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The Cold War’s End Leaders, Policies, and Life After the Cuban Missile Crisis.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War’s End Leaders, Policies, and Life After the Cuban Missile Crisis."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War’s End Leaders, Policies, and Life After the Cuban Missile Crisis

2 After Cuban Missile Crisis  “Hot-line” established, linking the US and USSR governments directly  Test-Ban Treaty (1963) – US, USSR, and Britain halted all nuclear testing above ground, in atmosphere and under water  1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty – states agree not to seek nuclear weapons or help others obtain them. 137 nations sign this

3 Détente  Need for a lessoning of tensions  SALT Agreements – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks  Both sides enter the 1970s saying they will do anything possible for détente

4 Chernobyl  1986 a nuclear power plant accident occurred in the Soviet Union  31 deaths, many others exposed to radiation (by 1990’s 6-8,000 people die of radiation related illnesses)  Need to prevent irresponsible development of nuclear energy

5 Khrushchev  After Cuban Missile Crisis Khrushchev lost prestige  Soviet leaders voted to have Khrushchev removed from power in 1964  Same day China exploded its first A-Bomb  Replaced by Leonid Brezhnev

6 Brezhnev  Policies to end domestic dissent  Government censors control what is published  No more freedom of speech or worship  Dissidents are removed and expelled from the country

7 1968 Prague Spring Czechoslovakia  What kind of reforms were created?  What do you think Soviet response would be?  y_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active y_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active y_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

8  Prague Spring ends with Soviet invasion  Many reforms that pushed for more democratic society are reversed  Soviet troops occupy the country to keep control  The USSR has the power to stop communist parties from losing power in any satellite states

9 Brezhnev Doctrine  Any member of the satellite countries who tried to turn away from Soviet control and Communism would be dealt with harshly and forcefully  Once you are communist, you can’t turn back!  See Doctrine…

10 Poland  Corrupt leaders in govt. and rising food prices lead to riots and strikes  Workers form a union called Solidarity in 1980  1 st independent trade union in USSR history  1981: Polish communist leader plans to establish Martial Law, (backed by USSR)  Take Solidarity’s right to exist away and arrest leaders

11 1979 Invasion  Brezhnev ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to support an unpopular Communist regime  Moscow Olympics are boycotted by US in 1980 in response

12 Gorbachev  Brezhnev dies 1982 and his first two successors die within 3 years.  In 1985 a young, educated Gorbachev is elected by Communist leaders to take over as general secretary  His reforms would both help the Soviet Union and lead to its downfall

13 Gorbachev’s Policies  Glasnost, or openness, encouraged Soviet citizens to discuss ways to revitalize their society, could criticize the government  Perestroika, economic restructuring meant to rejuvenate the Soviet economy  Demokratizatsiya – democratization of system

14 Glasnost  Religious freedom is permitted  Dissidents are released  Relaxed control of literature and arts  Encouraged public debate on issues  Reporters actively investigated stories and exposed even some govt. officials for corruption

15 Perestroika  Lessen govt. control of businesses  Some small businesses could be privately owned  Managers have more control over their farms and factories

16 Demokratizatsiya  Election of new legislature – Voters actually get to vote on Communist party candidates (previously they only ratified those chosen by party leaders)  Allowed political parties in addition to the Communist Party  Encouraged political debate  Boris Yeltsin elected, he became a rival of Gorbachev’s later as he moved to have the Communist system done away with for total reform

17 Reagan  Elected 1980  1983: Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars) – 30 billion spent with no results  Massive military spending in an attempt to tip the balance of power

18 Intermediate Nuclear Forces  Gorbachev and Reagan sign the INF Treaty banning nuclear missiles with ranges of 300-3,400 miles  Gorbachev also withdraws troops from Afghanistan in 89’  Encourages Eastern bloc leaders to try new policies to stimulate their economies, making them less dependent on Soviet aid

19 August Coup – The End of the USSR  Hardliners try to overthrow Gorbachev, (short-lived)  Protesters rally at the Russian parliament building, led by Yeltsin  Military leaders refused to attack  Coup failed, but citizens were enraged at Communist party  Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary that Christmas

20 Eastern Republics  After failed coup, Latvia, Estonia and other Baltic states declare their independence  By December 1991, all 15 Republics of the former Soviet bloc were independent  Yeltsin took power in Russia – 1 st elected General Secretary of USSR and then 1 st President of Russia

21 Commonwealth of Independent Nations  Yeltsin helped to form the Commonwealth of Independent States  Symbolic organization, possessing coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security

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