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Really LARGE (macro) molecules that contain Carbon.

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Presentation on theme: "Really LARGE (macro) molecules that contain Carbon."— Presentation transcript:


2 Really LARGE (macro) molecules that contain Carbon

3 All of these large molecules are made from putting together smaller molecules known generically as monomers

4 Organic Macromolecules 4 Classes  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids

5 CARBOHYDRATES 1 sugar molecule – monosaccharide 2 sugar molecules bonded together – disaccharide 3 + sugar molecules bonded together - polysaccharide Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Monomer – monosaccharide (simple sugar)

6 Monosaccharides Single ring of Carbon Common examples: Glucose, Fructose and Galactose Glucose is the main sugar used for energy in both plants and animals Fructose is the sweetest of the monosaccharides

7 Disaccharides Two sugar molecules joined together. – Sucrose=fructose and glucose – Lactose=galactose and glucose

8 Polysaccharides Complex molecule of three or more sugars

9 Polysaccharides Glycogen, starch and cellulose are the three of the most important polysaccharides found in living things

10 Glycogen Animals store glucose in the form of glycogen

11 Starch Plants store glucose in the form of starch

12 glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose cellulose Cellulose Found in plant cell walls helps to give it strength

13 The primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to: provide and store energy.


15 Lipids Fatty compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Lipids do not dissolve in water – Hydrophobic Lipids store energy Monomer – fatty acid

16 Examples of lipids 1. Triglycerides Fats Oils 2. Phospholipids 3. Waxes 4. Steroids

17 Triglycerides : composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. H H-C----O H glycerol O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = fatty acids O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 =

18 Triglycerides Two types oils and fats – Fats are solids at room temperature – Oils are liquids at room temperature

19 There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see on food labels: 1.Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) 2.Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = saturated O C-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 = unsaturated

20 Phospholipids 2 long fatty acid tails attached to a phosphate molecule Put in a double layer, these make up the cell membrane of all living cells

21 Waxes Long fatty acid attached to a long alcohol – Protective coating in plants – Protective barrier in us???

22 Steroids Four carbon rings Found in hormones, nerve tissue, toad venoms, and plant poisons Cholesterol


24 5 functions of lipids: 1.Long term energy storage (fat) 2.Protection against heat loss (insulation) 3.Protection against water loss & germs (oils & waxes) 4.Chemical messengers (hormones & steroids) 5.Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

25 Proteins Skin and muscles cells are made up mostly of protein Made up mostly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Monomer – amino acid

26 Amino acids (the building blocks of protein) 2 kinds of amino acids -essential & non-essential amino acids - Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by our body & need to be obtained through our diet

27 Dipeptide – Two amino acids joined together Polypeptide – Three or more amino acids joined together Bonds that are formed between amino acids are called peptide bonds

28 7 functions of proteins: 1.Storage:albumin (egg white) 2.Transport: hemoglobin 3.Regulatory:hormones 4.Movement:muscles 5.Structural:membranes, hair, nails 6.Enzymes:cellular reactions 7. Defense:antibodies

29 A protein’s ability to carry out its job depends on its 3 dimensional structure

30 The sequence of the amino acids determines the shape of the protein

31 Four levels of protein structure: A.Primary Structure (1°) B.Secondary Structure (2°) C.Tertiary Structure (3°) D.Quaternary Structure (4°)

32 A.Primary Structure (1°) Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds. aa1aa2aa3aa4aa5aa6 Peptide Bonds Amino Acids (aa)

33 B.Secondary Structure (2°) 3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure held together by hydrogen bonds.

34 B.Secondary Structure (2°) Two examples: Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet Hydrogen Bonds

35 Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheets

36 C.Tertiary Structure (3°) Secondary structures bend and fold into a more complex 3-D arrangement. Called ‘subunits’ Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet

37 Subunit: Alpha Helix & Beta Pleated Sheets joined together

38 D.Quaternary Structure (4°) Composed of 2 or more “subunits”. 3° subunits

39 Subunits


41 Enzymes: Special Proteins

42 Enzymes Speed up and help chemical reactions happen Why is that important? Life processes = chemical reactions

43 Enzymes Substrate- goes into the reaction Product- comes out of the reaction

44 Nucleic Acids Two types – Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA – Ribonucleic Acid RNA Monomer – nucleotide

45 Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by controlling protein synthesis

46 DNA - Stores information for almost all cell activities by coding for proteins RNA – transfers information from DNA essential for making proteins Both are made up of thousands of monomers called nucleotides

47 Nucleotide O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) (A, G, C, or T) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)

48 DNA - double helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TA


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