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Wally Dream Job. Elemental silicon is melted and grown into a single crystal ingot Single crystal ingot being grown Completed silicon ingot.

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Presentation on theme: "Wally Dream Job. Elemental silicon is melted and grown into a single crystal ingot Single crystal ingot being grown Completed silicon ingot."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wally Dream Job

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3 Elemental silicon is melted and grown into a single crystal ingot Single crystal ingot being grown Completed silicon ingot

4 Pure silicon is rarely grown Pure silicon is rarely grown Typically as the silicon crystal is grown, an impurity element is introduced into the growth process to create an electrically positive (missing electron) p-type silicon or electrically negative (extra electron) n-type silicon Typically as the silicon crystal is grown, an impurity element is introduced into the growth process to create an electrically positive (missing electron) p-type silicon or electrically negative (extra electron) n-type silicon This process is called doping and the elements used are called dopants This process is called doping and the elements used are called dopants Boron, a group 3 element, is the most common p-type dopant Boron, a group 3 element, is the most common p-type dopant Phosphorus, antimony and arsenic are the most common dopants for n-type silicon. Phosphorus, antimony and arsenic are the most common dopants for n-type silicon.

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6 So Dopants are used to change the conductivity of the silicon crystal. Dopants are used to change the conductivity of the silicon crystal. The amount of dopant introduced into the crystal as it is being grown determines the resistivity of the silicon crystal and thus the resulting wafers cut from this crystal The amount of dopant introduced into the crystal as it is being grown determines the resistivity of the silicon crystal and thus the resulting wafers cut from this crystal

7 Resistivity vs Impurity Concentration

8 Reading a Log-Log graph 1.0 x x x 10 14

9 The silicon ingot is sliced into wafers. For microelectronics use and some solar cells, the top side of the wafer is highly polished. Some other solar cells are fabricated on unpolished wafers

10 Junction Formation Once the wafer has been created with the appropriate dopant (resistivity level) it is ready for additional dopant layers Once the wafer has been created with the appropriate dopant (resistivity level) it is ready for additional dopant layers Boron continues to be the most common p-type dopant and phosphorus is now the most common dopant for n-type regions Boron continues to be the most common p-type dopant and phosphorus is now the most common dopant for n-type regions

11 Dopants can be introduced into the silicon crystal in a variety of ways 1. High Temperature plus time 1. Solid sources 2. Liquid sources 3. Gaseous sources 2. Ion Implantation

12 Solid Dopant Sources A solid wafer of born (boron nitride), antimony, arsenic, or phosphorus is placed in close proximity to the silicon wafer at high temperature. A solid wafer of born (boron nitride), antimony, arsenic, or phosphorus is placed in close proximity to the silicon wafer at high temperature. Atoms are transferred via gas flow on to the silicon wafer and allowed to diffuse into the silicon crystal Atoms are transferred via gas flow on to the silicon wafer and allowed to diffuse into the silicon crystal

13 Gaseous Sources A gaseous source is introduced into a chamber to supply the dopant material. A gaseous source is introduced into a chamber to supply the dopant material. Requires an air tight chamber because many of the gases used are dangerous Requires an air tight chamber because many of the gases used are dangerous Most commonly used for growing the crystal and in ion implantation Most commonly used for growing the crystal and in ion implantation

14 Liquid Source With the wafers in a high temperature furnace, a nitrogen carrier gas is bubbled through a flask of phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). This phosphorus laden gas is flowed into the furnace. With the wafers in a high temperature furnace, a nitrogen carrier gas is bubbled through a flask of phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). This phosphorus laden gas is flowed into the furnace. This method provides a high concentration of phosphorus which is often desirable. This method provides a high concentration of phosphorus which is often desirable. However, this chemical is toxic and dangerous to use However, this chemical is toxic and dangerous to use

15 Liquid Source Another liquid source is a “spin on” film Another liquid source is a “spin on” film This film is spun on the wafer, like photoresist, to a uniform layer This film is spun on the wafer, like photoresist, to a uniform layer The wafer is then inserted into a high temperature furnace and the film is then the source of dopant. The wafer is then inserted into a high temperature furnace and the film is then the source of dopant. Depending on time and temperature, the dopant diffuses into the silicon to a certain depth Depending on time and temperature, the dopant diffuses into the silicon to a certain depth This is the method we will use on our initial solar cell This is the method we will use on our initial solar cell

16 High Temperature Furnaces for dopant diffusion

17 Dopants can be introduced into the silicon crystal with an “ion implanter”

18 Ion Implantation Tool is very expensive – greater than $1 million Tool is very expensive – greater than $1 million Requires high level technical support, operation, and maintenance Requires high level technical support, operation, and maintenance Implantation of ion causes crystal damage that needs to be annealed out Implantation of ion causes crystal damage that needs to be annealed out Still requires a high temperature furnace for diffusion of impurities Still requires a high temperature furnace for diffusion of impurities Not a University option BUT foundries offer the service Not a University option BUT foundries offer the service

19 Assignment due next class Resistivity vs Concentration Worksheet from the web site


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