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Brain Trust Chapters 19 - 21. Chapter 19 The Monitors.

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Trust Chapters 19 - 21. Chapter 19 The Monitors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain Trust Chapters

2 Chapter 19 The Monitors

3 1964: Gaylord Hartsough provided evidence of a scrapie-like disease in cows at a NIH conference Late 1960s: Ranchers began finding their cattle dead with their organs surgically removed Occurred in 15 states including South Dakota, Montana, New Mexico and Texas Correlation between the spread of CWD and the number of reports of mutilated cattle in Colorado and Wyoming 1974: A mutilated buck deer was found with removed sex organs 85 miles south of Twin Cities, Minnesota

4 1975: Governor Richard D. Lamm of Colorado called the mass mutilations “one of the greatest outrages in the history of the western cattle industry” and the press began to take notice Rewards for $10,000+ were offered for information leading to the mutilators and their potential arrest 1980s: A series of investigations were launched but nobody was caught or charged The idea became a joking matter due to media hype and the idea that aliens in UFOs were responsible for the mutilations

5 Cow Mutilations The most common organs that were found missing were the reproductive organs, anus/large intestine, eye and tongue This makes sense because when a cow ingests contaminated feed, the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and then internal organs become prion-infected A study in January 2003 showed high levels of prions in hamster tongues after initial prion infection Prions can accumulate in the lens of the eyes of CJD patients Also, the prion disease could be spread to offspring and the area surrounding the site of childbirth

6 Evidence Kelleher discovered formaldehyde in the eye of a mutilated cow, which could be used to prevent local wildlife from eating the infected tissue of the mutilated cows Tranquilizers and sedative chemicals (oxindole, ketamine and succinylcholine) were also found, most likely to immobilize and euthanize the cows Succinylcholine is especially hard to find because its byproducts resemble normal bodily byproducts In a case 20 miles from Great Falls, Minnesota, a large- gauge needle was found under a carcass Could have been used to drain the entire cow in 30 minutes

7 Potential Explanations Veterinarians often explained the cause of mutilations as “predators and scavengers” Kelleher predicts that the mutilations were a technique for tracking an infected organism and monitoring its spread via helicopter This technique was used in 1993 when anthrax was causing high wildlife mortality rates Ranchers suggest their cows are lifted into the aircraft and then returned after the mutilation Who do you think is responsible for the mutilations and why are they so secretive? Is this a good technique?

8 Chapter 20 Hot Zone

9 Canada May 2003: The provincial government of Alberta released a news report about the quarantine of an Alberta farm for an investigation of a BSE case Still encourage people to consume beef The United States appeared to have shut out Canadian beef Secretly allowed the importation of millions of tons of Canadian beef while telling the American public otherwise How did the government’s response to the BSE case in Alberta affect other ranchers? Do you think there was really only one case?

10 The BSE-positive cow was traced back to Saskatchewan where potentially CWD-infected elk could have entered the cow feed Scrapie-positive sheep along with nine cases of CWD in elk were found in the same area between 1996 and 2003 Alberta and Saskatchewan were also subject to several cattle mutilations in 1979 and a man died from CJD Are the three separate outbreaks of prion disease a coincidence or are they connected?

11 Chapter 21 U.S. Mad Cow

12 December 2003: The first official case of mad cow disease in the US was announced in Washington State USDA announced that the cow was from Canada Mad mink inoculations from the 1990s occurred 12 miles from the location of this case USDA recalled beef in many western states and announced restrictions regarding the contents of ground beef A 2003 USDA survey found that 35% of randomly sampled ground beef contained “unacceptable level of brain tissue” Richard Marsh and other BSE experts were finally given credit and taken seriously

13 FDA announced that they would work to close three loopholes created by the USDA regarding feeding cattle to other cattle: Feeding poultry excrement to cattle since poultry feed includes cattle remains Feeding restaurant waste including beef to cattle Feeding cattle and sheep blood to cattle and calves to bulk them The FDAs proposal never reached the Federal Register so no regulation to fill the loopholes ever actually took place until summer of 2004 NVSL, a central testing facility in Ames, Iowa was relocated due to limited security and close proximity to other businesses

14 Falsified Records? USDA position stated that the cow was killed for being a downer and follow up inspections discovered BSE Dave Louthan and three other witnesses say the cow could walk and appeared healthy on the day of slaughter What do you think is the truth? What motive does the lying party have to falsify the information?

15 The USDA and the cattle industry continue to tell Americans that eating beef is safe

16 The USDA announces that it would test 120,000 of the nation’s slaughtered animals Meanwhile, 58 countries refused American beef, especially Japan who tested 100% of the cows that the public ate The USDA refused to allow Creekstone Farms Premium Beef of Kentucky to test every cow because that would not be “scientifically warranted” Why do you think the government refused such a precautionary measure?

17 The USDA announces that it would test 120,000 of the nation’s slaughtered animals Meanwhile, 58 countries refused American beef, especially Japan who tested 100% of the cows that the public ate The USDA refused to allow Creekstone Farms Premium Beef of Kentucky to test every cow because that would not be “scientifically warranted” Why do you think the government refused such a precautionary measure?

18 May 2004: A second mad cow case popped up in Texas but the USDA quickly covered it up A downer cow that was “unfit for human consumption” was sent to a rendering plant Led to an investigation of the USDA that found that only 3 of the 350,000 cattle that had been slaughtered at Lone Star Beef facility between 2002 and 2003 were actually tested for BSE June 2004: USDA initiated a plan to implement a 4-hour rapid screening test on 220,000 downer cows in 18 months 2 animals tested BSE-positive but the IHC “gold standard” assay reported these animals negative Meanwhile, an unnoticed epidemic in the 1980s affecting an estimated 50,000 cows was discovered to have occurred in France and a 7 th person died of variant CJD


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