Presentation on theme: "PRECIPITATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS AND HYDROGEN ATOMS INTO THE UPPER ATMOSPHERES OF MARS AND VENUS Valery I. Shematovich Institute of Astronomy, Russian."— Presentation transcript:
PRECIPITATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS AND HYDROGEN ATOMS INTO THE UPPER ATMOSPHERES OF MARS AND VENUS Valery I. Shematovich Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences
Modeling of the H + and H precipitation into the Martian upper atmosphere basing on the ASPERA-3 data (Mars- Express) In collaboration with: D.V. Bisikalo (Institute of Astronomy RAN, Moscow ); S. Barabash, G. Stenberg, C. Dieval (Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden) J.-C. Gerard (LPAP, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium)
H + and H precipitation at Mars On Mars the boundary between the solar wind and the obstacle, the induced magnetosphere boundary (IMB), is located so close to the planet that the solar wind particles penetrating IMB can directly interact with the upper atmosphere (Lundin et al., 2004).
H + and H precipitation at Mars: processes Interactions of precipitating energetic H+ and H with the ambient atmosphere include the following processes: - the momentum and energy transfer in elastic and inelastic collisions, - ionization of target atmospheric molecules/atoms, -charge transfer and electron capture collisions. Energetic H atoms (or protons) produced by proton (or hydrogen) impact further recycle the collisions mentioned above.
H + and H precipitation at Mars: kinetic Boltzmann equations Distribution of suprathermals in the atmospheric rarefied gas is evaluated through the solution of Boltzmann-type kinetic equations with the source terms together with initial and boundary conditions for the atmospheric region G( r) with a boundary surface (G). This system of kinetic equations for suprathermal heavy atoms is solved using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method.
The energy deposition rate of H/H + flux is determined by the cross sections of the collisions with the ambient gas. The energy lost by the H/H + in a collision is determined by the scattering angle χ, where E H/H+ is the initial energy of the impacting proton or hydrogen atom. It is apparent that the energy loss for collisions in forward direction (for χ < 90°) at small scattering angles χ is less than that for larger scattering angles. The key point of this model is the stochastic treatment of the scattering angle distribution. H + and H precipitation at Mars: stochastic (DSMC) model
The induced magnetic field has been measured at Mars by the MGS orbiter [Brain et al., 2003] and the MEX orbiter [Akalin et al., 2010]. It was found that the induced magnetic field is mainly horizontal. The induced magnetic field strength is typically the strongest near the subsolar point (about 40 nT) and reaches a value of 20 nT at the terminator, in the altitude range 360–440 km [Akalin et al., 2010]. Following these measurements it was assumed the constant in time and uniform in space horizontal magnetic field B = 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 nT for the different model runs. The Monte Carlo code to model the penetration of high ‐ energy H + /H into the planetary atmosphere [Gerard et al., 2000] was modified to take into account the effect of the horizontal magnetic field on the proton trajectories. H + and H precipitation at Mars: stochastic (DSMC) model
We consider the H/H + transport between altitudes where H/H + are efficiently thermalized and atmospheric gas becomes practically collisionless. For the Martian atmosphere, the boundaries are placed at 80 and 500 km. LB: 80 km altitude is well below the exobase placed near 180 km at LSA. UB: was placed in the altitude range km, where measurements of the precipitating protons were made by the ASPERA-3 instrument. Fox&Hac, 2009 H + and H precipitation at Mars: numeric model
We use a spectrum 1 (solid line) of the downward moving protons, measured by the Mars Express ASPERA-3 [Barabash et al., 2006] in the energy range 700 eV – 20 keV. Sp. 1: h=[355 – 437 km], SZA=[42° - 49°] on February 27, 2004, at around 19:35 UT with Fn=3.0×10 6 cm -2 s -1 and Fe=1.4×10 -2 erg cm -2 s -1. Spectrum 2 (dashed line) was measured in altitude range 387 – 435 km at solar zenith angles 30° - 33° on October 4, 2005 at around 16:06 UT. H + and H precipitation at Mars: ASPERA-3 data at upper boundary
We have conducted a set of runs to estimate the magnitudes of the H/H + backscattered fluxes from the Martian atmosphere. The model input parameters are: - energy spectrum and angle distribution versus nadir of the incident protons (or hydrogen atoms); -magnitude of the parallel (horizontal to the surface of Mars) component of the induced magnetic field. H + and H precipitation at Mars: runs Run # B, horiz., nT Precipitating H + or H distribution vs nadir Precipitating H + spectrum measured by ASPERA-3 at altitude h ub Precipitating H spectrum 10Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, h ub =437 kmNone 210Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, h ub =437 kmNone 3a20Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, h ub =355 kmNone 3b20Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, h ub =437 kmNone 3c20Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, app. h ub =500 kmNone 430Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, h ub =437 kmNone 550Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 1, h ub =437 kmNone 6a20Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 2, h ub =387 kmNone 6b20Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 2, h ub =435 kmNone 6c20Isotropic, 0°-90°Spectrum 2, app. h ub =500 kmNone 720Isotropic, 0°-90°None, h ub =500 km a MS H, (Kallio et al., 1997) 820Isotropic, 0°-90°None, h ub =500 km b SW H, (Kallio et al., 1997)
In the “non-magnetic” case 12% of the particle flux and 9% of the energy flux of the precipitating protons are backscattered as upward moving protons and hydrogen atoms by the Martian upper atmosphere. H + and H precipitation at Mars: Run without induced magnetic field
For the incident proton spectrum 1 and for the different magnitudes of the horizontal component of the induced magnetic field B we have obtained the following estimates of the relative backscattered (upward) energy fluxes (EBF) for H+/H: EBF p =14, 42, 70, and 97% and EBF H =6, 3, 3, and 1% for the horizontal magnetic field B=10, 20, 30, and 50 nT, correspondingly. H + and H precipitation at Mars: Run with induced magnetic field
The Martian atmosphere is under the influence of an intense flux of hydrogen atoms of the solar wind energy [Kallio and Barabash, 2001]. In the solar wind and in the magnetosheath, hydrogen ENAs are formed in the charge exchange between solar wind protons and the hydrogen corona. Run 8 SW H - the upward energy flux of hydrogen was 10%, and of protons 0.3%. H + and H precipitation at Mars: Run with SW H atoms
H + and H precipitation at Mars: Conclusions For the incident proton spectrum 1 and for the different magnitudes of the horizontal component of the induced magnetic field B we have obtained the following estimates of the relative backscattered (upward) energy fluxes (EBF) for H+/H: EBF p =12, 14, 42, 70, and 97% and EBF H =9, 6, 3, 3, and 1% for the horizontal component of induced magnetic field B=0, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nT, correspondingly. We have studied the precipitation of energetic H + and He 2+ ions of the solar wind origin into the upper atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Models are still strongly limited by a poor availability of the data on differential cross sections for the H +, He 2+ – CO 2, N 2, O 2, O collisions at energies below a few keVs. Hopefully, such models will be tested and improved when the new data on the upper atmosphere of Mars will be available (MEX, MAVEN,…). Thank you for the attention!