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HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms Svetlin Nakov Telerik Corporation www.telerik.com.

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Presentation on theme: "HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms Svetlin Nakov Telerik Corporation www.telerik.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms Svetlin Nakov Telerik Corporation www.telerik.com

2 1. Introduction to HTML  How the Web Works?  What is a Web Page?  My First HTML Page  Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting  Headings and Paragraphs 2. HTML in Details  The Declaration  The Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style 2

3  The Section  Text Styling and Formatting Tags  Hyperlinks:  Hyperlinks:  Hyperlinks and Sections  Images:  Images:  Lists:, and  Lists:, and  HTML Special Characters 3. The and elements 3

4  WWW use classical client / server architecture  HTTP is text-based request-response protocol 4 Page request Client running a Web Browser Server running Web Server Software (IIS, Apache, etc.) Server response HTTP HTTP

5  Web pages are text files containing HTML  HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language  A notation for describing  document structure (semantic markup)  formatting (presentation markup)  Looks (looked?) like:  A Microsoft Word document  The markup tags provide information about the page content structure 5

6  An HTML file must have an.htm or.html file extension  HTML files can be created with text editors:  NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad  Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors):  Microsoft FrontPage  Macromedia Dreamweaver  Netscape Composer  Microsoft Word 6

7 Text, Images, Tables, Forms

8  HTML is comprised of “elements” and “tags”  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with  When writing XHTML, must define a namespace  Elements (tags) are nested one inside another:  Tags have attributes:  HTML describes structure using two main sections: and  HTML describes structure using two main sections: and 8

9  The HTML source code should be formatted to increase readability and facilitate debugging.  Every block element should start on a new line.  Every nested (block) element should be indented.  Browsers ignore multiple whitespaces in the page source, so formatting is harmless.  For performance reasons, formatting can be sacrificed. 9

10 10 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... test.html

11 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 11 Opening tag Closing tag An HTML element consists of an opening tag, a closing tag and the content inside.

12 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 12 HTML header

13 My First HTML Page My First HTML Page This is some text... This is some text... 13 HTML body

14  Hyperlink Tags  Image Tags  Text formatting tags 14 Link to Telerik Web site title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site This text is emphasized. This text is emphasized. new line new line This one is more emphasized. This one is more emphasized.

15 15 Simple Tags Demo Simple Tags Demo This is a link. "Telerik site">This is a link. Bold and italic text. Bold and italic text. some-tags.html

16 16 Simple Tags Demo Simple Tags Demo This is a link. "Telerik site">This is a link. Bold and italic text. Bold and italic text. some-tags.html

17 Live Demo

18  Tags can have attributes  Attributes specify properties and behavior  Example:  Few attributes can apply to every element:  id, style, class, title  The id is unique in the document  Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when the element is hovered with the mouse  Some elements have obligatory attributes 18 Attribute alt with value " logo "

19  Heading Tags (h1 – h6)  Paragraph Tags  Sections: div and span 19 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is a div This is a div

20 20 Headings and paragraphs Headings and paragraphs Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph This is a div This is a div headings.html

21 Headings and paragraphs Headings and paragraphs Heading 1 Heading 1 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 2 Sub heading 3 Sub heading 3 This is my first paragraph This is my first paragraph This is my second paragraph This is my second paragraph This is a div This is a div 21 headings.html

22 Live Demo

23 HTML Document Structure in Depth

24  It is important to have the correct vision and attitude towards HTML  HTML is only about structure, not appearance  Browsers tolerate invalid HTML code and parse errors – you should not. 24

25  HTML documents must start with a document type definition (DTD)  It tells web browsers what type is the served code  Possible versions: HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 (Transitional or Strict), XHTML 1.1, HTML 5  Example:  See http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html for a list of possible doctypes http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html 25

26  XHTML is more strict than HTML  Tags and attribute names must be in lowercase  All tags must be closed (, ) while HTML allows and and implies missing closing tags ( par1 par2 )  XHTML allows only one root element (HTML allows more than one) 26

27  Many element attributes are deprecated in XHTML, most are moved to CSS  Attribute minimization is forbidden, e.g.  Note: Web browsers load XHTML faster than HTML and valid code faster than invalid! 27

28  Contains information that doesn’t show directly on the viewable page  Starts after the declaration  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with  Contains mandatory single tag  Can contain some other tags, e.g.   28

29  Title should be placed between and tags  Used to specify a title in the window titlebar  Search engines and people rely on titles 29 Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010 Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010

30  Meta tags additionally describe the content contained within the page 30

31  The element is used to embed scripts into an HTML document  Script are executed in the client's Web browser  Scripts can live in the and in the sections  Supported client-side scripting languages:  JavaScript (it is not Java!)  VBScript  JScript 31

32 32 JavaScript Example JavaScript Example function sayHello() { function sayHello() { document.write(" Hello World! "); document.write(" Hello World! "); }

33 Live Demo

34  The element embeds formatting information (CSS styles) into an HTML page 34 p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; } p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; } span { text-transform: uppercase; } span { text-transform: uppercase; } Styles demo. Styles demo. Test uppercase. Test uppercase. style-example.html

35 Live Demo

36  Comments can exist anywhere between the tags  Comments start with  Comments start with 36 Telerik Telerik...

37  The section describes the viewable portion of the page  Starts after the section  Begins with and ends with  Begins with and ends with 37 Test page Test page

38  Text formatting tags modify the text between the opening tag and the closing tag  Ex. Hello makes “Hello” bold bold italicized underlined Sample superscript Sample subscript strong emphasized Preformatted text Quoted text block Deleted text – strike through 38

39 39 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Page Title Page Title Notice Notice This is a sample Web page. This is a sample Web page. Next paragraph: Next paragraph: preformatted. preformatted. More Info More Info Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Next line. Next line. text-formatting.html

40 40 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Page Title Page Title Notice Notice This is a sample Web page. This is a sample Web page. Next paragraph: Next paragraph: preformatted. preformatted. More Info More Info Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional. Next line. Next line. text-formatting.html

41 Live Demo

42  Link to a document called form.html on the same server in the same directory:  Link to a document called parent.html on the same server in the parent directory:  Link to a document called cat.html on the same server in the subdirectory stuff : 42 Fill Our Form Fill Our Form Parent Parent Catalog Catalog

43  Link to an external Web site:  Always use a full URL, including " http:// ", not just " www.somesite.com "  Using the target="_blank" attribute opens the link in a new window  Link to an e-mail address: 43 BASD BASD Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)

44  Link to a document called apply-now.html  On the same server, in same directory  Using an image as a link button:  Link to a document called index.html  On the same server, in the subdirectory english of the parent directory: 44 src="apply-now-button.jpg" /> Switch to English version Switch to English version

45  Link to another location in the same document:  Link to a specific location in another document: 45 Go to Introduction Go to Introduction... Introduction Introduction Go to Section 3.1.1 Go to Section 3.1.1... 3.1.1. Technical Background 3.1.1. Technical Background


46 46 Fill Our Form Fill Our Form Parent Parent Catalog Catalog BASD BASD Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Switch to English version Switch to English version hyperlinks.html

47 Fill Our Form Fill Our Form Parent Parent Catalog Catalog BASD BASD Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Please report bugs here (by e-mail only) Switch to English version Switch to English version hyperlinks.html 47

48 Live Demo

49 49 Table of Contents Table of Contents Introduction Introduction Some background Some background Project History Project History...the rest of the table of contents... Introduction Introduction... Section 1 follows here... Some background Some background... Section 2 follows here... Project History Project History... Section 2.1 follows here... links-to-same-document.html

50 50 Table of Contents Table of Contents Introduction Introduction Some background Some background Project History Project History...the rest of the table of contents... Introduction Introduction... Section 1 follows here... Some background Some background... Section 2 follows here... Project History Project History... Section 2.1 follows here... links-to-same-document.html

51 Live Demo

52  Inserting an image with tag:  Image attributes:  Example: src Location of image file (relative or absolute) alt Substitute text for display (e.g. in text mode) height Number of pixels of the height width Number of pixels of the width border Size of border, 0 for no border 52

53  : Draws a horizontal rule (line):  : Deprecated! 53 Hello World! Hello World! Font3 Font3 Font+4 Font+4

54 54 Miscellaneous Tags Example Miscellaneous Tags Example Hello World! Hello World! Font3 Font3 Font+4 Font+4 misc.html

55 Live Demo

56 a.Apple b.Orange c.Grapefruit  Create an Ordered List using :  Attribute values for type are 1, A, a, I, or i 56 1.Apple 2.Orange 3.Grapefruit A.Apple B.Orange C.Grapefruit I.Apple II.Orange III.Grapefruit i.Apple ii.Orange iii.Grapefruit Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit

57  Create an Unordered List using :  Attribute values for type are:  disc, circle or square 57 Apple Orange Pear o Apple o Orange o Pear  Apple  Orange  Pear Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit

58  Create definition lists using  Create definition lists using  Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in tag, definition in tag  Renders without bullets  Definition is indented 58

HTML
A markup language … A markup language …
CSS
Language used to … Language used to …

59 59 Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit Apple Apple Orange Orange Grapefruit Grapefruit

HTML HTML A markup lang… A markup lang…
lists.html

60 Live Demo

61 ££ British Pound €€Euro "" Quotation Mark ¥¥ Japanese Yen —— Em Dash Non-breaking Space &&Ampersand >> Greater Than << Less Than ™™ Trademark Sign ®® Registered Trademark Sign ©© Copyright Sign Symbol HTML Entity Symbol Name 61

62 62

[>> Welcome <<] <<] ►I have following cards: ►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥. A♣, K♦ and 9♥. ►I prefer hard rock ♫ ►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫ music ♫ © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team Telerik Academy™ Telerik Academy™ special-chars.html

63 63

[>> Welcome <<] <<] ►I have following cards: ►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥. A♣, K♦ and 9♥. ►I prefer hard rock ♫ ►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫ music ♫ © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team © 2006 by Svetlin Nakov & his team Telerik Academy™ Telerik Academy™ special-chars.html

64 Live Demo

65

66  Block elements add a line break before and after them  is a block element  Other block elements are,, headings, lists, and etc.  Inline elements don’t break the text before and after them  is an inline element  Most HTML elements are inline, e.g.  Most HTML elements are inline, e.g. 66

67  creates logical divisions within a page  Block style element  Used with CSS  Example: 67 DIV example DIV example This one is only a test. This one is only a test. div-and-span.html

68 Live Demo

69  Inline style element  Useful for modifying a specific portion of text  Don't create a separate area (paragraph) in the document  Very useful with CSS 69 This one is only a test. This one is only a test. This one is another TEST. This one is another TEST. span.html

70 Live Demo

71 Questions? http://academy.telerik.com

72 1. Write an HTML page like the following: * Use headings and divs 72

73 2. Write an HTML page like the following: 3. Write an HTML page looking like the PNG file named 3.Introduction.PNG. Using the tag add anchors to the corresponding sections in the same page. 73

74 4. Create an user profile Web page Profile.html, friends page named Friends.html and info page named Info.html. Link them to one another using tag. 74

75 75 5. Create a Web site like the following: See the image InetJava-site.png.


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