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Digital History: Incorporating Technology Into Historical Practice by Chris Reidy.

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1 Digital History: Incorporating Technology Into Historical Practice by Chris Reidy

2 This Presentation: Definition and scope of digital history Definition and scope of digital history Digital History by Daniel J. Cohen and Roy Rosenzweig Digital History by Daniel J. Cohen and Roy Rosenzweig Digital history in practice worldwide Digital history in practice worldwide Ball State and digital history Ball State and digital history Questions Questions

3 What Is Digital History? “Digital history is an approach to examining and representing the past that takes advantage of new communication technologies such as computers and the Web. It draws on essential features of the digital realm, such as databases, hypertextualization, and networks, to create and share historical knowledge.” “Digital history is an approach to examining and representing the past that takes advantage of new communication technologies such as computers and the Web. It draws on essential features of the digital realm, such as databases, hypertextualization, and networks, to create and share historical knowledge.” “Digital history complements other forms of history— indeed, it draws its strength and methodological rigor from this age-old form of human understanding while using the latest technology.” “Digital history complements other forms of history— indeed, it draws its strength and methodological rigor from this age-old form of human understanding while using the latest technology.” Source: Center for History and New Media, George Washington University, accessed 12 March Source: Center for History and New Media, George Washington University, accessed 12 March 2010.

4 Wikipedia says... Digital history is the use of digital media and tools for historical practice, presentation, analysis, and research. It is a branch of the Digital Humanities and an outgrowth of Quantitative history, Cliometrics, and History and Computing. Some of the previous work in digital history includes digital archives, CD-ROMs, online presentations, interactive maps, time-lines, audio files, and virtual worlds. More recent digital history projects focus on creativity, collaboration, and technical innovation, all of which are aspects of Web 2.0. Digital history is the use of digital media and tools for historical practice, presentation, analysis, and research. It is a branch of the Digital Humanities and an outgrowth of Quantitative history, Cliometrics, and History and Computing. Some of the previous work in digital history includes digital archives, CD-ROMs, online presentations, interactive maps, time-lines, audio files, and virtual worlds. More recent digital history projects focus on creativity, collaboration, and technical innovation, all of which are aspects of Web 2.0.

5 I would add... That digital history also includes non-Internet media and outlets such as: That digital history also includes non-Internet media and outlets such as: – Television programs, documentary and promotional films, audio books, and other audio/visual media that employ advanced hardware and software in their creation – E-books and readers, such as Kindle, that make use of digitization, as promoted by Google –.mp3 audio, Flash video, and interactive tours found on iPods or handheld devices – Presentations and training programs made available on CD and DVD – Presentation software (like the Powerpoint you are viewing now)

6 Essentially... Digital history represents a series of tools that aid and assist the scholar, student, and aficionado to better research, write, produce, consume, and understand history Digital history represents a series of tools that aid and assist the scholar, student, and aficionado to better research, write, produce, consume, and understand history It should NEVER replace standard scholarly practice and rigor It should NEVER replace standard scholarly practice and rigor Digital history is still history, but adapted for the information age Digital history is still history, but adapted for the information age

7 Digital History (2006) by Daniel J. Cohen and Roy Rosenzweig Aspires to motivate historians to embrace the technology and methods of digital history as it pertains to the Internet and websites Aspires to motivate historians to embrace the technology and methods of digital history as it pertains to the Internet and websites Realistically portrays the advantages and disadvantages inherent in digital history and how to how to “maximize the former while minimizing the latter.” Realistically portrays the advantages and disadvantages inherent in digital history and how to how to “maximize the former while minimizing the latter.” Demystifies and unpacks Web-based digital history, but is not technical in approach Demystifies and unpacks Web-based digital history, but is not technical in approach

8 Digital History Seven Positive Qualities of Digital Media Capacity Capacity Accessibility Accessibility Flexibility Flexibility Diversity Diversity Manipulability Manipulability Interactivity Interactivity Hypertextuality (or nonlinearity) Hypertextuality (or nonlinearity)

9 Digital History Five Dangers of Digital Media Quality Quality Durability Durability Readability Readability Passivity Passivity Inaccessibility Inaccessibility

10 Digital History In the beginning... Digital history, in the form of HNSource, grew out of and FTP (file transfer protocol) systems in the early 1990s Digital history, in the form of HNSource, grew out of and FTP (file transfer protocol) systems in the early 1990s History websites began shortly after web browsers came into large-scale use, with the first sites starting up in 1994 History websites began shortly after web browsers came into large-scale use, with the first sites starting up in 1994 In 1995, the Center for History and New Media (CHNM) assisted the AHA in creating its website In 1995, the Center for History and New Media (CHNM) assisted the AHA in creating its website Amateurs led the way; mostly technical experts with an interest in history as a hobby or those with political motivations Amateurs led the way; mostly technical experts with an interest in history as a hobby or those with political motivations

11 Digital History Proliferation begets problems Most search engines cannot find the “deep web”: Google searches miss holdings by the Library of Congress and JSTOR Most search engines cannot find the “deep web”: Google searches miss holdings by the Library of Congress and JSTOR Popular history sites outnumber professional, academic sites, making it harder to find the latter Popular history sites outnumber professional, academic sites, making it harder to find the latter However, the tide has turned and the “most popular” websites are now those considered academic, government (Library of Congress), or corporate (History Channel) However, the tide has turned and the “most popular” websites are now those considered academic, government (Library of Congress), or corporate (History Channel)

12 Digital History Organization of the History Web The five main genres of history websites: Archives (primary sources) Archives (primary sources) Exhibits, films, scholarship, and essays (secondary sources) Exhibits, films, scholarship, and essays (secondary sources) Teaching (directed at students and scholars) Teaching (directed at students and scholars) Discussion (promoting dialogue) Discussion (promoting dialogue) Organizational (information about a historical group) Organizational (information about a historical group)

13 Digital History Genre—Archives Digitized versions of primary source materials made available via the Internet Digitized versions of primary source materials made available via the Internet Primary example: the Library of Congress American Memory online archives Primary example: the Library of Congress American Memory online archivesAmerican MemoryAmerican Memory Advantages: accessibility & searchability Advantages: accessibility & searchability The Library of Congress was instrumental in the spread of digital archives in the U.S. The Library of Congress was instrumental in the spread of digital archives in the U.S. Twenty-two collections funded through grants Twenty-two collections funded through grants Archives sites are among the most frequented sites in the history web; a valuable resource for scholars, students, and enthusiasts Archives sites are among the most frequented sites in the history web; a valuable resource for scholars, students, and enthusiasts

14 Digital History Genre—Archives, cont. Valley of the Shadow: an example of an “invented archives”- where website producers create their own archives from accumulated sources Valley of the Shadow: an example of an “invented archives”- where website producers create their own archives from accumulated sources Valley of the Shadow Valley of the Shadow Commercial websites are also involved in maintaining archives, some of which restrict access to their collections, requiring subscription fees Commercial websites are also involved in maintaining archives, some of which restrict access to their collections, requiring subscription fees ProQuest online research center ProQuest online research center ProQuest Google intends to digitize upwards of 15 million books and make them available online for free, though battles over copyright constraints may inhibit this project Google intends to digitize upwards of 15 million books and make them available online for free, though battles over copyright constraints may inhibit this project

15 Digital History Genre—Exhibits, Films, Scholarship, and Essays The web offers a new outlet for History students, scholars and enthusiasts that previously found expression in monographs, theses, museum exhibits, journal articles, and popular magazine articles The web offers a new outlet for History students, scholars and enthusiasts that previously found expression in monographs, theses, museum exhibits, journal articles, and popular magazine articles Online museum exhibits can be simply digital translations, or they can reproduce and expand on the analog version, or they may be wholly digital, with no physical exhibit as a point of origin Online museum exhibits can be simply digital translations, or they can reproduce and expand on the analog version, or they may be wholly digital, with no physical exhibit as a point of origin Remembering Nagasaki website Remembering Nagasaki website Remembering Nagasaki website Remembering Nagasaki website Websites related to a film or TV program are generally conservative; most merely acting as advertisement for the show. Some websites offer additional historical content related to the program Websites related to a film or TV program are generally conservative; most merely acting as advertisement for the show. Some websites offer additional historical content related to the program Ken Burns’ National Parks website Ken Burns’ National Parks websiteNational Parks National Parks

16 Digital History Genre—Exhibits, Films, Scholarship, and Essays Online scholarship is even more conservative than its film/TV counterpart; most entries being merely electronic version of their paper efforts Online scholarship is even more conservative than its film/TV counterpart; most entries being merely electronic version of their paper efforts Online scholarship Online scholarship JSTOR and Project MUSE offer online versions of print journals, but again this is merely translation JSTOR and Project MUSE offer online versions of print journals, but again this is merely translation E-Books promise a bold step forward; incorporating scholarly writing with images, movies, and audio files E-Books promise a bold step forward; incorporating scholarly writing with images, movies, and audio files Michael Kammen, Visual Shock Michael Kammen, Visual ShockVisual ShockVisual Shock Blogs, wikis, and essays Blogs, wikis, and essays Blogs - personal in nature, but still deal with historic topics Blogs - personal in nature, but still deal with historic topicshistoric topicshistoric topics Wikis, “crowdsourcing,” and amateur history add enthusiasm and fine detail, but can also promote outdated interpretation and convey inaccuracies Wikis, “crowdsourcing,” and amateur history add enthusiasm and fine detail, but can also promote outdated interpretation and convey inaccuracies Wikis

17 Digital History Genre—Teaching and Learning The Library of Congress’s early efforts confirmed that a large number of primary and secondary teachers and students draw learning materials from the web The Library of Congress’s early efforts confirmed that a large number of primary and secondary teachers and students draw learning materials from the web Most museums offer lesson plans and other teaching aids Most museums offer lesson plans and other teaching aids First Division Museum at Cantigny First Division Museum at Cantigny First Division Museum at Cantigny First Division Museum at Cantigny The most common teaching websites are syllabi sites The most common teaching websites are syllabi sites Most provide only rudimentary information, but the better of this group include activities, additional readings, exam review guides, workshops, etc. Most provide only rudimentary information, but the better of this group include activities, additional readings, exam review guides, workshops, etc. better of this group better of this group Other teaching sites are blurring the line between genres and model themselves as resource centers, taking on many of the functions and services available at archival websites Other teaching sites are blurring the line between genres and model themselves as resource centers, taking on many of the functions and services available at archival websites History Matters at the CHNM website History Matters at the CHNM website History Matters History Matters

18 Digital History Genre—Discussion and Organizational Sites Started as an offshoot of and USENETNEWS newsroups Started as an offshoot of and USENETNEWS newsroups H-Net, started in 1993, provides over 150 lists for discussion on topics ranging from African expressive culture to utopian societies H-Net, started in 1993, provides over 150 lists for discussion on topics ranging from African expressive culture to utopian societies H-Public: part of the H-Net group H-Public: part of the H-Net group H-Public Most public history websites include threaded discussion forums and encourage visitor participation Most public history websites include threaded discussion forums and encourage visitor participation The History Channel discussion forum The History Channel discussion forumdiscussion forumdiscussion forum Historical organizations, historic houses, and niche categories of history are present on the web to inform current and recruit new members Historical organizations, historic houses, and niche categories of history are present on the web to inform current and recruit new members Website for the Third Regiment, Maryland Volunteers Website for the Third Regiment, Maryland VolunteersThird Regiment, Maryland VolunteersThird Regiment, Maryland Volunteers

19 Education, Skills, and Training Best Suited for Digital History Obviously, a degree in History Obviously, a degree in History – Public History affords many points of entry Web design experience Web design experience – HTML, XML, and CSS scripting preferably Graphic design and/or image processing skills Graphic design and/or image processing skills – Photoshop for scanning, color correction, and formatting Video editing or telecommunications background Video editing or telecommunications background – Final Cut Pro or Adobe Premier Data entry and processing ability Data entry and processing ability

20 Who’s Doing Digital History? Organizations dedicated to the emerging field: The Center for History and New Media Organizations dedicated to the emerging field: The Center for History and New Media Museums Museums Historical Societies Historical Societies University faculty and students University faculty and students

21 Examples of Digital History at Ball State Oral History Oral History Oral History Oral History Documentary Filmmaking Documentary Filmmaking Documentary Filmmaking Documentary Filmmaking Digital Archiving Digital Archiving Digital Archiving Digital Archiving Online Peer-reviewed and Popular Journal Articles Online Peer-reviewed and Popular Journal Articles Online Peer-reviewed and Popular Journal Articles Online Peer-reviewed and Popular Journal Articles Second Life and Blue Mars Second Life and Blue Mars Second Life Blue Mars Second Life Blue Mars Immersive Learning Courses Immersive Learning Courses Immersive Learning Courses Immersive Learning Courses Teaching American History and Distance Learning Projects Teaching American History and Distance Learning Projects Teaching American History and Distance Learning Projects Teaching American History and Distance Learning Projects History Education, Teacher Training, and e-Textbooks History Education, Teacher Training, and e-Textbooks History Education, Teacher Training, and e-Textbooks History Education, Teacher Training, and e-Textbooks The Electronic Field Trips and Digital Media Experience programs The Electronic Field Trips and Digital Media Experience programsElectronic Field Trips Digital Media Experience Electronic Field Trips Digital Media Experience Mapping and GIS Mapping and GIS Mapping and GIS Mapping and GIS Interpretation at Museums and Historic Sites Interpretation at Museums and Historic Sites Interpretation at Museums and Historic Sites Interpretation at Museums and Historic Sites Entrepreneurial History, “Personal History,” and Genealogical Research Entrepreneurial History, “Personal History,” and Genealogical Research Entrepreneurial HistoryPersonal History Genealogical Research Entrepreneurial HistoryPersonal History Genealogical Research Social Networking Websites, Wikis, and Blogs Social Networking Websites, Wikis, and Blogs Social Networking Websites, Wikis, and Blogs Social Networking Websites, Wikis, and Blogs

22 Conclusion Digital History is nearly as old as the Web itself Digital History is nearly as old as the Web itself Museums, historical organizations, archives, commercial history providers, scholars, students, and amateurs are already involved in creating digital history and the field continues to grow as new techniques, uses, and applications are discovered Museums, historical organizations, archives, commercial history providers, scholars, students, and amateurs are already involved in creating digital history and the field continues to grow as new techniques, uses, and applications are discovered Digital History may be the wave of the future, but Ball State is already well on its way to equipping students to be competitive in career fields that utilize emerging media Digital History may be the wave of the future, but Ball State is already well on its way to equipping students to be competitive in career fields that utilize emerging media

23 The End

24 Oral History Dr. Tony Edmonds’ and Dr. Bruce Geelhoed’s oral histories for their 2001 book Ball State University: An Interpretive History Dr. Tony Edmonds’ and Dr. Bruce Geelhoed’s oral histories for their 2001 book Ball State University: An Interpretive History Dr. Michael Wm. Doyle et al., Cantigny First Division Oral History Project: and Vietnam War Era Veterans Oral History Project: Dr. Michael Wm. Doyle et al., Cantigny First Division Oral History Project: and Vietnam War Era Veterans Oral History Project: Dr. Jim Connolly et al., BorgWarner/Warner Gear oral histories; Muncie Economic Development oral histories: ; Muncie Labor oral histories: Dr. Jim Connolly et al., BorgWarner/Warner Gear oral histories; Muncie Economic Development oral histories: ; Muncie Labor oral histories: Dr. David Ulbrich’s 376th Heavy Bombardment Group oral histories Dr. David Ulbrich’s 376th Heavy Bombardment Group oral histories Dr. Stephanie Beswick’s oral histories of Sudanese war refugees Dr. Stephanie Beswick’s oral histories of Sudanese war refugees

25 Documentary Filmmaking Dr. James Connolly, Director, Center for Middletown Studies, Changing Gears: The End of an Era, a 2010 documentary feature about deindustrialization in Muncie, Ind. Dr. James Connolly, Director, Center for Middletown Studies, Changing Gears: The End of an Era, a 2010 documentary feature about deindustrialization in Muncie, Ind.Changing Gears: The End of an EraChanging Gears: The End of an Era Dr. Nancy Carlson, TCOMM, Movers & Stakers: Stories Along the Indiana National Road, a 2009 documentary feature about migration and movement patterns along the National Road Dr. Nancy Carlson, TCOMM, Movers & Stakers: Stories Along the Indiana National Road, a 2009 documentary feature about migration and movement patterns along the National RoadMovers & Stakers: Stories Along the Indiana National RoadMovers & Stakers: Stories Along the Indiana National Road Chris Reidy, M.A. candidate, History, Hitler’s Final Victory: The Donbas Counteroffensive, a 2006 student- produced documentary on a crucial WWII battle Chris Reidy, M.A. candidate, History, Hitler’s Final Victory: The Donbas Counteroffensive, a 2006 student- produced documentary on a crucial WWII battleHitler’s Final Victory: The Donbas CounteroffensiveHitler’s Final Victory: The Donbas Counteroffensive

26 Changing Gears: The End of an Era eLearning/ChangingGears.aspx eLearning/ChangingGears.aspx eLearning/ChangingGears.aspx eLearning/ChangingGears.aspx

27 Movers & Stakers: Stories Along the Indiana National Road

28 Hitler’s Final Victory: The Donbas Counteroffensive

29 Digital Archiving Dr. Jim Connolly, et al., What Middletown Read Project: Dr. Jim Connolly, et al., What Middletown Read Project: Public History major Jennifer Torwudzo (‘11), Honors fellow at the Ball State Museum of Art, working on the DIDO (Digital Images Delivered Online) imaging project, funded through a $150,000 federal grant that is allowing the museum to digitize its collection of nearly 11,000 works of art and share it via an online database. Public History major Jennifer Torwudzo (‘11), Honors fellow at the Ball State Museum of Art, working on the DIDO (Digital Images Delivered Online) imaging project, funded through a $150,000 federal grant that is allowing the museum to digitize its collection of nearly 11,000 works of art and share it via an online database.DIDO (Digital Images Delivered Online) DIDO (Digital Images Delivered Online)

30 DIDO (Digital Images Delivered Online) nImpact/AFutureInHistory.aspx nImpact/AFutureInHistory.aspx nImpact/AFutureInHistory.aspx nImpact/AFutureInHistory.aspx

31 Online Publication of Peer-reviewed and Popular Journal Articles Dr. Abel Alves, “Can We Be Awe-Inspired without Thinking Hierarchically?” The Global Spiral published by the Metanexus Institute (February 24, 2004): Dr. Abel Alves, “Can We Be Awe-Inspired without Thinking Hierarchically?” The Global Spiral published by the Metanexus Institute (February 24, 2004):

32 What is Second Life? “Second Life is a virtual world developed by Linden Lab that launched on June 23, 2003 and is accessible via the Internet. A free client program called the Second Life Viewer enables its users, called Residents, to interact with each other through avatars. Residents can explore, meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and create and trade virtual property and services with one another, or travel throughout the world (which residents refer to as ‘the grid’).” “Second Life is a virtual world developed by Linden Lab that launched on June 23, 2003 and is accessible via the Internet. A free client program called the Second Life Viewer enables its users, called Residents, to interact with each other through avatars. Residents can explore, meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and create and trade virtual property and services with one another, or travel throughout the world (which residents refer to as ‘the grid’).” Source: Wikipedia entry for Second Life, accessed 12 March Source: Wikipedia entry for Second Life, accessed 12 March 2010.

33 Second Life Dr. Jim Connolly et al., Middletown Research Library and Archive in Second Life Dr. Jim Connolly et al., Middletown Research Library and Archive in Second Life Dr. Abel Alves, Assistant Chair, Department of History, 16 th -century Aztec Marketplace of Tlatelolco in Second Life, Hist. 445 course immersive-learning project, Fall 2007 Dr. Abel Alves, Assistant Chair, Department of History, 16 th -century Aztec Marketplace of Tlatelolco in Second Life, Hist. 445 course immersive-learning project, Fall 2007

34 Blue Mars Ball State’s IDIA (Institute for Digital Intermedia Arts) Lab has launched several virtual world environments, via Blue Mars, with historical underpinnings. Blue Mars is “a premium 3D virtual world platform featuring enhanced fidelity, scalability, security, and connectivity. Through the Blue Mars Client, users can participate in a wide variety of entertainment, educational, and productivity experiences.” Simulations include the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition, a Japanese temple, and a Chinese cave complex. Ball State’s IDIA (Institute for Digital Intermedia Arts) Lab has launched several virtual world environments, via Blue Mars, with historical underpinnings. Blue Mars is “a premium 3D virtual world platform featuring enhanced fidelity, scalability, security, and connectivity. Through the Blue Mars Client, users can participate in a wide variety of entertainment, educational, and productivity experiences.” Simulations include the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition, a Japanese temple, and a Chinese cave complex.

35 Immersive Learning Courses Dr. Mary Theresa Seig and Dr. Kecia McBride, Department of English (with several History majors), Eng. 323/400: “Narrative and Living History” with community partner Conner Prairie, Fishers, Ind., Spring 2008: Dr. Mary Theresa Seig and Dr. Kecia McBride, Department of English (with several History majors), Eng. 323/400: “Narrative and Living History” with community partner Conner Prairie, Fishers, Ind., Spring 2008: >http://www.bsu.edu/news/article/0,1370, ,00.html > Dr. Michael Wm. Doyle, Hist. 499/650: “Oral History Workshop” which completed the Vietnam War-Era Veterans Oral History Project and promotional video We Left The War, But The War Didn’t Leave Us: Vietnam Veterans Tell Their Stories: Dr. Michael Wm. Doyle, Hist. 499/650: “Oral History Workshop” which completed the Vietnam War-Era Veterans Oral History Project and promotional video We Left The War, But The War Didn’t Leave Us: Vietnam Veterans Tell Their Stories: We Left The War, But The War Didn’t Leave Us: Vietnam Veterans Tell Their Storieshttp://libx.bsu.edu/cdm4/collection.php?CISOROOT=/VtnmOrHis We Left The War, But The War Didn’t Leave Us: Vietnam Veterans Tell Their Storieshttp://libx.bsu.edu/cdm4/collection.php?CISOROOT=/VtnmOrHis

36 Hist. 499 – Oral History Workshop Fall 2009 Project Promotional Video We Left The War, But The War Didn’t Leave Us

37 Teaching American History Grants and Distance Learning Projects Dr. Ron Morris, et al, “The Ohio River Teaching American History Project,” Dr. Ron Morris, et al, “The Ohio River Teaching American History Project,” Indiana Academy for Science, Mathematics, and the Humanities, et al., “Building a Nation Teaching American History Project,” Indiana Academy for Science, Mathematics, and the Humanities, et al., “Building a Nation Teaching American History Project,”

38 History Education, Teacher Training, and e-Textbooks Dr. Sarah Drake Brown et al., Lesson Plans for the Cantigny First Division Oral History Project I, 2008: and Teacher Research Packets for the Cantigny First Division Oral History Project II, 2009: Dr. Sarah Drake Brown et al., Lesson Plans for the Cantigny First Division Oral History Project I, 2008: and Teacher Research Packets for the Cantigny First Division Oral History Project II, 2009: Dr. Ed Krzemienski, Companion e-Textbook for the Center for Middletown Studies’ documentary film, Shifting Gears: The End of an Era(under contract) Dr. Ed Krzemienski, Companion e-Textbook for the Center for Middletown Studies’ documentary film, Shifting Gears: The End of an Era (under contract)

39 Electronic Field Trips Ball State University is a national leader in providing electronic field trips primary and secondary schools: Ball State University is a national leader in providing electronic field trips primary and secondary schools:

40 Digital Multimedia Programs Dr. Kevin Smith et al., Echoes of War: Stories from the Big Red One, 2007: Dr. Kevin Smith et al., Echoes of War: Stories from the Big Red One, 2007: Echoes of War: Stories from the Big Red One of War: Stories from the Big Red One

41 Echoes of War: Stories from the Big Red One Dr. Kevin Smith interacts with D-Day veterans at the Cantigny First Division Museum

42 Mapping and GIS Historians are making historical maps available online and creating new interactive maps on historical subjects using GIS (Geographic Information System) software: Historians are making historical maps available online and creating new interactive maps on historical subjects using GIS (Geographic Information System) software:

43 Interpretation at Museums and Historic Sites Prof. Mary Theresa Seig, Department of English, who specializes in the analysis of oral discourse, assisted Conner Prairie with creating its award- winning Opening Doors to Great Guest Experiences training resource in Prof. Mary Theresa Seig, Department of English, who specializes in the analysis of oral discourse, assisted Conner Prairie with creating its award- winning Opening Doors to Great Guest Experiences training resource in This initiative transformed the way Conner Prairie interpreters interact with visitors. The park is Indiana's only Smithsonian Institution affiliate, where guests may engage, explore and discover what it was like to live and play in the 19 th century. This initiative transformed the way Conner Prairie interpreters interact with visitors. The park is Indiana's only Smithsonian Institution affiliate, where guests may engage, explore and discover what it was like to live and play in the 19 th century.

44 Opening Doors to Great Guest Experiences

45 Entrepreneurial History Independent historians provide history-related services on a commercial basis: Independent historians provide history-related services on a commercial basis:

46 “Personal History” Personal History is a relatively new term for several well-established historical practices that include genealogy, biography, oral history, and family history. Personal historians offer fee-based services to individuals and families to help them preserve their memories, experiences, and life stories in archivally-based textual and visual formats: Personal History is a relatively new term for several well-established historical practices that include genealogy, biography, oral history, and family history. Personal historians offer fee-based services to individuals and families to help them preserve their memories, experiences, and life stories in archivally-based textual and visual formats:

47 Genealogical Research Professional genealogists utilize a wide variety of archival material, often available in digital formats, to compose biographical accounts of individuals and their ancestry over time: Professional genealogists utilize a wide variety of archival material, often available in digital formats, to compose biographical accounts of individuals and their ancestry over time:

48 Social Networking Websites, Wikis, and Blogs Museums are among the many institutions that are embracing social networking and blogs to stake out a presence on the Internet and attract the attention of young, technologically savvy visitors: Museums are among the many institutions that are embracing social networking and blogs to stake out a presence on the Internet and attract the attention of young, technologically savvy visitors: ory_Workshop_Transcription_Wikihttp://www.library.ohiou.edu/newsblog/?p=1129http://www.firstdivisionmuseum.org/about/mailing_list.aspxhttp://www.bsu.edu/libraries/wiki/index.php?title=HIST_499:_Oral_Hist ory_Workshop_Transcription_Wikihttp://www.library.ohiou.edu/newsblog/?p=1129

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