Presentation on theme: "Old Ceremonial Traditions Song is short – similar to nursery rhyme; presented in large group and part of elaborate ceremonies/rituals Peyote ceremony."— Presentation transcript:
Old Ceremonial Traditions Song is short – similar to nursery rhyme; presented in large group and part of elaborate ceremonies/rituals Peyote ceremony of Plains tribes – each singer sings 4 songs Yeibechai of Navajo Hako of Pawnee medicine-bundle ceremonies of Northern plains the Blackfoot Sun Dance which is a major religious ritual of tribes in U.S.
Native American Cultures and Music One to two thousand tribal groups in North American(each tribe about 1000 members) speaking distinct languages Each tribe had own musical culture, repertory, style, and ideas about music. They used songs in ceremonies to accompany dance and to draw boundaries between subdivisions of society such as age, clan, gender. Culture areas in U.S. –Anthropologists classified about 6-8 groups Each culture area had unique characteristics: Types of housing- wooden houses, teepees, cliff dwellings Ways of acquiring/preparing food- fished, hunt buffalo, grew corn Clothing Religion – guardian spirits, complex ceremonial life Economic/political structure – rigid class structure with slaves, informal egalitarian societies,
Unity/Diversity in Native American Music Music is homogeneous, monophonic, usually vocal Few distinct singing styles – all have tense sound, pulsations on longer notes. All singing accompanied by percussion (drums/rattles) 3 types of song predominate Strophic–folk/hymn-like, stanza is repeated many times 2 contrasting section of music(one higher)alternate. Very short songs of 1-2 lines repeated often
Unity/Diversity in Music(continued) Music Areas 7 Music Areas PLAINS singing style emphasize high pitch, rhythmic pulsations on long tones, tension, harshness. Form consists of stanzas – short phrase repeated and descending phrases ending with low, flat cadence and repeated. EASTERN UNITED STATES Great variety of forms Several short phrases with varying arrangements Rounder more relaxed vocal; singing is alternated by leader and a group(call and response) YUMAN(Southwestern U.S./ parts of So. California) Relaxed vocal style ; implements the “rise” where phrase is repeated and interrupted by higher contrastive section.
Unity/Diversity in Music(continued) Music Areas ATHABASCAN Navajo/Apache) Large vocal range, nasal sound PUEBLO (Papago, Southwest U.S.) Singing style similar to Athabasca and Plains; but low, harsh, pulsating vocal style; long complex forms GREAT BASIN (Nevada/Utah) Small vocal range; each group of phrases repeated once NORTHWESTERN COAST (Oregon, Washington, Alaska) Singing style- pit voice and drum against the other Complex rhythms; polyphonic tradition
Ideas of Music Music is simple form with little interaction Oral tradition More complexity underlying form than one hears Technical complexity not a criterion of musical quality Music integrates society, ceremonial events Music has supernatural powers Songs exist in cosmos- exist through human dreams
Musical Instruments DRUMS provide rhythmic accompaniment to singing Large – 2 heads Small hand drums Kettledrums filled with water for tuning RATTLES certain kinds associated with particular type of ceremony Made of gourds, turtle shells, deer hooves, hide pieces sewn together Decorated with feathers, paint, animal skins Other idiophones include clappers, small metal bells introduced by Europeans FLUTE restricted uses; melody producing End-blown and duct flutes(recorder) MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENTS simple reeds, trumpets, bows, violin
History of Native American Music Small amount of composed music – oral tradition Native American music documented since the coming of the white people Knowledge of ceremonies/rituals forgotten because tribes wiped out, relocated, famines, epidemics Western influence created new musical developments (began 1890) Music as a weapon to fight back against cultural absorption Music as a weapon to preserve cultural identity Types of modern music: The Ghost Dance – messianic cult, thought to help in combat, bring back dead and restore buffalo Peyote Music- peyote religion, based on hallucinogenic effects of cactus plant; identifiable by “meaningless” vocables. Powwow culture(1950-)most significant trend, strong cultural identity, romantic and amusing music Women in music has increased
Modern North American Indian Days Modern popular music – preservation/protection of environment Coexistence of several events – traditional & modern Powwow(tribal gathering) – members of singing group sit in a circle facing one another with their drums. Dancer with flamboyant costumes; solo dancing. Singing groups are called Drums Gambling games from ancient tradition which includes singing Western music performed by Native Americans