How rising temperatures may affect Pests insects “ Host and parasitoid may respond differently to temperature changes uncoupling population dynamics
How rising temperatures may affect Pests insects “ Expanded overwintering ranges Reduced overwintering mortality
UN International Years & Year of Family Farming “ 2013 was commemorated as the Year of Quinoa 2014 is being observed as the International Year of Family Farming 2015 is the International Year of Soils 2016 is the International Year of Pulses Such Years generate awareness - analysis – action The United Nations declared 2014 the International Year of Family Farming (IYFF) to recognise the importance of family farming in reducing poverty and improving global food security. According to the UN, the IYFF aims to promote new development policies particularly at the national but also regional levels that will help small holder and family farmers eradicate hunger, through small scale sustainable agricultural production. Family farming involves about 500 million families consisting of over two billion people.
Challenges faced by Farming due to Climate Change “ Rising temperatures: higher temperatures will reduce crop productivity Increased frequency of droughts Excess rainfall/flooding Milder winter Increase in the areas affected by salinity Changes in crop cycles (shorter growing season) Newly emerging pests and diseases Salt water intrusion in coastal areas
Inputs and Socio-economic constraints “ Insufficient technology available and extension services Seed availability/quality Availability of fertilizer Timely control and availability of pesticides for weed and pest control; Mechanization affordability/access to suitable small machinery Availability of credit to farmers Price fluctuation Access to markets: local, regional & international
United Nations Secretary General’s version “ 2025 : Target Year for Achieving Zero Hunger Challenge
30 per cent children are stunted in South Asia “ Prevention of Food Losses and Waste - an important component of the Zero Hunger Challenge SOUTH ASIAN ENIGMA Extraordinary economic growth in South Asia Population largely dependent on agriculture Yet, 2 out of 5 children stunted
South Asian Enigma (Data Source: UNICEF, 2013) “ Region with the largest number of children with stunted growth First 1000 days critical. Low Birth Weight Babies 1 in 4 Under-nutrition reduces a nation’s economic advancement by 8% (Source: Lancet 2013)
Three major dimensions of Hunger “ CALORIE DEPRIVATION PROTEIN HUNGER HIDDEN HUNGER (Micronutrient deficiency)
Zero Hunger Challenge “ ChallengeResponse Calorie deprivationEver-green Revolution Protein HungerPulses Revolution Hidden HungerBiofortification Revolution Family farming based on gender, nutrition and climate sensitive agriculture is the pathway for food for all and forever
Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway “ o World requires 50% more rice in 2030 than in 2004 with approximately 30% less arable land of today o Mainstreaming ecology in technology development and dissemination is the road to sustainable agriculture
Price volatility “ Future belongs to Nations with Grains and not Guns Family Farming is the pathway to Sustainable Food Security
Achieving Sustainability in Family Farming “ Environmental Sustainability: Environmental sustainability of family farming can be obtained by helping family farms to conserve and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources on their farms, namely water, land and biodiversity. Thus, research must focus on enhancing water availability, water productivity and water use efficiency; building soil productivity fertility and combating land degradation; and conserving biodiversity through sustainable use.
Achieving Sustainability in Family Farming “ Social Sustainability: Generating more employment opportunities for family farming members; Empower women and strife for social equity; Attract youth to agriculture by making agriculture an attractive profession: intellectually challenging and economically rewarding; Improving infrastructure in rural areas and providing institutional services; Improving livelihoods by improving quality of life, not just more income.
Achieving Sustainability in Family Farming “ Economic Sustainability: Having higher productivity; Creating more job opportunities; Producing high value crops; Producing added value products; Reducing production costs; Improving post-harvest handling; Linking farmers to markets; Providing opportunities for micro-credit to small enterprises.
Integrated Sustainable Agricultural development “ Socio-economic & policy, and institutional support Sustainable Natural resource management and inputs Crop & livestock genetic improvement Integration at field and farmers levels