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18.5 Sources of Light Objects are invisible in the dark because no light is available to reflect off them. But some things, such as flashlights and fireflies,

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Presentation on theme: "18.5 Sources of Light Objects are invisible in the dark because no light is available to reflect off them. But some things, such as flashlights and fireflies,"— Presentation transcript:

1 18.5 Sources of Light Objects are invisible in the dark because no light is available to reflect off them. But some things, such as flashlights and fireflies, and the light sources in this hallway, produce their own light.

2 18.5 Sources of Light What are the six common sources of light? Common light sources include incandescent, fluorescent, laser, neon, tungsten-halogen, and sodium-vapor bulbs.

3 18.5 Sources of Light Objects that give off their own light are luminous. The sun is luminous, as are all light sources.

4 18.5 Sources of Light How does an incandescent light source generate light? Incandescent Light The color of any object depends on what the object is made of and on the color of light that strikes the object.

5 18.5 Sources of Light The light produced when an object gets hot enough to glow is incandescent. The filaments in incandescent light bulbs are made of a substance called tungsten. Incandescent bulbs give off most of their energy as heat, not light. Incandescent Light

6 18.5 Sources of Light An incandescent bulb contains a filament. As electrons flow through the filament, the filament gets hot and emits light. Incandescent Light

7 18.5 Sources of Light How does a fluorescent light source generate light? Fluorescent Light Fluorescent light bulbs emit light by causing a phosphor to steadily emit photons.

8 18.5 Sources of Light In a process called fluorescence, a material absorbs light at one wavelength and then emits light at a longer wavelength. A phosphor is a solid material that can emit light by fluorescence. A fluorescent bulb is a glass tube, containing mercury vapor, that is coated with phosphors. Fluorescent Light

9 18.5 Sources of Light The electrodes in a fluorescent bulb emit electrons that cause the mercury atoms to emit ultraviolet rays. These rays cause the phosphor coating to emit light. Fluorescent Light Glass tube filled with mercury vapor Electrode Electrical contacts

10 18.5 Sources of Light Office buildings and schools use mostly fluorescent lights. Fluorescent tubes do not get as hot as incandescent bulbs because they emit most of their energy as light. This means that they use energy very efficiently. Fluorescent Light

11 18.5 Sources of Light How does a laser light source generate light? Laser Light Laser light is emitted when excited atoms of a solid, liquid, or gas emit photons.

12 18.5 Sources of Light Light in which waves have the same wavelength, and the crests and troughs are lined up, is coherent light. A laser is a device that generates a beam of coherent light. A beam of coherent light doesn’t spread out significantly from its source, so the light has a relatively constant intensity. The energy it carries may be focused on a small area. Laser Light

13 18.5 Sources of Light Lasers have many practical applications. Lasers can cut through metals and make computer chips. Surgeons use lasers to cut or repair damaged tissue. Lasers carry information through optical fibers. Laser light is used to measure distances precisely. Laser Light

14 18.5 Sources of Light The waves in laser light all have the same wavelength and direction of travel, and their peaks coincide. Laser Light Mirror Helium atomCoherent waves Laser beam MirrorTube wallNeon atom

15 18.5 Sources of Light How does a neon light source generate light? Neon Light Neon lights emit light when electrons move through a gas or a mixture of gases inside glass tubing.

16 18.5 Sources of Light Many lights called neon lights contain gases other than neon, including helium, argon, and krypton. Helium gas gives off a pink light. A mixture of argon gas and mercury vapor produces greenish-blue light. Krypton gas produces a pale violet light. Pure neon emits red light. Neon Light

17 18.5 Sources of Light Each kind of gas emits photons of different energies, and therefore different colors. The different photons emitted combine to give each glowing gas a distinctive color. The color of glass used to make the tube can also affect the color of the light. Neon Light

18 18.5 Sources of Light How does a sodium vapor light source generate light? Sodium-Vapor Light As electric current passes through a sodium-vapor bulb, it ionizes the gas mixture. The mixture warms up and the heat causes the sodium to change from a solid into a gas.

19 18.5 Sources of Light Sodium-vapor lights contain a small amount of solid sodium, in a mixture of neon and argon gases. The current of electrons knocks electrons in sodium to higher energy levels. When the electrons move back to lower energy levels, the sodium atoms emit light. Sodium-Vapor Light

20 18.5 Sources of Light The yellow color of sodium-vapor light makes objects look different than they look in sunlight. Sodium-Vapor Light

21 18.5 Sources of Light How does a tungsten halogen light source generate light? Tungsten-Halogen Light Inside a tungsten-halogen bulb, electrons flow through a tungsten filament. The filament gets hot and emits light.

22 18.5 Sources of Light Tungsten-halogen light is produced in much the same way as incandescent light. A tungsten-halogen bulb has a small amount of a halogen gas, such as iodine, bromine, or fluorine. The halogen gas reduces wear on the filament, so tungsten-halogen bulbs last longer than incandescent bulbs. Tungsten-Halogen Light

23 18.5 Sources of Light Assessment Questions 1.The light produced when an object becomes hot enough to glow is a.incandescent. b.fluorescent. c.phosphorescent. d.coherent.

24 18.5 Sources of Light Assessment Questions 1.The light produced when an object becomes hot enough to glow is a.incandescent. b.fluorescent. c.phosphorescent. d.coherent. ANS:A

25 18.5 Sources of Light Assessment Questions 2.The most efficient source of lighting rooms of a building is a.incandescent light. b.flourescent light. c.sodium-vapor light. d.tungsten-halogen light.

26 18.5 Sources of Light Assessment Questions 2.The most efficient source of lighting rooms of a building is a.incandescent light. b.flourescent light. c.sodium-vapor light. d.tungsten-halogen light. ANS:B

27 18.5 Sources of Light Assessment Questions 1.Neon lights emit coherent light, in which the waves all have the same wavelength and wave crests and troughs are lined up. True False

28 18.5 Sources of Light Assessment Questions 1.Neon lights emit coherent light, in which the waves all have the same wavelength and wave crests and troughs are lined up. True False ANS:F, Lasers


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