2A political party:A group of people that share common (political) beliefs and organize to represent these beliefs as a “party”Ideology:The shared beliefs of a political party providing framework for decisions (left, right, centre)Simplest level: a set of beliefs by which people live their livesOn a national scale: a set of beliefs by which a nation is guided or governed
3Liberalism:The belief of equal rights and the importance of individualityConservatism:- The belief in traditional ways and accepting minimal change to the status quo
4Socialism:- The belief in which decisions are made by the public with the welfare of all people in mind.- While capitalism exists, public/common ownership is commonplace > social programs, crown corporations, etc.
5Fascism:A belief system based on the value of the state over the individual (service to the state and the strength of the state is what matters most)Capitalism exists, but is directed by the stateTends to be chauvinistic, militaristic, nationalisticRule by a dictatorBest examples: Mussolini in Italy; Hitler in Germany
6Communism: (in theory) Aims for classless society (no upper/ lower/ bourgeoisie/proletariate)Everyone works to the best of their abilities for the benefit of everyoneNo private ownershipMeans of production are run by the government and wealth is distributed evenly among the people
7Totalitarianism:One leader has no limits on authorityControl over everything (control over the press, no freedom of speech, usually a secret police, etc.)Examples: Stalin in U.S.S.R; Hitler in Nazi Germany
8Anarchy:A state in which no one person is governing, but each individual has total liberty- Also based on the belief that individuals will do the “right thing” and don’t need a governing body to tell citizens what is “right”
9Democracy: system of gov't based around voting - people get a say (either direct or indirect) Direct Democracy: every eligible citizen participates directly by voting on all decisionsrepresentative democracy: allowing elected reps to make decision on their behalf (WE HAVE THIS)
10Left-wing:Support change in order to improve the welfare of all citizens.Gov't should play larger role in ppl's lives, especially providing social services-Law & order are important to protect rights of all citizens fairly & equally
11Centre:tradition is important, but change must be supported if ppl want it- Gov't should play a role only when it improves lives of citizens- law and order important, etc.
12Right -wing: - tradition is important; change should be treated with caution - Gov't should play small role; private business should ensure needs of citizens are met - emphasizes law and order to protect society and its traditions
13The Foundations & Structure & Role of Our Government:
14Constitutional monarchy: king or queen as head of state BNA Act: written part of our constitution drafted in 1867
15Constitution:-A legal document that outlines who should have the power to make various decisions.- The supreme law of the land. It outlines the structure of the gov't and gives the gov't the limitations and boundaries of their power.
16Charter of Rights and Freedoms: A bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution that guarantees political rights to citizens and civil rights to everyone in the country:freedom of speech, assembly, mobility, etc.
17Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Includes: legal rights – guarantees the right to a lawyerdemocratic rights – preserves the right to voteminority language rights – guarantees the right to be educated in one’s first languagemobility rights – grants the right to travel and work in any province or leave the country
18Amending Formula:- Constitutional change can be made only if seven out of ten provinces representing at least 50 percent of the population agree with the proposed change.
19“Notwithstanding Clause” Provinces can create laws that go against the Charter by invoking the “notwithstanding clause”It basically allows a province to pass a law which violates the Charter of Rights, by using an extraordinary invocation of the clause. Such a declaration has a term of only 5 yrs, although it can be renewed indefinitely
20Executive branch:Enforce orders and ensure they are carried out as they are intendedLegislative branch: branch of gov’t established for law-making process >-House of Commons -Crown / Monarch (Governor General) -Senate
43Choosing a party leader: Interested party members may be nominated to run in a leadership raceEach member of a party casts votes to select the candidate they wantCan sometimes be a series of votes to narrow the fieldThese are at “Leadership Conventions”
44Choosing party candidates: - Usually the members of a party in a given constituency / riding, will vote on local candidates for that party to select who will represent the party in the next election.
45Volunteers jobs during a campaign: - Answer phones, hand out pamphlets, go door to door to seek support, put up signs and posters, etc.
46Polling:Taking a survey of people’s opinions before an election to see trends of support, or to see what issues concern the public, or to see the public’s reaction to certain events.Often conducted by independent pollsters ie. Angus-ReidWhy are the results of polls important?- So that parties can see the views of Canadians and try to deliver and gain support before the election
47VOTING: Voter eligibility: To vote in a federal election you must be a Canadian citizen and be 18 years of age(that excludes refugees or landed-immigrants)
48Election day polling stations: Polling stations are places where Canadians go to vote, to cast their ballotsThere are usually a few of these stations set up in a community of our size. You are assigned a polling station based on your address.
49Registered voters:Someone who is allowed and eligible to cast their voteYou have to actually register to vote and be added to a database of Canadians who are allowed to vote – then every election they send you a voter card, telling you which polling station to go to to vote.
51Tabulation:Counting the votes after they are cast
52“First-past-the-post” system: - When the polls close, the votes are counted and the candidate with the most votes in each riding wins (not necessarily with the majority of votes, just more votes than any of the other parties for that riding)
53Riding B: 380 votes cast Cons. 100 votes Lib Riding B: 380 votes cast Cons. 100 votes Lib. 80 votes Green 60 votes NDP 40 votes = Conservative candidate wins, but more people didn’t vote Conservative, than did.Riding A: 350 votes cast Cons. 250 votes Lib. 50 votes Green 20 votes NDP 30 votes = Conservative candidate wins, with the majority of the votes cast.
54Percent of popular vote: (% of total votes for the party) Conservatives 30 %NDP 50%Liberals 10%Green 5%Bloc Quebecois 5%Conservatives win the election, but it is possible that over 2/3 of the population did not vote for them.
56Prime Minister:The leader of the political party in power, chosen by that party beforehand at a convention.Represents the head of gov’t; leader of the nationAsks Govenor General to appoint new judges and senators, and call electionsRepresents and communicates to Canadians on issues of national concern
57Caucus:- Private meetings amongst party members held to freely discuss concerns, programs, policies, and actions.
58Cabinet:Made of elected party members chosen by the Prime Minister. Each is responsible for a particular government department (ie. Defence, Finance, Foreign Affairs, etc.)These roles are extremely important, receive a lot of scrutiny from the opposition
59Back bencher:An MP who doesn’t hold a gov’t office (Minister or Deputy Minister) and isn’t a Front Bench spokesperson.Lower profile MPs
60Speaker of the House:An elected member to control the rules fairly and firmlyOften chosen from the governing party (if it is a majority gov’t)
65Session:- Meetings of parliament that occur at least once a year “Parliament is in session” means the MPs are in Ottawa, sitting in the seats
66Question Period:Members of Parliament question each other - can get tense
67HANSARD – official verbatim report of proceedings in the House of Commons (what was said during debate)
68Party Whip:- A Member of Parliament appointed by the party to enforce discipline (around votes on bills in the House of Commons, speaking to the media, etc.)
69Free vote:A vote based on what you believe is best, no matter what position your party takesCabinet solidarity:The members must agree with and support the decisions of the cabinet
70Majority Government:Holds over 50% of the seats and can therefore not loose a vote on a proposed bill in the House of CommonsMinority Government:- Holds less than 50% of the seats and can be defeated in a vote of non-confidence
71Vote of non-confidence: -a non-confidence motion is a motion in the House of Commons, which, if passed, means that the government has lost the confidence of the House. The government must then either resign or ask the Governor General to dissolve Parliament and call an election. Votes on the Speech from the Throne and tax and spending bills are automatically considered to be votes of non-confidence
72Proportional representation: The number of seats a party receives is based on the percentage of the popular vote they received.Eg. If 50% of voters across Canada voted for the Green Party, then based on proportional representation, the Green Party would get 50% of the seats in the House of Commons
74Current Leaders of the Major Political Parties: -Conservative: Stephen Harper (Prime Minister)-New Democratic Party (NDP): Tom Mulcair (Official Opposition)-Liberal Party: Justin Trudeau (his dad was a PM)-Green Party: Elizabeth May- Bloc Quebecois: Daniel Paille (but he stepped down Dec.16 so there will be a leadership race)
75How a Bill Becomes Law:Any member of the House of Commons or Senate can introduce a billCabinet members usually introduce new billsA bill presented by another member of the H of C is called a Private Member’s BillNext slide= steps for passing a bill
76Introduction: member of H of C or Senate introduces a bill First Reading: present the bill (either in the House or the Senate – wherever the member sits) – this is like a “heads up”Second Reading: Bill is read and fully debated, once it is accepted in principle, the bill is sent to a parliamentary committee for further study – committee usually made up of members from multiple parties...Committee: hears witnesses, examines bill closely, submits a report with/without amendments (changes)
77After Committee:Report Stage: Additional amendments to the bill are moved, debated, and voted on.3rd Reading: Last chance for the House to amend the bill. The bill is made into a final copy.Sent to the Other House: Either sent from the House to the Senate, or vice versa. The process starts again from the 1st readingRoyal Assent: The Governor General gives the bill the Royal Assent in the Senate when the bill has been passed in exactly the same form by both Houses. The Bill is assigned a number (ie. Bill C-17) the becomes a law.
78Senate:Independent from House of CommonsSenators appointed by PM when a vacancy arisesProvide final check to legislationCan also propose new laws, debate and pass themLaunch commissions, research / inquiriesHas their own speaker and affairs to runMust be Canadian citizen, at least 30 yrs old, live in the province/territory they represent, own at least $4000 of land.Must retire at 75.
79Patronage **When the Prime Minister picks his favourites to fill vacant Senate seatsA candidate is selected who has assisted the PM in some way.... Example, Mike Duffy was appointed by Stephen Harper as a Conservative Senator > his main job was to help the Conservative party fundraisePatronage is when a Senate seat is awarded as a reward for “loyalty” or “service”
80“Triple-E” SenateProposed model for Senate reform, as many people feel the Senate is not a truly democratic institutionTriple E > Effective (represents regional interests), Equal (all regions get equal representation – currently some provinces have more Senate seats than others ie. PEI has more than BC even though BC has much larger population), Elected – (elected Senators rather than appointed by the PM, and therefore would be less partisan (less likely to side with a party)
81Governor General:Representative of the British monarch in Canadian government (now a Canadian is appointed to the job, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister)Needs to give approval to a bill before it becomes law (this is called “Royal Assent”) in order to check to see that gov’t abides by the Constitutionperforms ceremonial functions – represents Canada at many international eventsCurrent Governor General is David JohnstonPast Governor Generals include Michaelle Jean and Adrienne Clarkson
82Royal Assent:- When the Governor General signs a bill into law after it has been approved by Senate
86Lieutenant-governor: - Parallel role to Governor General but in provinical government
87Public Service or Civil Service: Group of employees who perform the ongoing business of government. They are often the “face” of government, the ones we talk to to get service from the government.(at Ministry branches, for example)
88How to influence Government: non-governmental organizationsPressure groupsLobbyistsCivil disobedience