1. CARBOHYDRATES Contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Hydrogen is in a 2:1 ratio to Oxygen – this means that for every 2 Hydrogens there is 1 Oxygen key source of ENERGY Ex. Glucose and Starches Ex. Glucose and Starches Plants use carbohydrates for structure Ex. CELLULOSE Ex. CELLULOSE
Monosaccharides all have the formula C 6 H 12 O 6 all have a Carbon Ring structure Ex. Glucose
Disaccharides all have the formula C 12 H 22 O 11 Notice the number of atoms has increased in this formula! Notice the number of atoms has increased in this formula! Ex. Sucrose Ex. Sucrose
Polysaccharides Formed of three or more simple sugar units Glycogen - animal starch stored in liver & muscles Cellulose - indigestible in humans - forms cell walls Starches - used as energy storage
How are complex carbohydrates formed and broken down?
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction Combining simple molecules to form a more complex one with the removal of water ex. monosaccharide + monosaccharide disaccharide + water C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6 C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O Polysaccharides are formed from repeated dehydration syntheses of water ○ They are the stored extra sugars known as starch
Hydrolysis Reaction Addition of WATER to a compound to SPLIT it into smaller monomers Ex. chemical digestion Ex. chemical digestion disaccharide + H 2 O monosaccharide + monosaccharide C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6
2. LIPIDS Function in long-term energy storage, protection, and insulation Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but the H:O ratio is not in a 2:1 ratio large molecules Ex. Fats, oils, waxes, steroids
LIPIDS continued Lipids are formed from the union of 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules 3 fatty acids + glycerol lipid 3 fatty acids + glycerol lipid Fats – primarily in animals Oils and waxes – primarily in plants Oils are liquid at room temperature, waxes are solids Oils are liquid at room temperature, waxes are solids Ex. Steroids - used to build many reproductive hormones and cholesterol Ex. Phospholipids – major component of cell membrane
3. PROTEINS Contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Composed of MANY amino acid monomers The arrangement of the amino acid that forms the primary structure of proteins. The arrangement of the amino acid that forms the primary structure of proteins.
PROTEINS continued Basic amino acid has a 1. carboxyl group 2. methyl group – 1 hydrogen attached 3. R Group attached to the methyl group 4. amino group – includes nitrogen The R Group is a group of atoms that is different for each amino acid. It determines the protein’s shape.
Major Protein Functions Growth and repair of tissues Helps organisms access energy Buffers – helps keep pH levels of body constant
Dehydration Synthesis of Dipeptide Building a protein chain Formed from two amino acid subunits amino acid + amino acid dipeptide + water
Hydrolysis of a Dipeptide Breaking down of a dipeptide into amino acids dipeptide + H 2 O amino acid + amino acid
Polypeptide (protein) Composed of three or more amino acids linked by synthesis reactions Ex. Insulin, hemoglobin, and enzymes. Ex. Insulin, hemoglobin, and enzymes.
Protein Structure Primary – sequence of chain of amino acids Secondary – occurs when the sequence of amino acids are linked by Hydrogen bonds Tertiary – occurse when certain attractions are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets Quaternary – is a protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain
4. NUCLEIC ACIDS Composed of nucleotides Nucleotides consist of 3 parts: Nucleotides consist of 3 parts: ○ 5-Carbon Sugar ○ Phosphate Group ○ Nitrogenous Base
NUCLEIC ACIDS continued Located in all cells Functions store and transmit hereditary/genetic information
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) contains the genetic code of instructions that direct a cell's behavior through the synthesis of proteins found in the chromosomes of the nucleus (and a few other organelles)
RNA (RiboNucleic Acid) directs cellular protein synthesis found in ribosomes, nucleoli, and cytoplasm