# Classifying the Elements 6.2

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Classifying the Elements 6.2

Classifying the Elements
6.2 A coin may contain much information in a small space—its value, the year it was minted, and its country of origin. Each square in a periodic table also contains information. You will learn what types of information are usually listed in a periodic table.

Squares in the Periodic Table
6.2 Squares in the Periodic Table Squares in the Periodic Table What type of information can be displayed in a periodic table?

Squares in the Periodic Table
6.2 Squares in the Periodic Table The periodic table displays the symbols and names of the elements, along with information about the structure of their atoms. This is the element square for sodium from the periodic table. Interpreting Diagrams What does the data in the square tell you about the structure of sodium atoms?

Squares in the Periodic Table
6.2 Squares in the Periodic Table The background colors in the squares are used to distinguish groups of elements. The Group 1A elements are called alkali metals. The Group 2A elements are called alkaline earth metals. The nonmetals of Group 7A are called halogens.

Squares in the Periodic Table
6.2 Squares in the Periodic Table In this periodic table, the colors of the boxes are used to classify representative elements and transition elements.

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups Electron Configurations in Groups How can elements be classified based on their electron configurations?

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups Elements can be sorted into noble gases, representative elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals based on their electron configurations.

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups The blimp contains helium, one of the noble gases. This blimp contains helium, one of the noble gases. Applying Concepts What does the ability of a helium-filled blimp to rise in air tell you about the density of helium?

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups The Noble Gases The noble gases are the elements in Group 8A of the periodic table. The electron configurations for the first four noble gases in Group 8A are listed below.

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups The Representative Elements Elements in groups 1A through 7A are often referred to as representative elements because they display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. The s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are not filled. The group number equals the number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level.

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups In atoms of the Group 1A elements below, there is only one electron in the highest occupied energy level.

Electron Configurations in Groups
6.2 Electron Configurations in Groups In atoms of the Group 4A elements below, there are four electrons in the highest occupied energy level.

Representative Elements
6.2 Representative Elements Representative Elements Some of the representative elements exist in nature as elements. Others are found only in compounds.

Representative Elements
6.2 Representative Elements Representative Elements Some of the representative elements exist in nature as elements. Others are found only in compounds.

Representative Elements
6.2 Representative Elements Representative Elements Some of the representative elements exist in nature as elements. Others are found only in compounds.

Representative Elements
6.2 Representative Elements Representative Elements Some of the representative elements exist in nature as elements. Others are found only in compounds.

6.2 Transition Elements Transition Elements There are two types of transition elements— transition metals and inner transition metals. They are classified based on their electron configurations.

6.2 Transition Elements In atoms of a transition metal, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel contain electrons. In atoms of an inner transition metal, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons.

Blocks of Elements 6.2 Transition Elements
This diagram classifies elements into blocks according to sublevels that are filled or filling with electrons. Interpreting Diagrams In the highest occupied energy level of a halogen atom, how many electrons are in the p sublevel?

Section Assessment 6.2.

6.2 Section Quiz 1. Which of the following information about elements is usually NOT included in a periodic table? color symbol atomic number atomic mass

6.2 Section Quiz 2. An alkali metal would have in the highest occupied energy level an s2 electron. an s1 electron. p2 electrons. p6 electrons.

6.2 Section Quiz 3. Which one of the following is incorrectly labeled? Ne, noble gas Cu, transition metal Ga, transition metal Cl, halogen

6.2 Section Quiz 4. Transition metals are characterized as being different than representative elements because they have electrons in which suborbitals? p d s f

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