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How does analysing characters, setting and plot elements in Chinese and Mexican folktales promote cultural awareness, self- esteem and ESL/Literacy development.

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Presentation on theme: "How does analysing characters, setting and plot elements in Chinese and Mexican folktales promote cultural awareness, self- esteem and ESL/Literacy development."— Presentation transcript:

1 How does analysing characters, setting and plot elements in Chinese and Mexican folktales promote cultural awareness, self- esteem and ESL/Literacy development in the classroom environment? Sandy Madeira Judy Sadd EDUC 553 October, 2011

2 Outline for Presentation Personal Reason for choice of Topic Professional reasons for choice of topic Definitions What is a Folktale? – Types of Folktales – Literary Elements of a folktale Folktales & Language Learning China Iraq Self-esteem Self-esteem Research Cultural Awareness Case study discussions – Yeh-Shen – The Golden Sandal Summary Classroom Uses

3 Personal Choices for Research Topic Judy – My preference for teaching any lesson is to incorporate a good book or story – therefore using folktales to incorporate cultural awareness us a natural selection for me.

4 Personal Choices for Research Topic Sandy: – Some of my fondest memories are of my mother reading fairy tales to me. We had a well-used copy of Grimm’s Fairy Tales that she would read from. – Fairy tales are still some of my favorite stories. When I read a fairy tale I feel it in my heart. I always have a copy of Grimm’s Fairy Tales in my classroom and my home.

5 Professional Reasons for Choice of Topic Folktales are a way of connecting with all students in the classroom. Every culture has folktales which have been passed down, so it is something all students can participate in. Students of all ages enjoy folktales. Academic activities revolving around a folktale can be adapted for all ages and ability levels.

6 Research Reason for Choosing Folktales “…about 99 percent of teaching is making students feel interested in the material.” -Noam Chomsky, Language and Problems of Knowing Quoted in Langer de Ramirez Although it is ages old, it is up to date with current ELT methodology and theory. (Pedersen, 1993)

7 Definitions Folklore – “the traditional stories, customs, and habits of a particular community or nation” (Sinclair, 2005, p. 268). Folktales: a traditional story or legend handed down from generation to generation usually by oral retelling.

8 Types of Folktales (Olson, 2010). Cautionary tales Trickster tales Proverbs Riddles Morality tales Fairy tales Romantic tales Magical tales Humorous tales Religious tales (Olson, 2010).

9 What is a folktale? Traditional story attempts to explain or understand the world. Orally passed down through the generations. Feature morals or lessons – Mirror the values and culture of the society where they originated. No identified author. Originally written for adults – now enjoyed by nearly everyone.

10 Literary Elements of a Folktale Setting – – Usually takes place long ago – no specific time period. – No distinct place – dependent on the culture. and are. Characters – Usually a hero or heroine who exhibits goodness or wisdom. – Usually an antagonist or villain who exhibits evil qualities or attempts to trick the protagonist. – Talking animals and mythical creatures. Plot – – Usually revolves around a moral or lesson. – Events lead up a final triumph for the hero & heroine and a comeuppance for the villain or trickster.

11 Folktales & Language Learning Students are most successful when: – reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking develop in an integrated manner (Au, 1998, quoted in Watts– Taffe and Truscott, 2000); – language and thought are socially constructed (Vygotsky, 1987 quoted in Watts– Taffee and Truscott, 2000); – language learning proceeds best when children use language for meaningful purposes ( Au, 1998, quoted in Watts– Taffee and Truscott, 2000); – what constitutes meaningful language use is influenced by an individual’s prior experience, culture, motivation, and goals (Delpit, 1995 quoted in Watts– Taffee and Truscott, 2000); – language learning proceeds best when children are encouraged to take risks, experiment, and make mistakes (Wells, 1986 quoted in Watts– Taffe and Truscott, 2000) – modeling and scaffolding are critical to successful language learning (Roehler & Cantlon, 1997; Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976 quoted in Watts – Taffe and Truscott, 2000).

12 Folktales in the Classroom Discussions by Pedersen, (1993) Listeners Experience a connection with the past and their culture. Provide insight into human behavior – make connections with their own experiences. Personalizes and enriches the language. Numerous affective benefits for social and emotional development. Direct expression of a literary and cultural heritage (Pederson, 1993).

13 Folktales in the classroom Discussions by Pedersen, (1993) Fosters understanding and acceptance of the foreign language and culture. – Make connections between cultures Their usage complements current language teaching methodology and theory. It forms a bond between students and teacher and between the students as a group.

14 Folktales in the classroom Discussion by Pedersen, (1993) Although it is ages old, it is up to date with current ELT methodology and theory. Stories, speech and songs are basic to the communicative approach, favoring fluency over accuracy, and real language over edited English. A cultural content-based ESL or EFL program would be incomplete without folklore.

15 China

16 Communist Party of China 4 stars – the 4 classes of people in China -Workers -Peasants -Petty bourgensies -Patriotic Capitalists The color red is usually associated with communism The color gold symbolizes the yellow race of the Chinese nation

17 Chinese Symbolism An emphasis on Chinese symbol and meaning permeates the daily life of the Chinese person. Although there are many Chinese symbols they all concern the few basic things: to live a long and healthy life, to attain high rank and achieve great wealth, to have children - usually sons.

18 Eight Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism the parasol: protection from suffering, high rank, royalty 2 golden fish: good fortune, fertility conch shell: awakening brings from ignorance lotus blossom: white – mental and spiritual purity red – compassion and love, banner of victory – victory over passion, fear of death, pride and lust.. victory of knowledge over ignorance and evil vase – long life and prosperity dharma wheel – 8 spokes, eightfold path, endless cycle of birth, death and rebirth. Path toward spiritual enlightenment eternal knot – wisdom, long life, eternal love, interconnection, infinite knowledge of Buddha

19 8 Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism

20 4 noble truths of Buddhism Dukkha – the first noble truth explains that suffering exists. Tanha - there is a cause for suffering which is the attachment to desires or cravings. Nirvana - informs you that there is an end to suffering if you let go of your desires and free yourself from attachment. The eight fold path – shows you the way to end suffering. Follow these guidelines for living everyday life. These values are : right understanding, right thought, right speech, right actions, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.

21 Iraq

22 (Iraq., 2011)

23 Iraq 97% Muslim – official religion – >3% Christian – Culture is heavily influenced by Islam – Heavily identify with Arab culture – 60 – 65% Shia – 32 – 37% Sunni – No separation of church & state Literacy – 74% country-wide – Males 84% – Females 64% School Life Expectancy – 11 years for males – 8 years for females (Iraq,, 2011)

24 Iraq Cultural customs heavily influenced by the teachings of Islam – Women take a secondary role. – Segregated in the mosques for prayer – Traditional dinners Men often eat separate from the women Women hold no positions of power in Islam

25 Iraq Marriage customs – Traditional – Arranged by the parents Not appropriate for the man to pursue the woman without the permission of their families Couple will not meet until just before the wedding, although they may know the identify of each other. Often she is not given a choice – Henna party – bride’s hands, feet are hennaed Groom’s palm and little finger will also be hennaed Bride’s mother will henna the groom Groom’s mother will henna the bride

26 Factors Self-esteem - Self esteem is the acceptance, respect, confidence and satisfaction that you have in yourself as a person. It is based on an internal image of ourselves that we have, consciously and subconsciously (Valencia, 206 – 2-10). Cultural Awareness - Understanding of the differences between themselves and people from other countries or other backgrounds, especially differences in attitudes and values.

27 Self esteem “In order for students to fully engage their innate capacity to acquire language within an input-rich environment, they should ideally be relaxed, motivated, and self-confident.” (Clyne, p. 2) “Bolstering students’ self-esteem by showing a willingness to work non-judgmentally to help them develop better communicative capacities in English could help increase their motivation and achievement.” (Clyne p. 3)

28 Self-esteem “The early school years are associated with the most influential stage for the development of self-esteem.” (Rubio, 2007, p. 7). “In school, students are constantly evaluating their competence in classroom tasks and performances. Accordingly, self-efficacy, which is the perception people have about their competence, is fostered mainly in schools.” (Rubio, 2007, p. 8).

29 Self-esteem Dr Stanley Coopersmith (1967: 4-5), defined self- esteem as: …a personal judgement of worthiness that is expressed in attitudes that the individual holds towards himself, …and indicates the extent to which the individual believes in himself to be capable, significant and worthy. Research has shown that a student who feels good about himself is more likely to succeed. Holly (1987) compiled a summary of many studies and pointed out that most indicated that self-esteem is the result rather than the cause of academic achievement.

30 Self-Esteem research in ESL classrooms - Heyde (1977) examined the relationship between self-esteem and oral production in ESL performers at the University of Michigan. In her pilot study involving fifteen subjects, she found a high correlation between global self-esteem and teacher ratings of oral production (global self- esteem is defined as the individual's evaluation of his own worth) (Krashen, 1981, p. 14). -Oller, Hudson, and Liu (1977) conclude that "the more positive a subject's self-concept, the higher the subject's achievement in ESL (Krashen, 1981, p. 14).

31 Carlson’s 8 respects in which children’s understanding of the world is increased through traditional literature Cultural traditions of early humanity Interrelatedness of different types of stories Cultural diffusion Appreciation for culture and art Factual information Different languages and dialects Stimulation for creative drama, writing, artistic expression Realize people all over the world have inherent goodness, mercy, courage and industry (Smith, 2006, p 70).

32 The Cinderella's Case studies based on – Yeh-Shen A Chinese Cinderella (Ling, 192) – “The Little Red Fish and the golden Clog” The Golden Sandal ) To understand a story you must understand the culture. Word of caution – choosing a story

33 Yeh-Shen Setting Characters Plot Youtube CBS Story Break /watch?v=4Ou0Wy4ucjs Landscapes – respect for nature Traditional Dress Tiny Slippers Relationships Golden fish Suffering Good versus evil

34 The Little Red Fish and The Golden Clog The Golden Sandal Setting Characters Plot Architecture – Landscape – nature – Henna party The Red fish Traditional dress – Step-mother – Groom’s mother searches for Cinderella Suffering Revenge & retribution

35 Summary “Through the characters on the page, children are able to live out their worst fears and their fondest wishes. Valuable life lessons are conveyed through the stories which children readily absorb in a non-threatening and even enjoyable context” -Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment quoted in Langer de Ramirez, n.d. p. 5)

36 Folktales in the Classroom -“ The use of literature designed for children in the target culture allows learners of the target language to share cultural experiences and attitudes in a very direct way…” Curtain and Pesola Languages and Children, Making the Match “…the great power of the story is that it engages us affectively as well as requiring our cognitive attention; we learn the content of the story while we are emotionally engaged by its characters or events.” - Kieran Egan, Teaching as Storytelling Incorporates Cognitive tasks, language skills, and learning strategies. Can be used and enjoyed for all age and learning levels for a variety of purposes. ( Language, the arts and culture intersect to form a powerful, yet entertaining instructional tool for the classroom.

37 Folktales in the Classroom Folktale Story Structure – Reading Literary elements Grammar Listening Speaking Writing Research Cultural elements – History – Geography Humanities – Arts – Drama

38 References Baldwin, Jackie and Dudding, Kate. (2007) Storytelling in Schools. Retrieved from Baynham, Mike (1986). Bilingual folk stories in the ESL classroom. ELT Journal, 40(2), 113 - 120. Retrieved from Buddhism (n.d.). Chinese Philosophy. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from philosophy/buddhism-buddist-buddha- china.htm China’s Flag (n.d.). Retrieved on October 2, 2011, from Enchanted Learning : Chinese Symbols and Art Motifs (n.d.) Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www.chinesepaintings. com Clutter, Ann W. and Nieto, Ruben, D. (n.d.) Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Ohio State University Fact Sheet. HYG-5237-00 Retrieved September 24, 2011 from fact/5000/5237.html Clyne, Sandra. (n.d.). Psychological Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Why Your International Students are Sudando La Gota Gorda (Sweating Buckets). Retrieved October 2, 2011 from

39 References Cont. Cultural Awareness (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2011 from cobuild/cultural%20awareness Folktale. (n.d.) Retrieved on September 24, 2011 from Hickox, Rebecca (1998). The Golden Sandal. Holiday House: New York History of China (n.d.). Retrieved on October 2, 2011, from Wikipedia: Iraq (2011) CIA Fact Book. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from factbook/geos/iz.html Krashen, Stephen D. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Langer de, Dr. Lori (n.d.) Folktales, Fables and Fun. ESL & World Language Dept., Herricks Public Schools. The Language and Culture of Stories. Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Louie, Ai-Ling retold by (1982). Yeh-Shen A Cinderella Story form China. Puffin Books: New York Olson, Amy. “Breaking Through Cultural Barriers: Using Latin American Folktales in Literacy and Library Programming. (2010) Bilingual Literacy-Based Programming with Amy Olson. Morpho Literacy. Retrieved from folktales-in-literacy-and-library-programming/

40 References Cont.. Pedersen, E. Martin (1993). Folklore in ESL/EFL Curriculum Materials. Atlanta GA: Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (ED 372 629) Pedersen, E. Martin (1995). Storytelling and the Art of Teaching. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs forum 33(1).Retrieved from Rubio, Fernando. (2007). Self-Esteem and Foreign Language Learning. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholar Publishing. Pp. xi + 205 DOI: 10.1017/S0272263109090081 Sinclair, John. Ed. In Chf. (2005) Colins Cobuild Student’s Dictionary. Haeper Collins: Glasglow. Smith, Jane; Wiese, Patricia (2006). Authenticating children’s literature: raising cultural awareness with an inquiry-based project in a teacher education course. Teacher Education Quarterly: pp. 69 – 87. ISSN: 0737-5328. Suwannee County Schools (n.d.). Strategies for Involving LEP Students in the Mainstream Classroom. P. 19 – 36. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: 8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a Taxel, Joel (2007). Reading multicultural children's literature: Response, resistance, and reflection. Transformations: The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship and Pedagogy. 17:2,pp. 106-116. “the Little Red Fish and the Golden Clog (2003) From F & F #45 May 2003. Retrieved from Watts-Taffe, Susan and Truscott, Diane M. (2000) Using What We Know about Language and Literacy Development for ESL Students in the Mainstream Classroom. Language Arts: Valencia, Carla (2006 – 2010). What is Self-Esteem. Self Esteem Awareness Practical Information about Self Esteem to feel good and happier. Retrieved from October 4, 2011

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