All second language learners use strategies BUT “Good” language learners use more varied strategies and use them more flexibly. Frequent use of learning strategies is correlated to higher self-efficacy. Strategy instruction improves academic performances.
Activity: Turn to your neighbor and discuss what you did last night. One rule: you cannot use the letter “n” in any of your responses or questions.
It is difficult because you are focusing on a language rule. Imagine an LEP student who is focusing on many language rules. English Language Learners are focusing mental energy on their developing language skills, not on developing independence in learning.
Show students how to take more responsibility for their learning
Assist students in connecting prior knowledge to new learning
Previewing/Rereading a story Establishing a purpose for reading Consciously making connections between personal experiences and what is happening in the story Reading aloud Highlighting Taking notes during a lecture Mapping information Graphic organizers Finding key vocabulary Mnemonics
Interaction (when students interact with each other to clarify a confusing point) Cooperative learning groups Group discussion i.e. Think/Pair/Share
* GIST * Comprehension Strategies Directed Reading –Thinking Activity (DRTA) (conduct think alouds to walk students through your thought processes)
How I wish I could calculate pi 3.141592 Messy Vera Eats Marble Jam Sandwiches… (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn…)
Summarize What did we learn? Respond Which questions were answered? Read Read alone or with others Predictions Make predictions Question What questions will be asked?Construct questions to ask Survey Look at pictures, headingsRead bold words
Provide plenty of opportunities for students to use learning strategies Learning strategies should be taught through explicit instruction & modeling Assist students in developing independence in self-monitoring ◦ ELLs may have difficultly initiating an active role because their mental energy is being used to develop language skills. Therefore, teachers must scaffold their instruction.
Strategies Ample opportunities to use strategies Use of scaffolding techniques Use of a variety of question types
1. Clear directions – no confusion 2. Clarify the purpose 3. Keep students on task 4. Models, exemplars, rubrics BEFOREHAND 5. Provide resources 6. Reduce uncertainty – provide FEEDBACK 7. Little wasted time 8. Momentum for further learning is created
Provides mature language skills needed for college and career readiness Provides more exposure to academic language and sophisticated sentence structures
“Juicy” Complex Excerpts and Sentences Choose Sentences that are: tied closely to the Essential Question being explored. layered with academic Tier 2 vocabulary. long and embedded with main and dangling clauses, parts, and phrases. filled with figurative language that merits attention. provide the same difficulty level, but have shorter amount of text Lily Wong Fillmore and Maryann Cucchiara 2012 testtestSentences with content-specific language functions with interesting phrasal frames, cohesive devices, and/or phraseology that merit attention.
How do you feel about asking factual questions to English Language Learners? Do you have the same opinion about asking questions that require more analysis or evaluation?
Who was the first president of the United States?
Provide English Language Learners with: Ample Opportunities to use strategies Sufficient scaffolding, including verbal supports such as paraphrasing and frequent repetition Instructional supports such as opportunities to work with more experienced individuals in flexible groups Use of Graphic Organizers Don’t forget to include higher-order questions that promote critical thinking
Select a lesson that you are already planning on using in your class. Write about how you used a metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategy to deliver that lesson Be prepared to share the activity with the group