4A molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges is called a polar molecule. Water is a compound consisting of polar molecules.polar molecule: molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges
5This type of weak attraction between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom within another molecule is a type of chemical bond called a hydrogen bond.
6Water's Life-Supporting Properties The polar nature of water and the effects of hydrogen bonding explain most of water's unique properties. These properties include cohesion and adhesion, temperature moderation, the lower density of ice compared to liquid water, and water's ability to dissolve other substances.
7Cohesion and AdhesionThis tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another is called cohesion.Cohesion is much stronger for water than for most other liquids.Water molecules are also attracted to certain other molecules.The type of attraction that occurs between unlike molecules is called adhesion.
8Example, trees depend on cohesion and adhesion to help transport water from their roots to their leaves (Figure 4-13).
9The evaporation of water from leaves pulls water upward from the roots through narrow tubes in the trunk of the tree.Adhesion between water molecules and the walls of the tubes helps resist the downward pull of gravity on the water.
10And because of cohesion between water molecules, the pulling force caused by evaporation from the leaves is relayed through the tubes all the way down to the roots. As a result, water moves against the force of gravity even to the top of a very tall tree.
11You've witnessed another example of cohesion if you've ever seen an insect "skating" across the surface of a pond.Cohesion pulls the molecules at the surface tightly together, forming a filmlike boundary that can support the insect. This effect is known as surface tension.
12Because of hydrogen bonding, water has a better ability to resist temperature change than most other substances.Why?Thermal energy is the total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter.Temperature is a measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles in a substance.
13When two substances differ in temperature, thermal energy in the form of heat is transferred from the warmer substance to the cooler one.When you heat a substance—such as a metal pan or water—its temperature rises because its molecules move faster. But in water, some of the thermal energy that is absorbed goes to break hydrogen bonds
14That doesn't happen in the metal pan, which has no hydrogen bonds. As a result, the water absorbs the same amount of thermal energy but undergoes less temperature change than the metal.Conversely, when you cool a substance, the molecules slow and the temperature drops. But as water cools, it forms hydrogen bonds. This releases thermal energy in the form of heat, so there is less of a drop in temperature than in metal.
15Low Density of IceDensity is the amount of matter in a given volume.A high-density substance is more tightly "packed" than a low-density substance.In most substances, the solid state is more dense than the liquid state.Water is just the opposite—its solid form (ice) is less dense than the cold liquid form.Once again, hydrogen bonds are the reason.
16Every water molecule in ice forms four long-lasting hydrogen bonds with neighboring water molecules, which keep the molecules spaced in a regular pattern (Figure 4-15).Because the molecules in liquid water are moving faster than those in ice, there are fewer and more short-lived hydrogen bonds between molecules.The liquid water molecules can fit more closely together than the molecules in ice. Since substances of lesser density float in substances of greater density, ice floats in liquid water.
17Water's Ability to Dissolve Other Substances When you stir table salt into a glass of water, you are forming a solution, a uniform mixture of two or more substances.The substance that dissolves the other substance and is present in the greater amount is the solvent (in this case, water).The substance that is dissolved and is present in a lesser amount is the solute (in this case, salt).
18When water is the solvent, the result is called an aqueous solution (from the Latin word aqua, "water").Water is the main solvent inside all cells, in blood, and in plant sap. Water dissolves an enormous variety of solutes necessary for life
19Figure 4-16 Sodium chloride dissolves as Na+ and Cl- ions become attracted to water molecules and break away from the surface of the solid.
20Acids, Bases, and pHIn aqueous solutions, a very small percentage of the water molecules themselves break apart into ions.The ions formed are positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) and negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-).For the chemical processes of life to work correctly, the right balance of H+ ions and OH- ions is critical.
21AcidsSome chemical compounds contribute additional H+ ions to an aqueous solution while others remove H+ ions from it.A compound that donates H+ ions to a solution is called an acid.An example is hydrochloric acid (HCl), the acid in your stomach. In an aqueous solution, hydrochloric acid breaks apart completely into H+ and Cl- ions.
22BaseA compound that removes H+ ions from an aqueous solution is called a base. Some bases, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), do this by adding OH- ions, which then combine with H+ ions and form water molecules.
23The pH Scale The pH scale describes how acidic or basic a solution is. The scale ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic).Each pH unit represents a tenfold change in the concentration of H+ ions.For example, lemon juice at pH 2 has 10 times more H+ ions than an equal amount of grapefruit juice at pH 3.Pure water and aqueous solutions that have equal amounts of H+ and OH- ions are said to be neutral. They have a pH of 7 and are neither acidic nor basic. The pH of the solution inside most living cells is close to 7.
24Figure 4-17 A solution having a pH of 7 is neutral. Many fruits have pH values less than 7, making them acidic. Various household cleaners have pH values greater than 7, making them basic.
25BuffersThe molecules in cells are very sensitive to concentrations of H+ and OH- ions, even a slight change in pH can be harmful to organisms.Many biological fluids contain buffers, substances that cause a solution to resist changes in pH. A buffer works by accepting H+ ions when their levels rise and donating H+ ions when their levels fall, thereby maintaining a fairly constant pH in the solution..
26Example Human blood normally has a pH of about 7.4. Certain chemical reactions within your cells can lead to an increase in the amount of H+ ions.When these ions move into the blood, buffers take up some of them, preventing the blood from becoming acidic enough to endanger cell function