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Chapter 1: Building Responsibility

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1 Chapter 1: Building Responsibility
Section 1: What is Communication?

2 Journal Writing: Which is the most important, speech or science and technology? Defend your answer.

3 What leaders have had a major impact on the world primarily through the use of communication skills?
We need to better get in touch with each other and master the art of talk and meaningful communication. There is a difference between random, meaningless talk and responsible talk.

4 Chapter 1: Building Responsibility—ethics in communication
Ethics- a person’s sense of right and wrong. Ethics + Responsibility=a good speaker

5 An ethical communicator
puts a high premium on using his or her words constructively and promoting what is right. Responsibility goes hand in hand with ethics, but what does it mean to be a responsible speaker? Examples? Non-examples?

6 The Communication Model
the process of sending and receiving messages

7 Sender Is the one who transmits the message, that which is sent or said

8 Receiver Person who intercepts the message and then decodes or intercepts

9 Feedback Includes the reactions that the receiver gives to the message offered by the sender

10 Communication Barrier
(also called noise) any obstacle that gets in the way of effective communication Attitudinal (“I don’t like what we’re talking about.”) Social (“This person is not one of my friends.”) Educational (“I’m far too smart to listen to this stuff.”) Cultural (“This person’s heritage isn’t like mine at all.”) Environmental (“I’m too hot in this room to even think!” Or “There is too much noise to concentrate!”)

11 To become a better communicator,
Try to find a common field of experience. In other words, try to relate in some way to the speaker.

12 Advice for Sender: THINK before you speak (“What is the real message I want to send?”) ARTICULATE your words (“Am I enunciating each syllable, or am I slurring my words together?”) WATCH the receiver of your words to make sure that you are getting the correct nonverbal signals. (“She isn’t responding correctly. I had better say this a different way.”)

13 Advice to the receiver ASK questions: make polite requests. (“Could the heat be a little lower, please? It is hampering my ability to concentrate.”) LEARN more about issues and people. They can both make you smarter. (Say to yourself, “I need to listen here. It’s good to hear an opinion or voice other than my own.”)

14 continued RELATE to the background and experiences of those speaking. They’re saying what they’re saying for a reason. It’s worth your time to listen and then to try to understand their world. (“I should try to understand what they’ve gone through and what message they’re trying to convey to me.”)

15 Written and Oral Communication
You work to improve your written communication skills in English or language arts class. You work to improve your oral or verbal communication skills in speech class.

16 When you meet someone with a disability
Visually impaired- never pet or play with a guide dog. You will distract the animal from it’s job. Speech impediment-be patient, listen attentively, and resist the temptation to finish his sentences or speak for him. In a wheelchair- sit down, if possible, so you chat eye to eye.

17 continued Hearing loss-always speak directly to the person, not to her interpreter or assistant. If you raise your voice, it becomes distorted and even more difficult o understand. Speak clearly and slowly, facing her. Deaf people depend on facial expressions and gestures for communication cues.

18 Nonverbal Communication
Expresses your attitudes or moods about a person, situation, or idea. EX: The person who is cheerful and sitting up straight communicates through “body language” one sort of message. EX: The person who frowns and slouches communicates another sort.

19 Nonverbal signals may mean different things to different people.
Giving someone the thumbs-up sign is a compliment in America, but is considered rude and offensive in Australia. Can you think of other examples?

20 Symbols Anything that stands for an idea and is used for communication. Since symbols represent something else by association, they include both nonverbal and verbal communication. (Words are symbols.) Can you think of examples of verbal and nonverbal symbols?

21 Chapter 1: Building Responsibility
Section 2: Laying the Proper Foundation Page 11

22 Responsible Communication
Work to be a good person Communicate constructively Care about your audience

23 Journal Writing: The nineteenth-century statesman and orator Daniel Webster said that if all of his talents and abilities were taken away, he would ask to keep his ability to speak. “With the ability to speak, I could regain all that I had lost.” Why should those who speak work to make the world a better place? How can we, ordinary people, use speech to make the world a better place?

24 1. Working to be a good Person Examples
Can you give examples of people who make the world a better place through speech? Can you think of examples of people who have hurt society with speech?

25 Examples Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy, Billy Graham, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Princess Diana versus Adolf Hitler, Jim Jones, Governor George Wallace

26 Working to be a Good Person: Intrapersonal Communication
-intra is a prefix signifying inside, within, interior, during The ability to assess your thoughts, feelings, and reactions Many of our actions begin with these silent conversations.

27 Positive Examples When you have done something well, compliment yourself; when there is room for improvement, note what you can do to better next time.

28 Negative or counterproductive
occurs when you cloud your thoughts with self-doubt. “I can’t do this. I’m too stupid” or “I’m not popular enough for anyone to listen to me!” INSTEAD- be honest and positive and give yourself the benefit of the doubt

29 Positive Intrapersonal helps you Work to be a Good Person
What you communicate to yourself should exhibit Solid work ethic A sense of integrity Compassion for others Personal honesty

30 2. Communicating Constructively
-inter is a prefix signifying between or among the parts of, in the midst Interpersonal communication- one-on-one communication which can take place any time messages are transmitted between two or more people

31 Honesty in Art Brainstorm a list of your favorite musicians and musical groups. Categorize the music of each as begin meaningful and honest, or meaningless and somehow dishonest or untrue. Support your opinions with lyrics or other evidence. In the news…what is the difference between journalism and sensationalism. Which is more reliable? Why?

32 Examples of Constructive Communication
Building good feelings and trust between and among people Using the spoken word to build, inspire, and motivate others NOT belittle or deceive them

33 Examples of unethical communication:
Comedians using words to insult Politicians using words to distort Teachers using words to condemn Business people using words to justify ruining the environment Students spreading rumors about others

34 Oratory or Rhetoric The art or study of public speaking, using words effectively The Roman teacher Quintilian called the perfect orator “a good person speaking well.”

35 Journal Writing: Is it possible for the average person to refrain completely from “doing an injustice to what speech should do”? Do you know anyone who falls into this category? Would using your communicating only for good purposes be a worthy or realistic goal? Why?

36 Constructive Communication
You must be willing to build up others if you wish to become an effective communicator

37 3. Caring About your Audience
The speaker must respect the members of an audience and show a genuine concern for their thoughts and feelings.

38 Before speaking, consider questions such as:
Is this material appropriate for this group? How would I feel if I were asked that question? Am I giving my audience new information? Is my material too difficult or too easy for my audience?

39 Pay attention to audience feedback!
Adapt to audience feedback If you are flippant in your presentation, you might nonverbally convey the attitude that your audience isn’t very important to you. If you are speaking in a dull monotone, you might convey the attitude that you are bored with your audience.

40 Effective Communication
Occurs when there is reciprocal respect between the performer and the audience or the sender and receiver

41 Aristotle’s Three Appeals
(Aristotle was a Greek scientist and philosopher.) Logos Pathos Ethos

42 Logos Is a logical appeal for which you would use analysis and factual evidence to prove your point

43 Pathos Is an emotional appeal for which you would work to “strike a chord” in your audience and appeal to their sense of patriotism, family, justice, etc.

44 Ethos Is an ethical appeal for which you would show your audience that you are honest and believable

45 Chapter 1: Building Responsibility
Section 3- Building the Proper Motivation Page 16

46 Motivation Something such as a need or a desire, that causes a person to act. Two internal forces should be responsible for motivating words: 1. the desire to treat both people and situations fairly and to avoid stereotyping others 2. the desire to set a good example for others

47 Stereotyping Means labeling every person in a group based on a preconceived idea as to what that group represents Every individual must be evaluated on his or her own merit and every instance must be evaluated for its won impact

48 Positive Motivation Much of your motivation to use the spoken word correctly must come from a desire to provide solutions that will make the world a better place.

49 Example: John F. Kennedy, Jr.
America mourned the tragic death of John F. Kennedy, Jr. in the summer of 1999 when he was killed in a plane crash, along with his wife and her sister. Kennedy believed in the word responsibility and he communicated this by both his speech and actions.

50 Continued Kennedy used his words to initiate Reaching UP, a program designed to assist health care workers who work with the mentally handicapped. He also formed the Robin Hood Foundation, which offers help to those in need living in the inner city. He was a “good person speaking well.”

51 Ultimately When people believe in you, they will believe what you have to say!

52 Assignment: Complete the “Workplace Communications” exercise on page 21 of your text book.

53 Aristotle Revisited Aristotle believed that a person did not need to have intrapersonal appeal.

54 Daniel Webster Stressed that, if he lost all else, he would like to retain the ability to speak.

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