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HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms, New Tags, New Attributes Doncho Minkov Telerik Academy Web Design Course html5course.telerik.com Technical Trainer

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Presentation on theme: "HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms, New Tags, New Attributes Doncho Minkov Telerik Academy Web Design Course html5course.telerik.com Technical Trainer"— Presentation transcript:

1 HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms, New Tags, New Attributes Doncho Minkov Telerik Academy Web Design Course html5course.telerik.com Technical Trainer http://minkov.it

2 1. Introduction to HTML  How the Web Works?  What is a Web Page?  My First HTML Page  Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting  Headings and Paragraphs 2. HTML in Details  The Declaration  The Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style 2

3  The Section  Text Styling and Formatting Tags  Hyperlinks:  Hyperlinks:  Hyperlinks and Sections  Images:  Images:  Lists:, and  Lists:, and  HTML Special Characters 3. The and elements 3

4 4. Introducing to HTML5  Changed old tags  New tags  New Attributes  New Structural Tags 4

5 Before HTML

6  Jaquard’s Loom  First use of binary storage  Punch cards  80 by 12 holes in size  You could store anything  Including a program  1 line = 1 card 6

7  Mainframe computers  Stored program concept  Assembly language  A charming way to program using three letters  Computers were quite expensive, many modern concepts were born:  Job queue / batch mode  Quality assurance  Bugs (found by Grace Hopper) 7

8  Timesharing computers  Shared resources  Teletype machines  Character encoding  ASCII, UNICODE, UTF-8  CRLF  Innovation  File sharing, email, distributed computing, chat, games, security 8

9  Editors  Edit, Vi, Emacs …  CRT Displays  On screen editing  Arrow keys instead of H,J,K,L  IBM 3270 – first electronic form like thing  The computer mouse by Doug Engelbart  Miniaturization of computers  New architectures: 8 bit, 16 bit, IBM PC 9

10  Moore’s law  Holds for more than 40 users  Mean more accessible (cheaper) computers  A slowdown (end by some) in hardware (chip) and software (OS) design innovation  On the other hand, programming languages excel and developer like never before  High level languages, not just Assembly  Structured programming 10

11  Challenges before structured languages:  How to do blocks?  They used BEGIN and END  Now we use curly braces {}  Remove GOTO  High level vs. Assembly  It took a generation to figure it out  Meanwhile game consoles were still assembly, so some things were unchanged 11

12  Object oriented programming  Simula, Smaltalk, C++, Java …  The actor model  Graphical User Interface  Hypercard  HC types: stack, image, car, buttons, fields …  Hypertalk powered behaviour  No colors, no links, no colours, little security  Eventually died out 12

13  Initially intelligent typewriters, but eventually becoming pieces of software  Two main types:  Binary – mostly proprietary  Textual – extremely open 13

14  The grandfather of them all  Two types of lines:  A line starting with period (.) is instruction  The rest are text  Instructions could have parameters  Instructions were often cryptic looking 14

15  Similar idea  Colon (:) would be for commands  Period (.) would turn the command off  No display oriented instructions / commands  Just document structure 15

16  Similar idea  Colon (:) would be for commands  Period (.) would turn the command off  No display oriented instructions / commands  Just document structure :h1.Chapter 1: Introduction :p.GML supports hierarchical containers like :ol :li.Ordered lists :li.Unordered lists :eol 16

17  Influenced by Scribe  SGML  Tags instead of commands  An eventually HTML :eol -> ::ol -> :eol -> ::ol -> 17 Hello

18  Intended for simple document viewers  Headings, paragraphs and lists  It was not intended to be the application platform that we use today  Comparison with SGML  A smaller subset  Much simpler  Resilient syntax 18

19  HTML evolved driven by people and browsers  New versions of HTML  Inevitably a doctype  Accompanying technologies  CSS, JavaScript  Plugins like Java, Flash, Silverlight  Rich media and so on… 19

20 Web 101

21  WWW use classical client / server architecture  HTTP is text-based request-response protocol 21 Page request Client running a Web Browser Server running Web Server Software (IIS, Apache, etc.) Server response HTTP HTTP

22  Web pages are text files containing HTML  HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language  A notation for describing  document structure (semantic markup)  formatting (presentation markup)  Looks (looked?) like:  A Microsoft Word document  The markup tags provide information about the page content structure 22

23  An HTML file must have an.htm or.html file extension  HTML files can be created with text editors:  NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad  Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors):  Microsoft FrontPage  Macromedia Dreamweaver  Netscape Composer  Expression Web 23

24 Text, Images, Tables, Forms

25  HTML is comprised of “elements” and “tags”  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with  When writing XHTML, must define a namespace  Elements (tags) are nested one inside another:  Tags have attributes:  HTML describes structure using two main sections: and  HTML describes structure using two main sections: and 25

26  The HTML source code should be formatted to increase readability and facilitate debugging.  Every block element should start on a new line.  Every nested (block) element should be indented.  Browsers ignore multiple whitespaces in the page source, so formatting is harmless.  For performance reasons, formatting can be sacrificed 26

27 27 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... test.html

28 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 28 Opening tag Closing tag An HTML element consists of an opening tag, a closing tag and the content inside.

29 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 29 HTML header

30 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 30 HTML body

31  Hyperlink Tags  Image Tags  Text formatting tags 31 Link to Telerik Web site title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site This text is emphasized. This text is emphasized. new line new line This one is more emphasized. This one is more emphasized.

32 32 Simple Tags Demo Simple Tags Demo This is a link. "Telerik site">This is a link. Bold and italic text. Bold and italic text. some-tags.html

33 33 Simple Tags Demo Simple Tags Demo This is a link. "Telerik site">This is a link. Bold and italic text. Bold and italic text. some-tags.html

34 Live Demo

35  Tags can have attributes  Attributes specify properties and behavior  Example:  Few attributes can apply to every element:  id, style, class, title  The id is unique in the document  Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when the element is hovered with the mouse  Some elements have obligatory attributes 35 Attribute alt with value " logo "

36  Heading Tags (h1 – h6)  Paragraph Tags  Sections: div and span 36 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is a div This is a div

37 37 Headings and paragraphs Headings and paragraphs Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph This is a div This is a div headings.html

38 Headings and paragraphs Headings and paragraphs Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph This is a div This is a div 38 headings.html

39 Live Demo

40 HTML Document Structure in Depth

41  It is important to have the correct vision and attitude towards HTML  HTML is only about structure, not appearance  Browsers tolerate invalid HTML code and parse errors – you should not  Always think about semantics 41

42  HTML documents must start with a document type definition (DTD)  It tells web browsers what type is the served code  Possible versions: HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 (Transitional or Strict), XHTML 1.1, HTML 5  Example:  See http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html for a list of possible doctypes http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html 42

43  XHTML is more strict than HTML  Tags and attribute names must be in lowercase  All tags must be closed (, ) while HTML allows and and implies missing closing tags ( par1 par2 )  XHTML allows only one root element (HTML allows more than one) 43

44  Many element attributes are deprecated in XHTML, most are moved to CSS  Attribute minimization is forbidden, e.g.  Note: Web browsers load XHTML faster than HTML and valid code faster than invalid! 44

45  Contains information that doesn’t show directly on the viewable page  Starts after the declaration  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with  Contains mandatory single tag  Can contain some other tags, e.g.   45

46  Title should be placed between and tags  Used to specify a title in the window titlebar  Search engines and people rely on titles 46 Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010 Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010

47  Meta tags additionally describe the content contained within the page 47

48  The element is used to embed scripts into an HTML document  Script are executed in the client's Web browser  Scripts can live in the and in the sections  Supported client-side scripting languages:  JavaScript (it is not Java!)  VBScript  JScript 48

49 49 JavaScript Example JavaScript Example function sayHello() { function sayHello() { document.write(" Hello World! "); document.write(" Hello World! "); }

50 Live Demo

51  The element embeds formatting information (CSS styles) into an HTML page 51 p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; } p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; } span { text-transform: uppercase; } span { text-transform: uppercase; } Styles demo. Styles demo. Test uppercase. Test uppercase. style-example.html

52 Live Demo

53  Comments can exist anywhere between the tags  Comments start with  Comments start with 53 Telerik Telerik...

54  The section describes the viewable portion of the page  Starts after the section  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with 54 Test page Test page

55  Text formatting tags modify the text between the opening tag and the closing tag  Ex. Hello makes “Hello” bold bold italicized underlined Sample superscript Sample subscript strong emphasized Preformatted text Quoted text block Deleted text – strike through 55

56 56 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Page Title Page Title Notice Notice This is a sample Web page. This is a sample Web page. Next paragraph: Next paragraph: preformatted. preformatted. More Info More Info Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Next line. Next line. text-formatting.html

57 57 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Page Title Page Title Notice Notice This is a sample Web page. This is a sample Web page. Next paragraph: Next paragraph: preformatted. preformatted. More Info More Info Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Next line. Next line. text-formatting.html

58 Live Demo

59  Link to a document called form.html on the same server in the same directory:  Link to a document called parent.html on the same server in the parent directory:  Link to a document called cat.html on the same server in the subdirectory stuff : 59 Fill Our Form Fill Our Form Parent Parent Catalog Catalog

60  Link to an external Web site:  Always use a full URL, including " http:// ", not just " www.somesite.com "  Using the target="_blank" attribute opens the link in a new window  Link to an e-mail address: 60 BASD BASD Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)

61  Link to a document called apply-now.html  On the same server, in same directory  Using an image as a link button:  Link to a document called index.html  On the same server, in the subdirectory english of the parent directory: 61 src="apply-now-button.jpg" /> Switch to English version Switch to English version

62  Link to another location in the same document:  Link to a specific location in another document: 62 Go to Introduction Go to Introduction... Introduction Introduction Go to Section 3.1.1 Go to Section 3.1.1... 3.1.1. Technical Background 3.1.1. Technical Background


63 63 Fill Our Form Fill Our Form Parent Parent Catalog Catalog BASD BASD Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Switch to English version Switch to English version hyperlinks.html

64 Fill Our Form Fill Our Form Parent Parent Catalog Catalog BASD BASD Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Switch to English version Switch to English version hyperlinks.html 64

65 Live Demo

66 66 Table of Contents Table of Contents Introduction Introduction Some background Some background Project History Project History...the rest of the table of contents... Introduction Introduction... Section 1 follows here... Some background Some background... Section 2 follows here... Project History Project History... Section 2.1 follows here... links-to-same-document.html

67 67 Table of Contents Table of Contents Introduction Introduction Some background Some background Project History Project History...the rest of the table of contents... Introduction Introduction... Section 1 follows here... Some background Some background... Section 2 follows here... Project History Project History... Section 2.1 follows here... links-to-same-document.html

68 Live Demo

69  Inserting an image with tag:  Image attributes:  Example: src Location of image file (relative or absolute) alt Substitute text for display (e.g. in text mode) height Number of pixels of the height width Number of pixels of the width border Size of border, 0 for no border 69

70  : Draws a horizontal rule (line):  : Deprecated! 70 Hello World! Hello World! Font3 Font3 Font+4 Font+4

71 71 Miscellaneous Tags Example Miscellaneous Tags Example Hello World! Hello World! Font3 Font3 Font+4 Font+4 misc.html

72 Live Demo

73 a.Apple b.Orange c.Grapefruit  Create an Ordered List using :  Attribute values for type are 1, A, a, I, or i 73 1.Apple 2.Orange 3.Grapefruit A.Apple B.Orange C.Grapefruit I.Apple II.Orange III.Grapefruit i.Apple ii.Orange iii.Grapefruit Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit

74  Create an Unordered List using :  Attribute values for type are:  disc, circle or square 74 Apple Orange Pear o Apple o Orange o Pear  Apple  Orange  Pear Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit

75  Create definition lists using  Create definition lists using  Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in tag, definition in tag  Renders without bullets  Definition is indented 75

HTML
A markup language … A markup language …
CSS
Language used to … Language used to …

76 76 Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit

HTML HTML A markup lang… A markup lang…
lists.html

77 Live Demo

78 ££ British Pound €€Euro "" Quotation Mark ¥¥ Japanese Yen —— Em Dash Non-breaking Space &&Ampersand >> Greater Than << Less Than ™™ Trademark Sign ®® Registered Trademark Sign ©© Copyright Sign Symbol HTML Entity Symbol Name 78

79 79

[>> Welcome <<] <<] ►I have following cards: ►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥. A♣, K♦ and 9♥. ►I prefer hard rock ♫ ►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫ music ♫ © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team Telerik Academy™ Telerik Academy™ special-chars.html

80 80

[>> Welcome <<] <<] ►I have following cards: ►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥. A♣, K♦ and 9♥. ►I prefer hard rock ♫ ►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫ music ♫ © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team Telerik Academy™ Telerik Academy™ special-chars.html

81 Live Demo

82

83  Block elements add a line break before and after them, and expand to 100% width ,,, are block elements  Inline elements don’t break the text before and after them ,, are inline elements  http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/visuren.html#blo ck-boxes http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/visuren.html#blo ck-boxes http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/visuren.html#blo ck-boxes 83

84  creates logical divisions within a page  Block style element  Used with CSS  Example: 84 DIV example DIV example This one is only a test. This one is only a test. div-and-span.html

85 Live Demo

86  Inline style element  Useful for modifying a specific portion of text  Don't create a separate area (paragraph) in the document  Makes sense only with some CSS 86 This one is only a test. This one is only a test. This one is another TEST. This one is another TEST. span.html

87 Live Demo

88  http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/index/elements. html http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/index/elements. html http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/index/elements. html  http://www.htmldog.com/reference/htmltags/ http://www.htmldog.com/reference/htmltags/ 88

89 What the … is HTML 5?

90  HTML5 – the next major revision of the HTML  Currently under development  Far away from final version  Developed under the HTML 5 working group of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 2007  First Public Working Draft of the specification  January 22, 2008  Parts of HTML5 are being implemented in browsers before the whole specification is ready 90

91  1991 – HTML first mentioned – Tim Berners-Lee – HTML tags  1993 – HTML (first public version, published at IETF)  1993 – HTML 2 draft  1995 – HTML 2 – W3C  1995 – HTML 3 draft  1997 – HTML 3.2 – “Wilbur”  1997 – HTML 4 – ”Cougar” – CSS  1999 – HTML 4.01 (final)  2000 – XHTML draft  2001 – XHTML (final)  2008 – HTML5 / XHTML5 draft  2011 – feature complete HTML5  2022 – HTML5 – final specification 91

92  Latest version is HTML5  Aimed to have all of the power of native applications  Run on any platform (Windows, Linux, iPhone, Android, etc.)  New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM and JavaScript  Reduce the need for external plugins  Better error handling  More markup to replace scripting 92

93 What a Designer Should Know?

94  Doctype tag:  HTML tag:  Meta tag:  Link tag:

95  Better layout structure: new structural elements  


98 First Paragraph First Paragraph

Some text Some text
Done by Doncho Minkov, (c) 2011, Telerik Academy Done by Doncho Minkov, (c) 2011, Telerik Academy

99 Live Demo

100    For external content, like text from a news-article, blog, forum, or any other external source    For content aside from (but related to) the content it is placed in    For describing details about a document, or parts of a document    A caption, or summary, inside the details element

101    For text that should be highlighted    For a section of navigation    For a section in a document (e.g. chapters, headers, footers)    Word break. For defining an appropriate place to break a long word or sentence  Other tags ,,,, etc.

102  Media Tags    Attributes: autoplay, controls, loop, src    Attributes: autoplay, controls, loop, height, width, src Audio tag is not supported Audio tag is not supported

103 Live Demo

104    Defines embedded content, such as a plug-in  Attributes  src="url", type="type"

105  New attributes AttributeDescriptionAutocomplete ON / OFF. In case of “ on ”, the browser stores the value, auto fill when the user visits the same form next time Autofocus Autofocus. Input field is focused on page load Required Required. Mandates input field value for the form submit action Draggable True / false indicates if the element is draggable or not

106  New type(s) AttributeDescriptionNumber/Range Restricts users to enter only numbers. Additional attributes min, max and step and value can convert the input to a slider control or a spin box date, month, week, time, date + time, and date + time - time zone Providers a date picker interface. Email Input type for Email Addresses URL Input field for URL address Telephone Input type for Telephone number

107 Questions? http://academy.telerik.com

108 1. Write an HTML page like the following: * Use headings and divs 108

109 2. Write an HTML page like the following: 3. Write an HTML page looking like the PNG file named 3.Introduction.PNG. Using the tag add anchors to the corresponding sections in the same page. 109

110 4. Create an user profile Web page Profile.html, friends page named Friends.html and info page named Info.html. Link them to one another using tag 110

111 111 5. Create a Web site like the following: See the image InetJava-site.png.


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