: 1. THE THINNING OR DEPLETION OF THE OZONE LAYER 2. GLOBAL WARMING

38  OZONE LAYER IS KM ABOVE EARTH’S SURFACE  OZONE AT GROUND LEVEL IS A POLLUTANT  OZONE LAYER ABSORBS UV RADIATION FROM SUNLIGHT BEFORE IT REACHES EARTH’S SURFACE

39  SUNBURN  CANCER  DAMAGE TO EYES  DECREASED RESISTANCE TO DISEASE *THE OZONE LAYER SERVES AS A GLOBAL SUNSCREEN BECAUSE IT SHIELDS THE BIOSPHERE FROM UV LIGHT

40  1970’S: “HOLE” DISCOVERED IN OZONE LAYER OVER ANTARCTICA  1995: OZONE HOLE LARGE ENOUGH TO EXPOSE PARTS OF THE US TO HIGH LEVELS OF UV  CFC’S: CHLOROFLOUROCARBONS: ACT AS CATALYSTS THAT ENABLE UV LIGHT TO BREAK APART OZONE MOLECULES

41  GLOBAL WARMING IS AN INCREASE IN THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF THE BIOSPHERE  TEMPERATURES BETWEEN 1980 AND 2000 ROSE AT A FASTER RATE THAN DURING THE PREVIOUS 100 YEARS  1990’S WERE THE HOTTEST DECADE EVER RECORDED

42 1. HUMAN ACTIVITIES HAVE ADDED CARBON DIOXIDE AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES SUCH AS METHANE TO THE ATMOSPHERE. 2. GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE GREENHOUSE RETAINS MORE HEAT. 3. THE BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS ADDS CARBON DIOXIDE TO THE ATMOSPHERE, AS DOES CUTTING DOWN AND BURNING FORESTS. 4. NATURAL VARIATIONS IN CLIMATE:AVERAGE GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE WILL INCREASE BY 1-2 DEGREES CELSIUS BY 2050

43  IF GLOBAL WARMING CONTINUES AT CURRENT RATES, THE POLAR ICE CAPS WILL CONTINUE TO MELT AND SEA LEVELS COULD RAISE ENOUGH TO FLOOD SOME LOW-LYING COASTAL AREAS  STORMS COULD BECOME MORE FREQUENT AND SEVERE  MORE SERIOUS DROUGHTS IN NORTH AMERICA  ABUNDANCE OF DISEASE CARRYING SPECIES COULD INCREASE

44  A HEALTHY BIOSPHERE PROVIDES US WITH VALUABLE GOODS AND SERVICES:  TEMPERATURE CONTROL  WATER PURIFICATION  SOIL FORMATION

45  USE RESOURCES WISELY  RECYCLE MATERIALS  CONSERVE ENERGY  BETTER INSULATE HOMES AND OFFICES  BUY FUEL EFFICIENT CARS *READ 6-4 IN YOUR BOOK AND COMPLETE GUIDED READING WORKSHEETS. *STUDY FOR YOUR TEST!!!


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