Presentation on theme: "Sustainability and Climate Change in Agriculture sector"— Presentation transcript:
1Sustainability and Climate Change in Agriculture sector Ms. Divya MohanAssociate FellowEarth Sceince and Climate Change DivisionThe Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
2Agriculture and Climate Change Agriculture contributes to climate change through GHG emissionsBurning of fossil fuelMethane emission through agricultural practices like inundated paddy fieldsNitrous oxide through fertilizersBurning of crop residues.The livestock sector is another major contributor to production of GHGs.In India a substantial fraction of the GHG emissions are from agriculture
3Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture sector is highly vulnerable to climate changeSome of the observed and likely impacts include:Biophysical impacts:Physiological effects on cultivated crops, forests, fish livestockChanges in the quality and quantity of land, soil and water resourcesIncreased weed and pest challenge, alien invasive speciesSea temperature rise causing fish to inhabit different rangesSocio-economic impactsChanges in yields and productionReduced GDP from agriculture in the long termGreat fluctuations in world market priceIncreased number of people at risk of hunger and food securityMigration
4Impacts and vulnerabilities in India High vulnerability as it is sensitive to climate variability and climate changeVarious direct and indirect impacts on the sector and dependent livelihoodsDistribution of agro-ecological zonesWater availabilityAgricultural lossesShifting of growing zone in higher elevationPoorest people are likely to be hardest hitRely heavily on climate-sensitive sectors such as rainfed agriculture and fisheries.Tend to be located geographically in more exposed or marginal areas, such as flood plains or nutrient-poor soils.Less able to respond due to limited human, institutional and financial capacity and have very limited ability to cope with climate impacts
5Future risks Future projections indicate : Warming in some regionsIncreases in the amount of precipitation likely in high latitudes, while decreases likely in most subtropical land regions.Drought-affected areas will likely increase in extent.Hot extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation events are likely to become more frequent.Agricultural production is vulnerable to climate risks, as is food securityImpacts will vary in intensity at local, regional and global levelsUncertainty concerning the extent of impacts, but agricultural production in the developing countries is projected to be worst affectedFor the major crops (wheat, rice, and maize) in tropical and temperate regions, climate change without adaptation will negatively impact production (with variation in crop, region and adaptation scenario)show crop production to be consistently and negatively affected by climate change in the future in low-latitude countries, whileclimate change may have positive or negative effects in northern latitudes
6SustainabilityDevelopmental pressures leading to stress on natural resources leading to their exploitationSustainability is striking a balance between human needs and environmental concernsMaintaining sustainability means providing for the needs of current, as well as future generations, while conserving natural resourcesSustainable Agriculture can be defined as an integrated farming system (with crops, trees, livestock etc.) which is based on locally adapted agro-diverse cropping patterns and use of local resources (natural resources and natural processes), based on local knowledge, skills and innovations.Sustainable agricultural systems remain productive over time.Climate change pose enormous risks to fresh water availability and affect the sustainability of agriculture and food security of billions of people around the world, especially in the developing countries
7Agriculture, climate change and sustainability Agricultural sector will be under increasing pressures to ensure continued productivity, while safeguarding environmental quality.Sustainability will depend on our ability to maintain the natural resource base that supports and sustains agriculture, especially in the developing world.Understanding the impacts, vulnerabilities and complex relationships between climate and agriculture and then efficiently manage the system and resourcesLarge variability in agricultural production is due to the variability in weather conditions, e.g. Dependence of production on monsoon
8How to achieve sustainability Improved land and water management significant in this scenario of climate change. Need for efficient farming systemsPlanned adaptation important in some regions already facing slow growth yieldsUse of technology to improve yields for adaptation to climate change is a major thrust for the Indian agricultural sector.Improvement in yield can come through better seed quality, better land and water conservation practices, farm mechanisation, access to credit and improved extension services.Potential of sustainable agricultureFood securityImprovement of rural livelihoodsReduction in GHG emissionsCreation of resilient systems leading to better adaptation
9Implementing Solutions: Mitigation Improved crop and grazing land management to increase soil carbon storage;Restoration of degraded lands;Improved rice cultivation techniques and livestock and manure management to reduce CH4 emissions;Improved nitrogen fertilizer application techniques to reduce N2O emissions;Improved energy efficiency.
10Implementing Solutions: Adaptation Several adaptation measures - behaviour, technology, policy and practiceChanging planting dates;Planting different varieties or crop species;Using sustainable fertilizer and tillage practices (improving soil drainage, no-till, etc)Improved crop residue and weed management;More use of water harvesting techniques,Better pest and disease control for crops;Implementing new or improving existing irrigation systemsImproved livestock managementDevelopment of early-warning systems and protection measures for natural disasters (droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, etc)
11Implementing Solutions: Adaptation Policy optionsPromote agricultural researchPromote crop and livestock diversification and agrobiodiversityPromote adoption of technologiesIncrease efficiency of water infrastructure and water useDisperse information on conservation management practicesProvide agriculture extension servicesPromote investments in agriculturePromote investment in better info and forecastsProvide food reserves and reduce post harvest losses
12Initiatives in IndiaNational Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)Dryland agricultureRisk managementAccess to informationUse of biotech
13Targeting the most vulnerable Large fraction of farmers small and marginal who are highly vulnerableAdaptation in agriculture will require not only availability, but also access of these measures and resources to these farmersA number of measures being undertaken for research of technologies and dissemination through extension services; government policesCommunities and the vulnerable groups need to be actively involved in implementation of solutionsA new learning paradigm is needed – to learn from farmer innovators, from traditional knowledge and resources and disseminating useful practices and resources to others.
14Exploring a participatory approach for adaptation Identification of adaptation optionsConsultation with communities and district level officersDesigning endogenously generated responsesPrioritization of identified adaptation optionsWorkshops with multi stakeholdersCapturing variation in priorities within communitySensitivity Analysis and Evaluation of adaptation optionsAnalysis to evaluate potential implementation and effectiveness
15Mainstreaming solutions in sustainable development pathway Addressing climate change can be considered an integral element of sustainable development policies.Climate change and other sustainable development policies are often, but not always, synergistic.Reducing both loss of natural habitat and deforestation can have significant biodiversity, soil and water conservation benefits, and can be implemented in a socially and economically sustainable manner.Making development more sustainable can enhance both mitigation and adaptive capacity, and reduce emissions and vulnerability to climate change.Synergies between mitigation and adaptation can exist, for example land management.
16ConclusionIt is essential to develop a portfolio of strategies that includes adaptation, mitigation, technological development and research (climate science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation) to combat climate changeIt is imperative to take a proactive role in planning national and regional programmes on adaptation to climate variability and climate change.Integration of mitigation and adaptation frameworks into sustainable development planning is an urgent need, especially in the developing countries.
17For more information: http://www.teriin.org/projects/eva/