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The Periodic Law –How is the modern periodic table organized? 6. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Law –How is the modern periodic table organized? 6. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Law –How is the modern periodic table organized? 6. 1

2 In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. 6. 1

3 The periodic law: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties. –The properties of the elements within a period change as you move across a period from left to right. –The pattern of properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next. 6. 1

4 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids »Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals 6. 1

5 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids »Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals in the Periodic Table 6. 1

6 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids »Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals in the Periodic Table 6. 1

7 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids »Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals in the Periodic Table 6. 1

8 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids –Metals Metals are good conductors of heat and electric current. –80% of elements are metals. –Metals have a high luster, are ductile, and are malleable. 6. 1

9 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids –Nonmetals In general, nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electric current. –Most nonmetals are gases at room temperature. –A few nonmetals are solids, such as sulfur and phosphorus. –One nonmetal, bromine, is a dark-red liquid. 6. 1

10 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids –Metalloids A metalloid generally has properties that are similar to those of metals and nonmetals. The behavior of a metalloid can be controlled by changing conditions. 6. 1

11 Squares in the Periodic Table The periodic table displays the symbols and names of the elements, along with information about the structure of their atoms. 6. 2

12 Squares in the Periodic Table The background colors in the squares are used to distinguish groups of elements. –The Group 1A elements are called alkali metals. –The Group 2A elements are called alkaline earth metals. –The nonmetals of Group 7A are called halogens. 6. 2

13 Squares in the Periodic Table 6. 2

14 Elements can be sorted into noble gases, representative elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals based on their electron configurations. 6. 2

15 Electron Configurations in Groups –The Noble Gases The noble gases are the elements in Group 8A of the periodic table. The electron configurations for the first four noble gases in Group 8A are listed below. 6. 2

16 –The Representative Elements Elements in groups 1A through 7A are often referred to as representative elements because they display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. –The s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are not filled. 6. 2

17 Electron Configurations in Groups In atoms of the Group 1A elements below, there is only one electron in the highest occupied energy level. 6. 2

18 Electron Configurations in Groups In atoms of the Group 4A (or 14) elements below, there are four electrons in the highest occupied energy level. 6. 2

19 Transition Elements There are two types of transition elements --transition metals and --inner transition metals. They are classified based on their electron configurations. 6. 2

20 In atoms of a transition metal, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel contain electrons. In atoms of an inner transition metal, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons. 6. 2

21 Transition Elements –Blocks of Elements 6. 2

22 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Atomic size

23 Trends in Atomic Size The atomic radius is one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined. 6. 3

24 Trends in Atomic Size –Group and Periodic Trends in Atomic Size –In general, atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group and decreases from left to right across a period. 6. 3

25 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25 Figure 7.35 Atomic Radii for Selected Atoms

26 Trends in Atomic Size 6. 3

27 Ions –How do ions form? 6. 3

28 Ions Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms. 6. 3

29 Ions Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms. 6. 3

30 Trends in Ionization Energy 6. 3

31 Trends in Ionization Energy –The energy required to remove the first electron from an atom is called the first ionization energy. 6. 3

32 Trends in Ionization Energy First ionization energy tends to decrease from top to bottom within a group and increase from left to right across a period. 6. 3

33 Trends in Ionization Energy 6. 3

34 Trends in Ionization Energy 6. 3

35 Trends in Ionization Energy 6. 3

36 Trends in Ionic Size Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they form. Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form. 6. 3

37 Trends in Ionic Size Relative Sizes of Some Atoms and Ions 6. 3

38 Trends in Ionic Size 6. 3 Size generally increases

39 Electronegativity is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound. –In general, electronegativity values decrease from top to bottom within a group. –For representative elements, the values tend to increase from left to right across a period. 6. 3

40 Trends in Electronegativity Representative Elements in Groups 1A through 7A 6. 3

41 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 41 Electron Affinity The energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom. X(g) + e X (g) If addition of an electron is exothermic, then EA is negative.

42 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 42 EA generally becomes more negative from L R across a period. EA becomes more positive as you go down a group. There are numerous EXCEPTIONS!

43 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 43 Figure 7.33 The Electronic Affinity Values for Atoms Among the First 20 Elements that Form Stable, Isolated X - Ions

44 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 44 Information Contained in the Periodic Table Grps. of Representative elements exhibit similar chemical properties that change in a regular way. Each group has the same valence electron configuration.

45 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 45 It is the number and type of valence electrons that primarily determine an atoms chemistry.

46 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 46 Figure 7.36 Special Names for Groups in the Periodic Table


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