Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Existentialism Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Existentialism Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Existentialism Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus

2 Definition A philosophical movement that embraces diverse doctrines, BUT centers on the idea that people are free but ultimately responsible for their choices without knowing if those choices are right/wrong, good/bad

3 Concepts of Existentialism FThe only certainty is death FThe universe is meaningless and absurd FDoes not believe in abstract principles like love and beauty FThe only certainty is death FThe universe is meaningless and absurd FDoes not believe in abstract principles like love and beauty

4 More Existential Ideas FThere is nothing after life FTruth is subjective FFree will exists; fate does not. FThe universe is ruled by randomness FThere is nothing after life FTruth is subjective FFree will exists; fate does not. FThe universe is ruled by randomness

5 KIERKEGAARD ( ) FBelieved life was an impossible choice between two conflicting attitudes FAesthetic-immediate experience FEthical-ideals FBelieved life was an impossible choice between two conflicting attitudes FAesthetic-immediate experience FEthical-ideals

6 More Existential Ideas FBelieved in taking a leap of faith into a Christian life. FBelieved this Christian faith would be the only thing to save an individual from despair. FBelieved in taking a leap of faith into a Christian life. FBelieved this Christian faith would be the only thing to save an individual from despair.

7 Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) FTragic pessimism defines life FThe individual will oppose itself to the moral conformity of the majority FProclaimed the death of God and rejected the entire Judeo-Christian moral tradition FTragic pessimism defines life FThe individual will oppose itself to the moral conformity of the majority FProclaimed the death of God and rejected the entire Judeo-Christian moral tradition

8 More Existential Ideas FMan is personally and solely responsible for what he does and what he is FEvery person has the power and the ability to change at ANY time in life FIndividual actions are unpredictable FMan is personally and solely responsible for what he does and what he is FEvery person has the power and the ability to change at ANY time in life FIndividual actions are unpredictable

9 Martin Heidegger ( ) FHumanity lives in an incomprehensible, indifferent world FHuman beings will never understand why we are here FEach individual must choose a goal and follow it with passionate conviction, aware of the certainty of death and the ultimate meaningless of life. FHumanity lives in an incomprehensible, indifferent world FHuman beings will never understand why we are here FEach individual must choose a goal and follow it with passionate conviction, aware of the certainty of death and the ultimate meaningless of life.

10 More Existential Ideas FNo self-identity FIndividual shapes own destiny and gives meaning to his existence, not only for himself, but as it will be judged by others FNo self-identity FIndividual shapes own destiny and gives meaning to his existence, not only for himself, but as it will be judged by others

11 Jean-Paul Sartre ( ) FEmphasize human freedom, choice and responsibility FHumans require a rational basis for their lives but are unable to achieve this, thus life is a futile passion F“To be is to do.” - Existential motto FEmphasize human freedom, choice and responsibility FHumans require a rational basis for their lives but are unable to achieve this, thus life is a futile passion F“To be is to do.” - Existential motto

12 More Existential Ideas FFree will allows individuals to change FEven a refusal to choose is a choice FFew decisions are without negative consequences FUniverse does NOT provide moral rules; they are constructed by humans and intended to promote responsibility for actions FTherefore, NO ONE should attempt to impose rules of conduct on anyone! FFree will allows individuals to change FEven a refusal to choose is a choice FFew decisions are without negative consequences FUniverse does NOT provide moral rules; they are constructed by humans and intended to promote responsibility for actions FTherefore, NO ONE should attempt to impose rules of conduct on anyone!

13 Existentialists don’t believe in

14 The Antihero FInstead of manifesting dignity, power, and heroism in the face of fate… FIs a protagonist whose character is at least conspicuously contrary to that of the archetypal hero, and is in some instances its antithesis.protagonistarchetypal FInstead of manifesting dignity, power, and heroism in the face of fate… FIs a protagonist whose character is at least conspicuously contrary to that of the archetypal hero, and is in some instances its antithesis.protagonistarchetypal

15 Absurdist Theory FThe universe has no rational direction or scheme. FIt is meaningless and absurd. FThe Absurdist Theory must be addressed to grasp the full meaning of The Stranger. FThe universe has no rational direction or scheme. FIt is meaningless and absurd. FThe Absurdist Theory must be addressed to grasp the full meaning of The Stranger.

16 Given: Life is meaningless. Given: If we accept or acknowledge this, we risk falling into despair and depression. Given: Life is meaningless. Given: If we accept or acknowledge this, we risk falling into despair and depression.

17 Thus: We create meaning for ourselves throughout our lives. Thus: We create meaning for ourselves throughout our lives.

18 But: We know this meaning we have created is meaningless, as we are the ones feeding ourselves on illusion, to keep from going insane at the reality of the meaninglessness of human existence. But: We know this meaning we have created is meaningless, as we are the ones feeding ourselves on illusion, to keep from going insane at the reality of the meaninglessness of human existence.

19 Therefore: We live ABSURD existences as we have created false meaning for ourselves, knowing this, and fooling ourselves. Therefore: We live ABSURD existences as we have created false meaning for ourselves, knowing this, and fooling ourselves.

20 So: The trick is to accept the meaninglessness of life, but create meaning for us so life is NOT meaningless – and this is, in effect, absurd. So: The trick is to accept the meaninglessness of life, but create meaning for us so life is NOT meaningless – and this is, in effect, absurd.

21 Irony Existentialists cannot even agree on a definition of existentialism because it is an absurd idea.

22 Wrap-Up FWrite at least one thing about existentialism that you agree with. Explain. FWrite at least two things that you disagree with. Explain. FWrite at least one thing about existentialism that you agree with. Explain. FWrite at least two things that you disagree with. Explain.


Download ppt "Existentialism Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus Introduction to the novel The Stranger by Albert Camus."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google