Presentation on theme: "Week 7 Chapter Presentation"— Presentation transcript:
1Week 7 Chapter Presentation Native American MusicShireen GhaznaviMUS266
2Old Ceremonial Traditions Song is short – similar to nursery rhyme; presented in large group and part of elaborate ceremonies/ritualsPeyote ceremony of Plains tribes – each singer sings songsYeibechai of NavajoHako of Pawneemedicine-bundle ceremonies of Northern plainsthe Blackfoot Sun Dance which is a major religious ritual of tribes in U.S.
3Native American Cultures and Music One to two thousand tribal groups in North American(each tribe about members) speaking distinct languagesEach tribe had own musical culture, repertory, style, and ideas about music.They used songs in ceremonies to accompany dance and to draw boundaries between subdivisions of society such as age, clan, gender.Culture areas in U.S. –Anthropologists classified about 6-8 groupsEach culture area had unique characteristics:Types of housing- wooden houses, teepees, cliff dwellingsWays of acquiring/preparing food- fished, hunt buffalo, grew cornClothingReligion – guardian spirits, complex ceremonial lifeEconomic/political structure – rigid class structure with slaves, informal egalitarian societies,
4Unity/Diversity in Native American Music Music is homogeneous, monophonic, usually vocalFew distinct singing styles – all have tense sound, pulsations on longer notes.All singing accompanied by percussion (drums/rattles)3 types of song predominateStrophic–folk/hymn-like, stanza is repeated many times2 contrasting section of music(one higher)alternate.Very short songs of 1-2 lines repeated often
5Unity/Diversity in Music(continued) Music Areas PLAINSsinging style emphasize high pitch, rhythmic pulsations on long tones, tension, harshness.Form consists of stanzas – short phrase repeated and descending phrases ending with low, flat cadence and repeated.EASTERN UNITED STATESGreat variety of formsSeveral short phrases with varying arrangementsRounder more relaxed vocal; singing is alternated by leader and a group(call and response)YUMAN(Southwestern U.S./ parts of So. California)Relaxed vocal style ; implements the “rise” where phrase is repeated and interrupted by higher contrastive section.
6Unity/Diversity in Music(continued) Music Areas ATHABASCAN Navajo/Apache)Large vocal range, nasal soundPUEBLO (Papago, Southwest U.S.)Singing style similar to Athabasca and Plains; but low, harsh, pulsating vocal style; long complex formsGREAT BASIN (Nevada/Utah)Small vocal range; each group of phrases repeated onceNORTHWESTERN COAST (Oregon, Washington, Alaska)Singing style- pit voice and drum against the otherComplex rhythms; polyphonic tradition
7Ideas of Music Music is simple form with little interaction Oral traditionMore complexity underlying form than one hearsTechnical complexity not a criterion of musical qualityMusic integrates society, ceremonial eventsMusic has supernatural powersSongs exist in cosmos- exist through human dreams
8Musical Instruments DRUMS provide rhythmic accompaniment to singing Large – 2 headsSmall hand drumsKettledrums filled with water for tuningRATTLEScertain kinds associated with particular type of ceremonyMade of gourds, turtle shells, deer hooves, hide pieces sewn togetherDecorated with feathers, paint, animal skinsOther idiophones include clappers, small metal bells introduced by EuropeansFLUTErestricted uses; melody producingEnd-blown and duct flutes(recorder)MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENTSsimple reeds, trumpets, bows, violin
9History of Native American Music Small amount of composed music – oral traditionNative American music documented since the coming of the white peopleKnowledge of ceremonies/rituals forgotten because tribes wiped out, relocated, famines, epidemicsWestern influence created new musical developments (began 1890)Music as a weapon to fight back against cultural absorptionMusic as a weapon to preserve cultural identityTypes of modern music:The Ghost Dance – messianic cult, thought to help in combat, bring back dead and restore buffaloPeyote Music- peyote religion, based on hallucinogenic effects of cactus plant; identifiable by “meaningless” vocables.Powwow culture(1950-)most significant trend, strong cultural identity, romantic and amusing musicWomen in music has increased
10Modern North American Indian Days Modern popular music – preservation/protection of environmentCoexistence of several events – traditional & modernPowwow(tribal gathering) – members of singing group sit in a circle facing one another with their drums. Dancer with flamboyant costumes; solo dancing. Singing groups are called DrumsGambling games from ancient tradition which includes singingWestern music performed byNative Americans