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European Lead-Free Soldering NETwork ELFNET - European Lead-Free Soldering Network is partially funded by The European Commission 17 th May 2007 The future.

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Presentation on theme: "European Lead-Free Soldering NETwork ELFNET - European Lead-Free Soldering Network is partially funded by The European Commission 17 th May 2007 The future."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Lead-Free Soldering NETwork ELFNET - European Lead-Free Soldering Network is partially funded by The European Commission 17 th May 2007 The future of lead-free soldering from an ELFNET perspective Dag Andersson, IVF

2 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 State-of-the-art – some gaps remain Color book Roadmapping Summary Outline

3 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Launch of ELFNET, CA FP6 – April 2004 “To urgently coordinate, integrate and optimise the critical mass of European research in lead-free soldering; providing pan-European support for implementation of the RoHS Directive” To a deadline of July 2006 for consumer products To a deadline of 2010 or before for IT-network products To implement lead-free technology in sectors outside scope of RoHS (e.g. automotive, aerospace) €2.3M (230 person-months) over 3 years April 2004 – March 2007

4 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ELFNET Structure

5 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May European Research Expertise Solders –Solder manufacturers – Henkel, Heraeus, Avantec –ITRI/Soldertec –Universities - COST 531 network… Components –IMEC, IXL, PDM –E4 – Philips, ST Microelectronics, Infineon, Freescale Intermetallics –Helsinki University, IVF Reliability –EMPA, IMEC, University of Limerick, IMMG, FhG-IZM, Helsinki University, IVF….. –Industry – Automotive, Aerospace/Defence Process –TNO, IVF, IMEC, NPL –Industry – CEM’s, Ericsson, Nokia, Siemens, Bosch Environmental –TUB, VERC

6 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Key Large-Scale Projects INNOLOT –Harsh environment solders COST 531 –Solder Alloy Properties Database IMECAT –Assembly, Reliability LEADFREE –Reliability, SME Demonstration PROTIN (in cooperation JEITA, iNEMI, Soldertec) –Tin whiskers EFSOT –Assembly, Environmental SME RoHS Support – GREENROSE, LFS-for-SME’s, LEADOUT –Guidelines, hand soldering, defects

7 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May European Lead-Free Soldering Network 380 European expert members 530 electronics industry members 120 lead-free projects 300,000 website visitors per year Key Deliverables Solder Alloy Properties Database Reliability Book on Failures and Testing ELFNET Roadmap Expert Meetings/Presentations Industry leaders Research project coordinators Trade bodies Standards bodies Knowledge Base Research project reports ELFNET reviews Topic webpages Primary RoHS news source Guidance documents Contacts directory Collaborative Opportunities Heterogeneous Assembly Reliability Test Methods Reliability Modelling Tin Whiskers F7 Proposals

8 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May DTI project UK ITRI, Multicore, GEC-Marconi, BNR (Nortel) EU project IDEALS Siemens, Philips, Marconi, Multicore, Witmetaal implementation issues alloy selection technology transfer IMR IMECAT COST 531 LEADFREE PROTIN LFS-for_SME’s EFSOT ELFNET ELFNET CA

9 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 State-of-the-art – some gaps remain Color book Roadmapping Summary Outline

10 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Next Generation Lead-Free Solders SAC+ –Improved properties, eg wetting, strength –Some commercially available products Low-Silver SAC –Lower cost –BGA balls for mobile devices SnZn, SnZn+ –Reliability issues – recent high profile Japanese failure –Consumer market – short lifetimes –Low cost, low temperature SnBi –Lower temperature soldering –Wider Japanese experience –Requires no lead contamination – low temperature eutectic Composite solders –Addition of ‘nanograins’ to improve properties Disassembling solders –To aid recycling – conceptual only

11 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May High Temperature Solders SnPb/SnPbAg in component packaging applications RoHS exempted SnAu is available but niche due to cost Some technologies but all deficient –Nanoparticulate conductive adhesives –Cu net composites –SnSbCu New projects proposed –COST MP0602 university network (COST 531 follow-on) –Tokyo University

12 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Reliability Concerns still being expressed –Complex, sometimes contradictory data –Test methodologies –Commercially preferred SAC solders reached only 5% of the lifetime of Sn-Pb solders under combined thermal and vibration cycling (JCAA/JG-PP) US and European (ELFNET) consortia –iNEMI High Reliability Task Force: Guidelines –JG-PP, CALCE: Research –ELFNET: Color book on Test Methods and Quality New projects –GEAMCOS (Aerospace/Defence) – EADS, France –ALSHIRA (High Reliability) – IMEC, Belgium –Drop/Shock Tests – HUT, Finland; University of Limerick, Ireland

13 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Large & Complex Boards iNEMI identified significant difficulties –Hole-filling –Rework & repair –Warping –Delamination Generally industry-based solutions in progress Needs more collaborative research –Thermal management –New materials, processes

14 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Halogen-Free Deca-BDE controversy in Europe TBBPA used in 95% Boards Deca-BDE used in epoxy component packaging, casings etc Halogen-free alternatives exist but –~30% add-on cost –Issues with highly-filled systems – extra drilling, water absorption More research required –Environmental impact, toxicology –Industrial trials – long-term ageing…

15 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ‘Green Electronics’ ECOLIFE, EFSOT projects completed – limited conclusions US EPA/Tenessee LCA study published – strong debate EuP (Eco-Design), REACH, China RoHS imminent Need for further collaborative action

16 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Micro-Nano Interconnection High density interconnection a major driver Component packaging configurations proliferating New technologies –Copper pillars –3D interconnects –Embedded passives –Bare die… ELFNET expands its scope in the Interconnect Roadmap

17 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 State-of-the-art – some gaps remain Color book Roadmapping Summary Outline

18 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May The ELFNET Reliability and Quality Colour Book Europe’s experts summarise state-of-the-art and latest results for causes and testing of the major lead-free quality issues and all known lead-free joint failure mechanisms. The ultimate aim of the work is to lay the technical foundations for urgent on- going global efforts to harmonise reliability test methods and standards. Outcome of the work: Definition of terms Description of the mechanism Test methods to activate the mechanism Testing for material properties for simulation Relevant mission profile Reference to existing standards Definition of what is a failure and how can it be detected.

19 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Lessons learned from lively discussions Reliability is a figure. It’s the probability that an entity works Qualification tests ≠ Reliability tests; Reliability of process ≠ reliability of product; Quality problem ≠ reliability problem Examples of new failure mechanisms: Kirkendall voids, champagne voids, cracking beneath paths Standard tests do not give an information on the reliability of the tested product. They are the essence of the reliability know-how of known technologies. Test can only be defined if the failure mechanism is understood and applied to the mission profile a product is tested for Goal of ELFNET defined: No new standard but guideline

20 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May IssueResponsible Thermal capability of componentsChristian Zardini, Jean-Yves Deletage Warpage of Large Packages Bart Vandevelde PCB delaminationEva Hedin, Ilknur Baylakoglu Popcorn crackingRainer Dudek “Black Pad” and Intermetallic LayersPer-Erik Tegehall Conductive Anodic Filaments Ling Zou, Alan Brewin, Chris Hunt Tin WhiskersAntonello Vicenzo Lead free quality issues

21 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May IssueResponsible Low cycle fatigueRainer Dudek High cycle fatigueGuenter Grossmann Brittle fracture bulkKonstantza Lambrinou Brittle fracture interfaceToni Mattila Kirkendall voidsMo Biglari ElectromigrationBart Vandevelde Electro-chemical migrationPer-Erik Tegehall CorrosionMilos Dusek Collection of mission profilesWilson Maia Lead free reliability issues

22 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Embrittlement of lead free solder

23 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Failure of lead free solder under shock Simulation of flexing of a test board Measured longitudinal strain at the center of the board in drop test. Brittle fracture at interface

24 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Definition of a cycle with stress levels Definition of a cycle with R and  a, High cycle fatigue Determination of Woehlers curve Classic high cycle fatigue Stress induced failure in bending test

25 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 State-of-the-art – some gaps remain Color book Roadmapping Summary Outline

26 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May FP7 FP6 Beyond ELFNET - and beyond MP 0602 xx IMR IMECAT ALSHIRA LEADFREE PROTIN LFS-for_SME’s EFSOT GreenRose Leadout Amelie FP8- “ELFNET Roadmap” GEAMCOS COST 531 ELFNET ELFNET CA

27 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Integration with Industry Roadmaps from … IPC iNEMI ITRS ECOLIFE MEDEA+ ENIAC EPOSS IPMMAN

28 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May ELFNET Roadmap ‘The Future of European Electronics Interconnection’ ELFNET + Industry roadmaps State-of-the-art in key areas Technology Drivers Detailed Topic tables Interconnection Trends table

29 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Interconnection Trends

30 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Smaller;Faster;Cheaper; But ….. More complex, more integrated and more of Moore ! (ITRS etc) Source: Prof. H Reichl - ISS Berlin Feb 2005 Packaging Roadmap..

31 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May

32 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Materials Declaration –More clarity –New data tools Marking & Labelling –Industry harmonisation –Clearer standards RoHS Component Availability –Thermally compatible components –Shelf-life data –Continued availability of SnPb Supply Chain Management

33 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Stress Modelling –Better collaboration –Knowledge of properties –New tools & methodologies Thermal Simulation –Adaption of FEM tools Design Tools & Methodologies –Design for Reliability (DfR) Standards & Design Rules –More harmonisation –Adaption to new technologies –Better standards Modelling & Design

34 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Lead-Free Solders –High reliability solders Lead-Free Finishes –Low cost, high quality finishes –Intermetallics control Substrates –Thermally resistant laminates Halogen-Free Materials –Non-phosphorus fire retardants Underfills & Encapsulants –Reworkable underfills CTE Matching –Thermally compatible vias Materials Technologies

35 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Lead-Free Soldering –Effective rework & repair –Processing large & complex boards –Low temperature soldering Heterogeneous Assembly –Improved printing technologies –Heterogeneous processing New Process Technologies –Faster, more cost-effective laser soldering –New concepts for direct interconnect Process Optimisation –Decrease process steps –More process control Process Technologies

36 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Inspection & Test –Effective high density testing –Adaption to new technologies Reliability Testing –Harmonised test methods for lead-free –Lifetime prediction Tin Whiskers –Global harmonisation of guidelines –More focus on component finishes –Improved understanding of behaviour Harsh Environments –Robust, durable electronics Testing & Reliability

37 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Life Cycle Analysis –Accurate, meaningful LCA results Recycling & Reuse Technologies –Low cost electronics recycling –Reliable reusable components Eco-Design –Eco-efficient electronics assemblies Sustainable Electronics

38 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Nanosolders –Cost-effective, stable nanosolders Nanoscale Interconnection –New materials/processes Conductive Adhesives –Commercially viable large-scale Plastic Electronics –Cost-effective, stable, printable interconnections Applied Nanotechnology

39 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May System in Package (SiP) –Sub-systems linking 3D Interconnects –New/improved methods, approaches –Better reliability Interconnect Spacing –Lower power density Vertical Interconnects –New fabrication concepts Embedded Components –Better processing Thermal Management –Advanced materials –Stable coplanarity Component Packaging

40 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Summary European research was sparse, fragmented and late Japan and latterly US moving ahead with large-scale actions ELFNET has drawn together experts, highlighted issues, provided data Some key topics remain RoHS implementation underway post-July 2006 deadline Supply Chain issues eg Materials Declaration, Marking, Testing not fully resolved in Europe - Standards still in draft Basic technology issues have real-world solutions – industry-led Concerns remain over reliability in affected sectors Improved materials technologies still evolving Further environmental pressures imminent – REACH, EuP Transition to excempt sectors until ?2012?

41 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May iVi Interconnect Virtual Institute

42 COST Action Final Meeting Vienna – May Thank you for your attention!


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