Presentation on theme: "An Autonomous Navigation Vehicle for Surveillance Abhilash JindalAnkur Jain Faez AhmedGaurav Dhama Mayank BaranwalPalash Soni Shishir PandyaSriram Ganesan."— Presentation transcript:
An Autonomous Navigation Vehicle for Surveillance Abhilash JindalAnkur Jain Faez AhmedGaurav Dhama Mayank BaranwalPalash Soni Shishir PandyaSriram Ganesan
ABHYAST is a mobile robotic device designed to be a reliable and rugged platform for autonomous navigation in both structured and unstructured environment, communication and imaging. 1)Accepts the co-ordinates (latitude, longitude or name) of its destination from GSM network (e.g. – BSNL, Idea, etc.) 2) Navigates autonomously using obstacle detection,collision avoidance and path planning techniques to the destination using IMU assisted GPS, Digital compass and proximity sensors(Laser Scanner and Infrared Sensor) 3) Takes images in the vicinity of the destination point.
ABHYAST accepts location coordinates in 3 formats:- Short distance navigation(<100 mt) Latitude/Longitude accepted Displacement Vector accepted Long Distance Navigation Latitude/Longitude accepted Locations name accepted and pre-stored map followed(in structured environment). Uses GPS and Compass for Absolute Positioning and IMU and Proximity Sensors for relative short distance navigation. Laser Scanner and IR sensors help in Obstacle detection, Collision avoidance and Path Planning in short term. Camera used for imaging/video of target location and images stored in Memory. Task completion communicated to User and Abhyast returns to original position or as commanded by user.
Implementation of Simple obstacle avoidance Techniques (for short distance) Developing Algorithms for navigation using pre-existing maps(Open Street Maps) for long distances Developing SLAM(Simultaneo us Localization and Mapping) Algorithms
Packbot PackBot is a series of military robots by iRobot. More than 2000 PackBots are currently on station in Iraq and Afghanistan, with hundreds more on the way PackBot easily climbs stairs, rolls over rubble and navigates narrow, twisting passages The robot relays real-time video, audio and other sensor readings while the operator stays at a safe standoff distance. The operator can view a 2-D or 3-D image of the robot on the control unit, allowing for precise positioning. Source:-
Abhyast mass~8kg Abhyast Dimensions30cm x 30cm x 15cm [According to problem statement OBCBEAGLE BOARD 600 MHz,256 MB RAM & 128 MB Flash GSM boardGSM unit,Simmortal Ltd,SIDBI Laser ScannerR283-HOKUYO-LASER1 Detectable distance : 0.02 to 4m IR Sensor SHARP Distance Measuring Sensor Unit GPSPARALLAX Accuracy:~2m IMUSparkfun IMU with 6 Degree of freedom Digital Compass OceanServer Accuracy – 0.5 degrees MotorsHigh Torque MECHTEX MOTORS CameraOMNIVISION Colour Camera
Design considerations Terrain adaptation. Physical space and weight of the vehicle. Obstacle scaling mechanism. Choice of Locomotion System. Choice of Drive System. Mechanical complexity. Control complexity.
Choice of locomotion system Tracked Legged Wheeled
Why tracks ? Adapt to surface undulations. Scale obstacles using Flipper Assist Mechanism. Achieve good stability with its large ground contact area. Turn in minimum space. Requires slipping to turn. Coupled speed and direction. High frictional losses.
Chassis Worm gear box Support beam Motor Battery Sprocket Electronic components Tracks
Passive double track mechanism This mechanism gives passive adaptability based on a link structure. Double track mechanism is composed of two tracks driven by a single motor for each side. Passivity is acquired by attaching the flipper track with the main track through a hinge joint without an actuator. hingemotor Flipper tracks Main tracks
Flipper Assist mechanism a.Flippers oriented parallel to the ground. b. Flippers changing orientation. c. Flippers oriented at required incline. Flippers change orientation to adapt to the terrain. They help to scale obstacles.
mechanism: an example Flipper assist (1)(2)(3) (4)(5)(6)
Skid steering mechanism In skid steering, the thrust of one track is increased and the other is reduced, so as to create a turning moment. * Theory of Land Locomotion by M.G Bekker
Simpler from mechanical standpoint. Turning radius is not bounded but maximum speed is limited proportional to the curvature. Slippage makes skid steering less power efficient than other configurations.
High torque motor of 30kgcm Provides a rpm of 300. Worm gear box provides a high gear ratio Also effectively locks the flippers
4 Li ion battery packs of 12.6V and 6000mAh. Total power of the 250Wh Can power the vehicle for approximately1hr. Power losses are quite significant during skid steering. Path planning should minimize the total amount of steered angle as much as the robotic task can admit. Smooth trajectories are not necessary and turns can be concentrated in a sharp way. SOURCE:--Power Analysis for a Skid-Steered Tracked Mobile Robot Jes´us Morales, Jorge L. Mart´ınez, Anthony Mandow, Alfonso J. Garc´ıa-Cerezo,Jes´us M. G´omez-Gabriel and Salvador Pedraza
Communication medium will be SMS(Short Message Service). The main functions of the GSM board are as follows:- Receives destination point coordinates/location name. Sends the status of the vehicle (Co-ordinates and Health monitoring) whenever asked by the user. Sends its co-ordinates if it gets stuck somewhere A GSM modem is connected to a PC serial port (or to a USB port with an appropriate modem driver) and a GSM Sim Card is inserted in it. This device is capable of most Mobile phone capabilities like SMS,call and GPRS and it can be controlled via On Board Computer.
Globally prevailing Mobile phone network. Pre established network hence zero cost input in communication infrastructure development. Very large distance communication with operator possible. Low power consumption and reliable mode. Tasks Achieved Sending sms to operator’s mobile calls to operator’s mobile Other functionalities checked NOTE Data encryption will be implemented to ensure security. GPRS functionality likely to be used for direct interface via internet also.
Describes the tools used by the vehicle for navigating and positioning itself
Localizing the vehicle with respect to its environment Provide Obstacle Avoidance and Path Planning SOLUTIONS Effective localization requires both Global and local positioning methods Path Planning is achieved through combined data from various sensors onboard such as GPS,IMU, Compass and a Laser Scanner
GPS Global Positioning System Satellite transmits messages containing Sending time Orbital information Receiver Measures the transit time of each message Computes the distance to each satellite. Combines these distances with the location of the satellites to determine the receiver's location using geometric trilalteration Specifications:- Number of channels: 12 Position accuracy: 2m Baud Rate: 4800bps (optional 9600, 19300,38400) Interface: RS232/TTL Tasks Achieved Acquiring of NMEA data Interfacing with PCs Data consistency checked DATA ACQUIRED IN OPEN ENVIRONMENT
$GPGGA: Position Response Message $GPGSA: Satellite Used Response Message $GPRMC: Recommended Minimum Course Response Message $GPGSV: Satellites-in-View Response Message
Used to determine the absolute orientation in terms of Roll, Pitch and Yaw data Would be required on the vehicle to compare its current orientation with respect to the Global map Image adapted from Wikimedia Commons
Proposed Component :- OS-5000-US compass Specifications :- Provides Roll & Pitch full rotation, typical 1° accuracy <±30° tilt Pitch Angles +/-90 degrees, Roll Angles +/- 180 degrees Tiny size, 1”x1”x0.3”, less than 2 grams weight Interface through RS-232 and USB Rugged Design : G Shock Survival High Data Update Rate to 40HZ
Consists of a LASER rangefinder in a rotating mirror assembly Proposed Component :- Hokoyu URG-04LX Specifications :- Gives data with pencil beam viewing at high data rates(38.4 Kbaud or more) Has an embedded processor which packages data for the host computer Range- approx to 4m(depends on reflecting surface) Scanning Area-240 degrees High Accuracy-10 mm Resolution-0.36 degrees
Consists of chalking out a strategy for effective terrain traversal Uses the Laser Scanner to discriminate between drivable and non-drivable terrain Discrimination is done by extracting the features of the environment pertinent for navigation
Required to provide protection to the vehicle from collisions from objects that may have been overlooked by the laser sensor Uses IR sensors at carefully placed positions on the vehicle Proposed Sensor :- SHARP GP2D12 distance measuring sensor Distance measuring range- 10 to 80 cm
Refers to localizing the vehicle with respect to some reference position Would be accomplished using the principle of Odometry Odometry-Inertial Measurement Unit(IMU) X Y
Inertial Measurement Unit Used for short term navigation via Dead Reckoning Helps navigation in covered areas Sensors to measure the acceleration and angular velocities along 3-axis Design: Strapdown system Sensors are mounted rigidly Output quantities are in body frame instead of global frame
Proposed component: SEN-08454(IMU 6 degree of freedom) Features: Input voltage: 3.7 V to 7 V LPC2138 ARM7 processor 10 bit ADC SRAM: 32 kB and Flash: 512kB 3-axis MMA7260Q accelerometer Range upto +/- 6g Sensitivity: 200mV/g (for +/6g range ) Two 2-axis IDG300 gyroscope Range: +/- 500 °/sec Sensitivity: 2mV/°/sec Minimum acceleration reading: 5 mg Minimum rate reading: 0.5 °/sec
To assess the obstacle profile as provided by the laser scanner and IR sensors and avoid obstacles accordingly. To plan the shortest and most optimized pathway to the destination based on the obtained variables. To calculate the speed, acceleration, angular velocity, inclination etc of the robot and hence monitoring its stability. To implement motor control as per the requirement. To communicate the position, orientation, locomotion and health data to the controller unit.
Stands for Mobile Robot Programming Toolkit. Open Source with extensive online support. Aids designing and implementation of algorithms for SLAM, computer vision and path planning. Features extensive support for crucial components and algorithms like probability functions, occupancy grid, kalman filters, ICP etc Includes a lot of graphical support for mapping and localization and a 3-D simulator as well Simulation with MRPT
Supports a number of languages including C# and python Features visual programming capabilities Easy access to sensors and actuators using premade.NET libraries. Provides a 3-D Simulator with graphic acceleration for testing of algorithms in simulated world. Supports a wide range of hardware. Pretty easy to use Academics Version is available for free. Simulation with Microsoft Robotics Studio
Navigation Technique “Subsumption Technique” will be used for navigation Escape maneuvering:- Vehicle will try to escape when it gets stuck. In case if the vehicle can’t get unstuck then it will SMS its location to the user and stop all other processes. Collision Avoidance:- It will navigate through the path avoiding the obstacles based upon the sensor output. Standard algorithms are available for path planning. Escape maneuvers Collision Avoidance and Path planning Navigation towards target location Highest Priority Lowest Priority
Freely available from the open street map (OSM) website Easily accessible xml format User defined map of any region possible Consists of:- 1- Node 2- Way 3- Closed way Example of xml format:- Open Street Map
MATLAB Code of our initial algorithm The Robots trajectory always targets the final destination In case of Obstacle in the range of its sensors it follows their boundary. Case of scattered Obstacles
Case of concentrated obstacles
ABHYAST Tough Terrain Safe Navigation Path Planning Size, weight and Power Reliable communication Self Localization Computation Data Handling CHALLENGESCHALLENGES
Disaster Management:- Improvement:-Satellite Phone, Robust Structure Improved Path Planning with SLAM and Global map making implemented.
Good industry-academia relationship. Exposure to new technologies. Innovation motivated by implementation of ideas in an open ended problem. Gradual development of new technologies. Team Work and standard work practices followed to achieve final goal.