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HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms, New Tags, New Attributes Doncho Minkov Telerik Academy Web Design Course html5course.telerik.com Technical Trainer

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Presentation on theme: "HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms, New Tags, New Attributes Doncho Minkov Telerik Academy Web Design Course html5course.telerik.com Technical Trainer"— Presentation transcript:

1 HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms, New Tags, New Attributes Doncho Minkov Telerik Academy Web Design Course html5course.telerik.com Technical Trainer

2 1. Introduction to HTML  How the Web Works?  What is a Web Page?  My First HTML Page  Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting  Headings and Paragraphs 2. HTML in Details  The Declaration  The Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style 2

3  The Section  Text Styling and Formatting Tags  Hyperlinks:  Hyperlinks:  Hyperlinks and Sections  Images:  Images:  Lists:, and  Lists:, and  HTML Special Characters 3. The and elements 3

4 4. Introducing to HTML5  Changed old tags  New tags  New Attributes  New Structural Tags 4

5 Before HTML

6  Jaquard’s Loom  First use of binary storage  Punch cards  80 by 12 holes in size  You could store anything  Including a program  1 line = 1 card 6

7  Mainframe computers  Stored program concept  Assembly language  A charming way to program using three letters  Computers were quite expensive, many modern concepts were born:  Job queue / batch mode  Quality assurance  Bugs (found by Grace Hopper) 7

8  Timesharing computers  Shared resources  Teletype machines  Character encoding  ASCII, UNICODE, UTF-8  CRLF  Innovation  File sharing, , distributed computing, chat, games, security 8

9  Editors  Edit, Vi, Emacs …  CRT Displays  On screen editing  Arrow keys instead of H,J,K,L  IBM 3270 – first electronic form like thing  The computer mouse by Doug Engelbart  Miniaturization of computers  New architectures: 8 bit, 16 bit, IBM PC 9

10  Moore’s law  Holds for more than 40 users  Mean more accessible (cheaper) computers  A slowdown (end by some) in hardware (chip) and software (OS) design innovation  On the other hand, programming languages excel and developer like never before  High level languages, not just Assembly  Structured programming 10

11  Challenges before structured languages:  How to do blocks?  They used BEGIN and END  Now we use curly braces {}  Remove GOTO  High level vs. Assembly  It took a generation to figure it out  Meanwhile game consoles were still assembly, so some things were unchanged 11

12  Object oriented programming  Simula, Smaltalk, C++, Java …  The actor model  Graphical User Interface  Hypercard  HC types: stack, image, car, buttons, fields …  Hypertalk powered behaviour  No colors, no links, no colours, little security  Eventually died out 12

13  Initially intelligent typewriters, but eventually becoming pieces of software  Two main types:  Binary – mostly proprietary  Textual – extremely open 13

14  The grandfather of them all  Two types of lines:  A line starting with period (.) is instruction  The rest are text  Instructions could have parameters  Instructions were often cryptic looking 14

15  Similar idea  Colon (:) would be for commands  Period (.) would turn the command off  No display oriented instructions / commands  Just document structure 15

16  Similar idea  Colon (:) would be for commands  Period (.) would turn the command off  No display oriented instructions / commands  Just document structure :h1.Chapter 1: Introduction :p.GML supports hierarchical containers like :ol :li.Ordered lists :li.Unordered lists :eol 16

17  Influenced by Scribe  SGML  Tags instead of commands  An eventually HTML :eol -> ::ol -> :eol -> ::ol -> 17 Hello

18  Intended for simple document viewers  Headings, paragraphs and lists  It was not intended to be the application platform that we use today  Comparison with SGML  A smaller subset  Much simpler  Resilient syntax 18

19  HTML evolved driven by people and browsers  New versions of HTML  Inevitably a doctype  Accompanying technologies  CSS, JavaScript  Plugins like Java, Flash, Silverlight  Rich media and so on… 19

20 Web 101

21  WWW use classical client / server architecture  HTTP is text-based request-response protocol 21 Page request Client running a Web Browser Server running Web Server Software (IIS, Apache, etc.) Server response HTTP HTTP

22  Web pages are text files containing HTML  HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language  A notation for describing  document structure (semantic markup)  formatting (presentation markup)  Looks (looked?) like:  A Microsoft Word document  The markup tags provide information about the page content structure 22

23  An HTML file must have an.htm or.html file extension  HTML files can be created with text editors:  NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad  Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors):  Microsoft FrontPage  Macromedia Dreamweaver  Netscape Composer  Expression Web 23

24 Text, Images, Tables, Forms

25  HTML is comprised of “elements” and “tags”  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with  When writing XHTML, must define a namespace  Elements (tags) are nested one inside another:  Tags have attributes:  HTML describes structure using two main sections: and  HTML describes structure using two main sections: and 25

26  The HTML source code should be formatted to increase readability and facilitate debugging.  Every block element should start on a new line.  Every nested (block) element should be indented.  Browsers ignore multiple whitespaces in the page source, so formatting is harmless.  For performance reasons, formatting can be sacrificed 26

27 27 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... test.html

28 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 28 Opening tag Closing tag An HTML element consists of an opening tag, a closing tag and the content inside.

29 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 29 HTML header

30 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 30 HTML body

31  Hyperlink Tags  Image Tags  Text formatting tags 31 Link to Telerik Web site title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site This text is emphasized. This text is emphasized. new line new line This one is more emphasized. This one is more emphasized.

32 32 Simple Tags Demo Simple Tags Demo This is a link. "Telerik site">This is a link. Bold and italic text. Bold and italic text. some-tags.html

33 33 Simple Tags Demo Simple Tags Demo This is a link. "Telerik site">This is a link. Bold and italic text. Bold and italic text. some-tags.html

34 Live Demo

35  Tags can have attributes  Attributes specify properties and behavior  Example:  Few attributes can apply to every element:  id, style, class, title  The id is unique in the document  Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when the element is hovered with the mouse  Some elements have obligatory attributes 35 Attribute alt with value " logo "

36  Heading Tags (h1 – h6)  Paragraph Tags  Sections: div and span 36 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is a div This is a div

37 37 Headings and paragraphs Headings and paragraphs Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph This is a div This is a div headings.html

38 Headings and paragraphs Headings and paragraphs Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph This is a div This is a div 38 headings.html

39 Live Demo

40 HTML Document Structure in Depth

41  It is important to have the correct vision and attitude towards HTML  HTML is only about structure, not appearance  Browsers tolerate invalid HTML code and parse errors – you should not  Always think about semantics 41

42  HTML documents must start with a document type definition (DTD)  It tells web browsers what type is the served code  Possible versions: HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 (Transitional or Strict), XHTML 1.1, HTML 5  Example:  See for a list of possible doctypes 42

43  XHTML is more strict than HTML  Tags and attribute names must be in lowercase  All tags must be closed (, ) while HTML allows and and implies missing closing tags ( par1 par2 )  XHTML allows only one root element (HTML allows more than one) 43

44  Many element attributes are deprecated in XHTML, most are moved to CSS  Attribute minimization is forbidden, e.g.  Note: Web browsers load XHTML faster than HTML and valid code faster than invalid! 44

45  Contains information that doesn’t show directly on the viewable page  Starts after the declaration  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with  Contains mandatory single tag  Can contain some other tags, e.g.   45

46  Title should be placed between and tags  Used to specify a title in the window titlebar  Search engines and people rely on titles 46 Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010 Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010

47  Meta tags additionally describe the content contained within the page 47

48  The element is used to embed scripts into an HTML document  Script are executed in the client's Web browser  Scripts can live in the and in the sections  Supported client-side scripting languages:  JavaScript (it is not Java!)  VBScript  JScript 48

49 49 JavaScript Example JavaScript Example function sayHello() { function sayHello() { document.write(" Hello World! "); document.write(" Hello World! "); }

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