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Rocks & Minerals ROCKS & MINERALS. Minerals EQ: How are minerals a part of rocks?

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Presentation on theme: "Rocks & Minerals ROCKS & MINERALS. Minerals EQ: How are minerals a part of rocks?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rocks & Minerals ROCKS & MINERALS

2 Minerals EQ: How are minerals a part of rocks?

3 What is a Mineral? DEF: A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure & a definite chemical composition. Example: Quartz

4 Minerals must be: Naturally occurring made from non- living things (fossils & coal are made from living things that died so are not considered minerals) Not man made

5 Naturally-occurring Never man-made Ex: Like rocks

6 Inorganic: Means the mineral cannot come from things that were once living Non Example: Coal – it is organic because it comes from plants that lived millions of years ago.

7 Solid  A 3-D geometric figure  Not a liquid or a gas!

8 Minerals must be: Solid –Have a fixed shape and volume –Never living- inorganic

9 Crystal:  The repeating pattern of particles, line up when they form  Like a snowflake pattern or rock candy

10 6 Different Crystal Systems:  Cubic Ex: Magnetite  HexagonalEx: Quartz  TetragonalEx: Rutile  OrthorhombicEx: Sulfur  MonoclinicEx: Azurite  TriclinicEx: Microcline Feldspar

11 Minerals must have: Have a definite crystal structure –particles line up in a regular, repeating pattern. –flat sides called faces, that meet at sharp edges and corners.

12 Minerals must have: A definite chemical composition –Always contains certain elements in the same proportion. –Almost all minerals are compounds, (two or more different elements chemically joined).

13 Definite Chemical Composition  Certain elements form together in specific ways  Like Hydrogen & Oxygen (H2O) and Carbon & Oxygen (CO2) form together to make these compounds

14 Minerals Review All minerals must: – Occur naturally in nature –Inorganic solid –Crystal structure –Definite chemical composition

15 Physical Properties Identify Minerals  Physical Properties include 6 “tests” you can perform on minerals to determine what type of mineral they might be.

16 Properties of Minerals Color first thing noticed about minerals

17 1. Streak Test  The color of the mineral’s powder that’s left behind when it is rubbed across a rough surface  Example: Pyrite looks like gold but, it’s streak looks greenish- black (aka “fool’s gold”)

18 Properties of Minerals Streak The color of its powder. Not always the same as the color of the mineral.

19 2. Luster  Describes how light is reflected from the mineral’s surface. What does it look like?

20 Properties of Minerals Luster The way a mineral reflects light. Can be metallic or non-metallic. Shiny or dull. waxy, pearly, glassy. This is a gem stone called tourmaline it has a glassy luster

21 Types of Luster –MetallicEx: Galena –GlassyEx: Topaz –Waxy, Greasy, PearlyEx: Talc –DullEx: Graphite –SilkyEx: Malachite –EarthyEx: Hematite

22 3. Density  It’s a calculation (math problem!)  Use a balance to find the mass  Place the mineral in H2O to find the amount of water it displaces. This amount is the volume of the mineral.  To find the density, divide mass by volume  Ex: Sample of Olivine  Mass = 237 g Volume = 72 cm3  Density = 237 g/ 72 cm3 = 3.3 g/cm3

23 Properties of Minerals Density Minerals will have a certain density regardless of the size of the sample. Each mineral has its own density called specific gravity

24 4. Cleavage  One way minerals break  Easily split along flat surfaces  Ex: Mica & Feldspar

25 5. Fracture  One way minerals break  Break unevenly in irregular ways  Chipped  Shell-like Ex: Quartz  Jagged points Ex: Copper & Iron  Crumbles Ex: Clay

26 6. Mohs Hardness Scale  A scale that ranks 10 minerals from softest to hardest. You can compare unknown minerals to the minerals on this scale  Hardness can be tested by a Scratch Test  A mineral can scratch any other softer mineral  It can also BE scratched by any harder mineral  Softest Mineral – Talc  Hardest Mineral - Diamond

27 Properties of Minerals Hardness A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.

28 Rocks classification Texture Grain Minerals Color Origin of rocks

29 Rock classification Texture is how a rock looks and feels texture in rocks is determined by the size, shape, and pattern of a rocks grains. ocal.wasp.uwa.edu.au/.../rock/rock16.jpeg

30 Rock Classification Grain –Size -- large, small –Shape --smooth, rough, round jagged –Pattern – rows, waves, swirls, beads or random patterns

31 Rock classification Mineral composition –Rocks are made of more than one mineral blue.utb.edu/.../PHYS1417SPR00/Unit3Lec.html

32 Rock classification Color rocks come in all sorts of colors

33 Rock Classification Origin of rocks How were the rocks formed - magma - erosion and layering - heat and pressure

34 Origin of rocks Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling of magma or lava –Lava is magma that reaches the earth ’ s surface

35 Origin of rocks Sedimentary rocks are formed from other rocks that are broken into small particles and moved by erosion (wind or water) The particles are squeezed or cemented together Rocks are layered

36 Origin of rocks Metamorphic rocks are formed from other rocks Rocks have been pushed deep into the earth ’ s crust Pressure from the earth above and heat from the mantle below cause them to change shape, color, grain and crystal structure 07page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

37 Rock cycle ons/es0602/es0602page02.cfm


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