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CHAPTER 10 BUILDING AN ORGANIZATION CAPABLE OF GOOD STRATEGY EXECUTION People, Capabilities, and Structure
10–2© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 1.Gain command of what managers must do to execute strategy successfully. 2.Learn why hiring, training, and retaining the right people constitute a key component of the strategy execution process. 3.Understand that good strategy execution requires continuously building and upgrading the organization’s resources and capabilities. 4.Recognize what issues to consider in establishing a strategy- supportive organizational structure and organizing the work effort. 5.Become aware of the pros and cons of centralized and decentralized decision making in implementing the chosen strategy.
10–3© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. EXECUTING STRATEGY Strategy Execution ● Is operations-driven, involving management of both people and business processes. ● Is a job for the whole management team, not just a few senior managers. ● Can take years longer to develop as a real proficiency than implementing strategy. ● Requires a determined commitment to change, action, and performance.
10–4© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. A FRAMEWORK FOR EXECUTING STRATEGY Committing to Executing a Strategy: ● Entails figuring out the specific techniques, actions, and behaviors necessary for a smooth strategy- supportive operation. ● Following through to get things done and deliver results. ● Making things happen (leadership) and making them happen right (management).
10–5© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. FIGURE 10.1 The 10 Basic Tasks of the Strategy Execution Process Chapter 10 Chapter 12 Chapter 11 The Action Agenda for Executing Strategy
10–6© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 1.Staff the organization with managers and employees capable of executing the strategy well. 2.Build the organization’s capabilities required for successful strategy execution. 3.Create a strategy-supportive organizational structure. 4.Allocate sufficient budgetary (and other) resources to the strategy execution effort. 5.Institute policies and procedures that facilitate strategy execution. 6.Adopt best practices and business processes that drive continuous improvement of execution activities. 7.Install information and operating systems that enable personnel to carry out their strategic roles proficiently. 8.Tie rewards and incentives directly to the achievement of strategic and financial targets. 9.Instill a corporate culture that promotes good strategy execution. 10.Exercise the internal leadership needed to propel strategy implementation forward. THE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF THE STRATEGY EXECUTION PROCESS
10–7© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦When strategies fail, it is often because of poor execution. Strategy execution is therefore a critical managerial endeavor. ♦The two best signs of good strategy execution are whether a company is meeting or beating its performance targets and whether they are performing value chain activities in a manner that is conducive to companywide operating excellence.
10–8© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. BUILDING AN ORGANIZATION CAPABLE OF GOOD STRATEGY EXECUTION: THREE KEY ACTIONS 1.Staffing: Assemble a strong management team and a cadre of competent employees. 2.Developing: Renew, upgrade, and revise resources and capabilities to match chosen strategy. 3.Structuring: Create strategy-supportive organization capable of good strategy execution.
10–9© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. FIGURE 10.2 Building an Organization Capable of Proficient Strategy Execution: Three Types of Paramount Actions
10–10© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦Putting together a talented management team with the right mix of experiences, skills, and abilities to get things done is one of the first steps to take in launching the strategy- executing process.
10–11© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STAFFING THE ORGANIZATION Putting Together a Strong Management Team: ● Planners who ask tough questions and figure out what needs to be done. ● Implementers who can select, manage, and lead the right people. ● Executors who turn decisions into actions that drive the changes that produce sustainable competitive advantage. Key Takeaway: ● A critical mass of talented activist managers
10–12© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦In many industries, adding to a company’s talent base and building intellectual capital are more important to good strategy execution than additional investments in capital projects.
10–13© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. RECRUITING, TRAINING, AND RETAINING CAPABLE EMPLOYEES Intensively screen and evaluate applicants to ensure selecting those who are best-suited and best-fitted. Provide training programs throughout employee careers. Rotate promising people through challenging, and skill- stretching international assignments. Make the work environment stimulating and engaging so that the firm is considered a great place to work. Use an assortment of financial incentives and other perks to retain employees. Coach average performers to improve their skills and capabilities, while weeding out underperformers.
10–14© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦The best companies make a point of recruiting and retaining talented employees—the objective is to make the firm’s entire workforce (managers and rank-and-file employees) a genuine competitive asset.
10–15© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ILLUSTRATION CAPSULE 10.1 “Build From Within”: P&G’s Approach to Management Development ♦Why would you want to work as a manager for Proctor and Gamble? ♦What long-term organizational problems could result from a heavy reliance on promote-from- within?
10–16© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ACQUIRING, DEVELOPING, AND STRENGTHENING KEY RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES Develop capabilities internally Acquire capabilities through mergers and acquisitions Access capabilities via collaborative partnerships Approaches to Build Building and Strengthening Capabilities
10–17© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦Building new competencies and capabilities is a multistage process that occurs over a period of months and years. It is not something that is accomplished overnight.
10–18© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. DEVELOPING CAPABILITIES INTERNALLY Coordinate and integrate the efforts of work groups and departments Strengthen the firm’s base of skills, knowledge, and intellect Managerial Actions to Develop Competencies and Capabilities
10–19© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦A company’s capabilities must be continually refreshed and renewed to remain aligned with changing customer expectations, altered competitive conditions, and new strategic initiatives.
10–20© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. SETTING STRETCH GOALS: FROM CAPABILITY TO COMPETENCE Thinking strategically about a firm’s knowledge and skills base Thinking strategically about a firm’s opportunities and challenges Setting a stretch goal of developing an organizational ability to do something well Evolving the ability into a competence or capability by performing it well and at an acceptable cost Refreshing, updating, and upgrading competencies and capabilities as necessary to gain and maintain competitive advantage
10–21© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ACQUIRING CAPABILITIES THROUGH MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS A Question of Market Opportunity When a market opportunity can slip by faster than a needed capability can be created internally. A Question of Competitive Necessity When industry conditions, technology, or competitors are moving at such a rapid clip that time is of the essence. A Question of Successful Integration Tacit knowledge and complex routines may not transfer readily from one organizational unit to another.
10–22© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ILLUSTRATION CAPSULE 10.2 Toyota’s Legendary Production System: A Capability that Translates into Competitive Advantage ♦What about the Toyota Production System (TPS) makes it so difficult for competitors to imitate successfully? ♦What is the relationship between continuous improvement and efficiency in the TPS? ♦Why would an Ishikawa (fish bone) diagram be helpful in solving problems in the TPS?
10–23© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ACCESSING CAPABILITIES THROUGH COLLABORATIVE PARTNERSHIPS Outsource the function requiring the capabilities to a key supplier or another provider Collaborate with a firm that has complementary resources and capabilities Engage in a collaborative partnership for the purpose of learning how the partner does things Approaches to acquiring capabilities from an external source
10–24© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. THE STRATEGIC ROLE OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING Training Is Important In: ● Executing a strategy that requires different skills, competitive capabilities, and operating methods. ● Organizational efforts to build skills-based competencies. ● Supplying technical know-how to employees when rapidly changing technology puts a firm in danger of losing its ability to compete.
10–25© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGY EXECUTION CAPABILITIES AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Superior Strategy Execution Capabilities: ● Are difficult to imitate and socially complex process that take a long time to develop. ● Maximize organizational resources and competitive capabilities in support of the business model. ● Lower costs and permit firms to deliver more value to customers. ● Enable a firm to react more quickly to market changes, beat competitors to market with new products and services, and gain uncontested market dominance.
10–26© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦Superior strategy execution capabilities are the only source of sustainable competitive advantage when strategies are easy for rivals to copy.
10–27© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. MATCHING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TO THE STRATEGY Ensuring that Structure Follows Strategy By: ● Deciding which value chain activities to perform internally and which to outsource. ● Aligning the firm’s organizational structure with its strategy. ● Determining how much authority to delegate. ● Facilitating collaboration with external partners and strategic allies.
10–28© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. FIGURE 10.3 Structuring the Work Effort to Promote Successful Strategy Execution
10–29© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. DECIDING WHICH VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES TO PERFORM INTERNALLY AND WHICH TO OUTSOURCE Outsourcing’s Execution-Related Benefits: ● Helps in outclassing rivals in strategy-critical activities and in turning a core competence into a distinctive competence. ● Decreases bureaucracies, flattens structure, speeds decision making, and shortens respond time to changing market conditions. ● Adds to a firm’s capabilities and contributes to better strategy execution through partnerships with suppliers and channel partners.
10–30© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦Wisely choosing which activities to perform internally and which to outsource can lead to several strategy-executing advantages—lower costs, heightened strategic focus, less internal bureaucracy, speedier decision making, and a better arsenal of organizational capabilities.
10–31© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ALIGNING THE FIRM’S ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE WITH ITS STRATEGY Organizational Structure ● Comprises the formal and informal arrangement of tasks, responsibilities, lines of authority, and reporting relationships for the firm. Structure Is Aligned with Strategy When: ● Its design contributes to the creation of value for customers. ● Its parts are aligned with one another and also matched to the requirements of the strategy. ● It lowers operating costs through lower bureaucratic costs and operational efficiencies.
10–32© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. CORE CONCEPT ♦A firm’s organizational structure comprises the formal and informal arrangement of tasks, responsibilities, lines of authority, and reporting relationships by which the firm is administered.
10–33© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. ♦How important is outsourcing to Apple’s marketplace success? ♦Is outsourcing to low-wage overseas manufacturers to avoid paying higher wages in markets where it sells the majority of its products a failure of corporate social responsibility by Apple? ILLUSTRATION CAPSULE 10.3 Which Value Chain Activities Does Apple Outsource and Why?
10–34© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. MATCHING TYPE OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TO STRATEGY EXECUTION REQUIREMENTS Simple Structure (Line-and-Staff) Functional Structure (Departmental or Unitary) Multidivisional Structure (Divisional or M-form) Matrix Structure (Composite or Combination) Strategy Execution Requirements: Chosen Strategy Capabilities and Competencies Centralized or Decentralized Control
10–35© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. CORE CONCEPTS ♦A simple structure (line-and-staff structure) consists of a central executive (often the owner-manager) who handles all major decisions and oversees all operations with the help of a small staff. ♦A functional structure is organized into functional departments, with departmental managers who report to the CEO and small corporate staff.
10–36© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. CORE CONCEPTS ♦A multidivisional structure is a decentralized structure consisting of a set of operating divisions organized along business, product, customer group, or geographic lines, and a central corporate headquarters that allocates resources, provides support functions, and monitors divisional activities. ♦A matrix structure combines two or more organizational forms, with multiple reporting relationships. It is used to foster cross-unit collaboration.
10–37© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. DETERMINING HOW MUCH AUTHORITY TO DELEGATE Organizational Approach to Decision- Making Decentralized Decision Making Centralized Decision Making Authority is retained by top management Authority delegated to lower-level managers and employees
10–38© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. TABLE 10.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Centralized versus Decentralized Decision Making Centralized Organizational Structures Decentralized Organizational Structures Basic Tenets Decisions on most matters of importance should be in the hands of top-level managers who have the experience, expertise, and judgment to decide what is the best course of action Lower-level personnel have neither the knowledge, the time, nor the inclination to properly manage the tasks they are performing Strong control from the top is a more effective means for coordinating the firm’s actions Decision-making authority should be put in the hands of the people closest to, and most familiar with, the situation Those with decision-making authority should be trained to exercise good judgment A firm that draws on the combined intellectual capital of all its employees can outperform a command-and- control firm
10–39© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Centralized Organizational Structures Decentralized Organizational Structures Chief Advantages Fixes accountability through tight control from the top Eliminates potential for conflicting goals and actions on the part of lower-level managers Facilitates quick decision making and strong leadership under crisis situations Encourages employees to exercise initiative and act responsibly Promotes greater motivation and involvement in the business on the part of more company personnel Spurs new ideas and creative thinking Allows fast response to market change Entails fewer layers of management Advantages and Disadvantages of Centralized versus Decentralized Decision Making (cont’d) TABLE 10.1
10–40© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Centralized Organizational Structures Decentralized Organizational Structures Primary Disadvantages Lengthens response times by those closest to the market conditions because they must seek approval for their actions Does not encourage responsibility among lower-level managers and rank-and-file employees Discourages lower-level managers and rank-and-file employees from exercising any initiative Higher-level managers may be unaware of actions taken by empowered personnel under their supervision Puts the organization at risk if empowered employees happen to make “bad” decisions Can impair cross-unit collaboration Advantages and Disadvantages of Centralized versus Decentralized Decision Making (cont’d) TABLE 10.1
10–41© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦The ultimate goal of decentralized decision making is to put authority in the hands of those persons closest to and most knowledgeable about the situation.
10–42© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. CAPTURING CROSS-BUSINESS STRATEGIC FIT IN A DECENTRALIZED STRUCTURE Centralizing related functions requiring close coordination at the corporate level Enforcing close cross- business collaboration to avoid duplication of effort Capturing Cross-Business Strategic Fit
10–43© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE ♦Efforts to decentralize decision making and give company personnel some leeway in conducting operations must be tempered with the need to maintain adequate control and cross-unit coordination.
10–44© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. FACILITATING COLLABORATION WITH EXTERNAL PARTNERS AND STRATEGIC ALLIES Strategic alliances Outsourcing arrangements Joint ventures Cooperative partnerships Creating a Network Structure: Using “relationship managers” to build and maintain cooperative arrangements of value both parties
10–45© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. CORE CONCEPT ♦A network structure is the arrangement linking a number of independent organizations involved in some common undertaking.
10–46© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. FURTHER PERSPECTIVES ON STRUCTURING THE WORK EFFORT Pick a basic organizational design that matches structure to strategy Supplement design with appropriate coordinating mechanisms Institute collaborative networking and communication arrangements Matching Structure to Strategy
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CHAPTER 10 BUILDING AN ORGANIZATION CAPABLE OF GOOD STRATEGY EXECUTION: PEOPLE, CAPABILITIES, AND STRUCTURE.
1 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Task of Implementing Strategy l An action-oriented, operations-driven activity revolving.
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Crafting the Strategy Is a market-driven activity Successful strategy making depends on: ► Business vision ► Perceptive analysis of market conditions.
Organizing Process a course of action, a route, a progression Structure an arrangement, a configuration, a construction.
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