Presentation on theme: "Prevention to Avoid Intervention"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prevention to Avoid Intervention Response to Instruction!
2 Targets Quick overview of RTI Understand we should spend 90 minutes of core reading time.Recognize the reasons for assessments.Define fidelity to the core.Understand that engaging instruction is key.Recognize that instruction must be explicit.
3 Partnerships Pick someone near you to be your partner. The person with the next birthday is coffee.The other person is cream.
4 RTI Not another thing! THE BUDGET CFA PLC Interventions ELL & Sheltered InstructionGrade level data meetingBehaviorProfessional developmentTAGSpecialEducationCore ProgramTitle IInstructionAssessmentTHE BUDGET
6 Response to Intervention ELLTitle ProgramsResponse to InterventionDistrict OfficeResourcesCurriculum DevelopmentProfessional DevelopmentSpecial Education
7 The Process is Ongoing and Long-Term CONSENSUSINFRASTRUCTUREIMPLEMENTATIONThe IDM Process is ongoing, and is a long-term commitment. It will also vary in every school and from year to year depending on the unique characteristics of that school. For example, if your school has a high turnover in staff each year there will need to be more attention paid to ongoing consensus building with new staff. On the other hand, if through the process you find that you need to make some big changes to the instructional practices in your building, more time may need to be spent on building teacher skills for quality implementation.For long-term processes: Think about and plan for sustainabilityIDM is not a ‘flash in the pan’ initiativeThis is about changing the culture of your schoolThis should become the way you do business at your schoolBuilding leadership teams are vital for sustainability.Heartland Education Agency
8 So how do we make this happen? InterventionsProgress MonitoringDecision rules and reading protocolCore Curriculum with strong instructionUniversal screenerData based teamingLeadershipProfessional Development
9 RTI focus is on General Education! Teachers don’t fail students, systems do.RTI is a system for differentiation of instruction!RTI is a system that is predicated on the general education teachers’ skill and knowledge of instruction, assessment, curriculum, and children.
10 Talk TimeCoffee please answer the following question:How does this information compare to what your already knew about RTI?Cream please answer the following question:What barriers do you see in making this change?With extra time switch questions
11 Response To Intervention R.T.I. =Response To Intervention
12 Response To Instruction R.T.I. =Response To Instruction
13 Doing what works. . .but works for who? This is a systematic response for all students and adults.
17 We should spend 90 minutes of core reading time becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
18 90 minutesCore programs are written and designed to be taught for 90 to 120 minutes.This does not include the instruction of writingIt may include the practice of writingWriting in response to reading
19 90 Minutes Daily focused on the BIG 5 Literacy Diet90 Minutes Daily focused on the BIG 5Powerful literacy diet to ensure good literacy healthAdapted fromPhonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluency & AccuracyVocabularyComprehension
20 When eating from the food pyramid is not enough … Need to add iron pills, or vitamins, but do not stop eating from the food pyramid.Provide additional supportthrough Tier 2 and Tier 3 InterventionsAdapted from
21 Struggling readers in core They need the most instructionNeed to be exposed to grade level materialIf they miss grade level material, they will never catch upJust because there is a deficit in one area, does not mean there is a deficit in all areas of readingInterventions are limited in scope
22 Everyday in successful classrooms Big Five of ReadingPhonemic Awareness(pre K-2)Phonics (K-3)Fluency (K-6)Vocabulary (K-adult)Comprehension (K-adult)(NRP, 2000)
23 Phonemic Awareness Word comparison Rhyming Sentence segmentation easyWord comparisonRhymingSentence segmentationSyllable segmentation and blendingOnset-rime blending and segmentationBlending and segmenting individual phonemesPhoneme addition, deletion and manipulationhard
24 Phonics Letter sounds VC and CVC Consonant Digraphs CVCC and CCVC Silent ER-control vowelsAdvanced consonants (i.e.,-tch, kn, soft c &g)Vowel TeamsMulti-syllable wordsPrefixes and suffixeseasyhard
25 The old man the vegetable garden. FluencyimportanceAccuracyProsodyExpressionEmphasisPhrasingVolumeSmoothnessRateCWPM95%98%99%The Secret Life of Bees22.214.171.124My Brother Sam is Dead1563The Magic School Bus2.41.2The old man the vegetable garden.
26 Instructional needs Vocabulary Contextual Analysis: A strategy readers use to infer or predict a word from the context in which it appears.Morphemic Analysis: A strategy in which the meanings of words can be determined or inferred by examining their meaningful parts (i.e., prefixes, suffixes, roots, etc.)Expressive Vocabulary: Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning.Receptive Vocabulary: Requires a reader to associate a specific meaning with a given label as in reading or listening.Center for Teaching and Learning, University of Oregon
27 Vocabulary Instructional needs Contextual Analysis Morphemic Analysis Expressive VocabularyReceptive VocabularyCenter for Teaching and Learning, University of Oregon
28 Instructional needs Comprehension Text Structure Make Inferences and AnalyzeEvaluateStory StructureGenerate QuestionsSummarizeMonitor ComprehensionKeep in mind:Reading OAKS strand information is more related to the difficulty of the passage than the ability for the student to use the skill
29 We should spend 90 minutes of core reading time becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
30 Talk TimeCoffee please answer the following question:What is the current amount of time that you spend on reading?Cream please answer the following question:How does Rigby currently help you to meet your students’ needs?With extra time switch questions
31 Instructional changes occur based on a variety of assessments becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
32 Digging DeeperHow deep you dig depends on the intensity of the problem.OR
34 Oral reading fluency and comprehension activity Meet a new friend. Find a person who you do not know in the room. (This is important because this is how these assessments are often given to students.)One person will be the Test Administrator, paper A. The other will be the Test Taker, paper B.Read your directions to yourself. Test Administrator, give the test and score.Test Taker, read the passage aloud and be prepared to answer questions.
35 Essential Features of Reliable and Valid Progress Monitoring Tools Robust indicator of academic healthBrief and easy to administerCan be administered frequentlyMust have multiple, equivalent forms(If the metric isn’t the same, the data are meaningless)Must be sensitive to growth
36 Purposes of ScreenersEvaluate overall effectiveness of programSelect students who need additional supportMonitor progress of studentsA universal screener should over-identify students who might need something more!
37 Progress monitoringScreener tools also help us to answer the question – Is what we are doing working?
38 What course should we follow? How are we doing? Where are we?What is our goal?What course should we follow?How are we doing?Our GoalDesiredCourseNotes:For example, in the Northwest boating is an important recreation and livelihood. Whether you are on a whale watching tour or fishing, sometimes finding your way back to your port is easy. The sky is clear, the ocean blue, and you can clearly see your home port and the course you should follow to reach a safe harbor.[click] But sometimes the fog roles in and our journey to our goal becomes much more difficult and challenging. It is hard to tell where we are, where we want to be, what course to follow, and whether we are getting closer to safety or need to make a course adjustment.[click] So we turn on the GPS and ask where we are. [click] Of course, knowing where we are is only of limited help. The great philosopher Buckaroo Bonzai once commented, “No matter where you go, there you are!”[click] We also need to know where the port, our safe harbor, is. [click][click] We also need to know what course to follow to get there. [click] The GPS can tell us to point the boat at 117 degrees and progress for 20 minutes at 10 knots to reach our goal.Now we have a good plan about how to get to our goal, our safe harbor, and avoid the rocks and cliffs on either side. But, sometimes our plans go awry….[click] We also need to check up on our progress in time to make course corrections. [click] If we are off course, the time to modify our plan is early, in time to still reach our safe harbor and not end up on the rocks.[click]We areHereActualCourse
40 Types of assessment Mastery assessment Weekly tests Novel tests Answer questions about textCommon Formative Assessments
41 Responding to the text example Write about the book. Invite children to write in their literature response journals what they learned from reading this book or to suggest their own writing projects. For example, children may want to write about something they do every day using their hands. Or they might take a survey of which fingerprint patterns their classmates have and write a few sentences summarizing the survey.Rl 2 – Amazing Hands, p. 178
42 Common Formative Assessments Pre and post test of power standardsStudent results analyzed in Data Teams to guide instructional planning and delivery.Regular and timely feedback regarding student attainment of most critical standards, which allows teachers to modify instruction to better meet the diverse learning needs of all students.CFA’s provide evidence of proficiency regarding the Power Standards.
43 Types of assessmentDiagnostic AssessmentDRA, Phonics assessment, QRI
44 Purpose of Diagnostic Assessments The major purpose for administering diagnostic tests is to provide information that is useful in planning more effective instruction.Diagnostic tests should only be given when there is a clear expectation that they will provide new information about a child’s difficulties learning to read that can be used to provide more focused, or more powerful instruction.
55 OAKSPassing OAKS 3rd grade (204) places a child in the 17th percentilePassing 3rd grade is not enough.By 5th grade, if these students stay at the same percentile they will fail OAKSBy 10th grade, if these students stay at the same percentile they will fail OAKSThis student will score a 236 and pass at the 32nd percentileBased on ODE percentiles
59 1st WRF 71% 2nd 44% 3rd 42% 4th 43% 5th 38% 1st WRF 35% 2nd 51% 3rd Grade% at or above the district target( 50th percentile)1st WRF71%2nd44%3rd42%4th43%5th38%Grade% at or above the district target( 50th percentile)1st WRF35%2nd51%3rd44%4th39%5thGrade% at or above the district target( 50th percentile)1st WRF35%2nd WRF44%3rd38%4th25%5th41%Grade% at or above the district target( 50th percentile)1st WRF27%2nd32%3rd24%4th18%5th25%
61 Types of assessment Screeners + Mastery Assessment + Diagnostic Assessment +Program Assessment+Professional Learning Communities =A Data System
62 Types of assessment Screeners + Mastery Assessment + Diagnostic Assessment +Program Assessment+Professional Learning Communities =A Decision System
63 Instructional changes occur based on a variety of assessments becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
64 Talk Time What types of assessments do you currently see in use? Cream please answer the following question:What types of assessments do you currently see in use?Coffee please answer the following question:Are current assessments being used for the purpose that they were designed?With extra time switch questions
65 There must be fidelity to the core becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
66 Text ProtocolRead the What is Fidelity of Implementation and Why is Fidelity of Implementation Important? section, page 42.If you finish continue into the next section.
67 Text ProtocolWhat is Fidelity of ImplementationWhy is Fidelity of Implementation Important?Share with your partner one sentence that stands out for you. Coffee then Cream.Share with your partner one phrase that stands out for you. Cream then CoffeeShare with your partner one word that stands out for you. Coffee then Cream
70 Why is fidelity important? Comprehensive program that incorporates all components of readingStudents have the opportunity to make connectionsStudents read text that supports vocabulary, phonics, and comprehension lessonsThe whole school has a common language, common goal, and common tools
71 Fidelity… … the big 5 of reading … to the curriculum scope and sequence… to district/state standards and benchmarks… to effective instructional practices
72 Big 5 of Reading Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
77 Effective Instructional Practices Optimize engaged time/time on taskPromote high levels of successIncrease content coverageHave students spend more time in instructional groupsScaffold instructionAddress different forms of knowledgeEllis and Worthington, 1994
78 Who ensures fidelity?District must decide on the key points of the core curriculumFidelity checklist should provide clarity to teachers
81 Who ensures fidelity? District must decide who is responsible to check PrincipalLiteracy coachFidelity checks should occur regularlytwo to three times a year10 minutes each class
82 There must be fidelity to the core becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
83 Talk Time Define fidelity in 1 sentence. Cream please answer the following question:Define fidelity in 1 sentence.Coffee please answer the following question:How can you roll out fidelity tools successfully?With extra time switch questions
84 Engaging instruction is key becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
92 Talk TimeCoffee will begin followed by CreamBegin to list the active participation strategies that were taught to studentsList items until you have exhausted your listWith extra time talk about how you could spread this practice around your schools.
93 Instruction must be explicit becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
94 Components of Effective Instruction ExplicitSystematicPractice and FeedbackApplication and MasteryOvertly teaching each step through teacher modeling and many examples (Gradual Release Model).
95 Components of Effective Instruction ExplicitSystematicPractice and FeedbackApplication and MasteryBreaking lessons and activities into sequential, manageable steps that progress from simple to more complex concepts and skills. i.e. scope and sequence of program
96 Components of Effective Instruction ExplicitSystematicPractice and FeedbackApplication and MasteryProviding many opportunities for students to respond and demonstrate what they are learning, which may include teacher modeling, rehearsal, and feedback.
97 Components of Effective Instruction ExplicitSystematicPractice and FeedbackApplication and MasteryGeneralize what is learned in different contexts. We want students to apply the lessons to the next text they read.
98 Whole group instruction Text is designed to be the initial instructionText is used as a model to teach literacy skillsWhole group text may be above or below some studentsWhole group instruction should be a limited amount of time
99 Instruction matters Think aloud to model new information for students I do, we do, ya’ll do, you do (scaffolding)Graphic organizersMaintain a perky pace.Maintain close proximity to students.
100 Whole group videoWrite down effective instructional strategies in whole groupScaffoldingThink aloudGraphic organizer2nd grade, Rural Southeast, OregonDescription is the focus and was taughtVideo begins just after a picture walk
101 You will be discussing one of these questions with your partner: How did the instructor scaffold the reading for the students?How did the instructor make his thinking around comprehension public?
103 Talk Time With extra time switch questions Cream please answer the following question:How did the instructor scaffold the reading for the students?Coffee please answer the following question:How did the instructor make his thinking around comprehension public?With extra time switch questions
104 Small Group Instruction Text is at the students instructional levelThe text is focused on the needs of the studentsTeacher provide background, addresses vocabulary and text featuresEach student has their own copy of the text and they read independently while the adult observes their reading behaviorsAfter the students read, the adult leads a group discussion
105 It is all about the end result! Managing groupsYou should spend more time face to face with your most struggling readers.Is this fair?There are only 2 kinds of fair. . .state and countyIt is all about the end result!
106 Managing groups Flexible based on what the child has demonstrated Skill groupingAbility groupingFlexible based on what the child has demonstrated2nd graders are grouped who didn’t do well on “oi” sound last week5th grade readers are grouped who are strong at “summarizing,” not on “inference”Students generally read at the same level, but it may be for different reasonsA student who struggles due to decoding vowels is grouped with a student who struggles with reading speed.
107 Instructional Level Text Understand why students are in a group togetherUse multiple sources of data to determine the leveleasyCBMMastery testsObservations
108 The text is focused on the needs of the students We are teaching the reader not the textWe are teaching literacy not literature!We are teaching for application
109 Reading of the text Set the purpose for reading the text Each student should have a copy of the textPassage reading proceduresChoral ReadingCloze ReadingSilent ReadingPartner ReadingAsk questions of the readers
110 Instruction must be explicit becauseeffective core instruction is the most important thing you can do in RTI.
111 Effective core instruction We should spend 90 minutes of core reading timeThere must be fidelity to the coreEngaging instruction is keyInstruction must be explicit
112 DIETAt the top, record your school district name, school name, current school year, and who is completing the form.For RTI Components 1-7, read the accompanying descriptors for each score category (0 - Creating Consensus, 1 - Creating Infrastructure, 2 - Initial Implementation, 3 - Full Implementation) and provide an item score (0, 1, 2, or 3) in the right-hand column that best describes your school. Each descriptor serves as a general indicator of a school’s level of implementation and is not meant to be a comprehensive evaluation of all systems a school may have in place.Add up the item scores for RTI components 1-7 and record overall score in the total box.For Item 8: Coaching, circle the box that best describes your school.Turn in the one on blue paper.