# Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions

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Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions
Using the Activity Series

Introduction In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal. AX(aq) + B(s) → BX(aq) + A(s) For example: Adding magnesium metal to a solution of silver chloride causes the magnesium to dissolve and the silver to precipitate out. 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)

2 NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g) → 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(l)
Introduction In a single replacement reaction, the halide in a salt solution is replaced by another halide. AX(aq) + Y2 → AY(aq) + X2 For example: Adding chlorine gas to a solution of sodium bromide causes the chlorine to dissolve and the bromine to come out as a liquid. 2 NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g) → 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(l)

Introduction These kinds of reactions do not occur with all combinations of metals or halogens. Some metals will replace some other metal ions in solution. Some halogens will replace some other halogen ions in solution. However, not every metal will replace every other metal ion in solution.

2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
Metals The metals that replace other metal ions are said to be “more active” than the metals they replace. For example, in the reaction 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s) The metal Mg is more active than the Ag+ ion. By examining a series of reactions with solid metals and dissolved metal ions, we can build a list of metals based on activity. We call this the “Activity Series.”

Metals The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na. Each of these metals react with cold water and acids, replacing H. 2 Li(s) + H2O(l) → Li2O(s) + H2(g) 2 K(s) + HCl(aq) → 2 KCl(aq) + H2(g)

Metals The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na. Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides. 2 Ba(s) + O2(g) → 2 BaO(s) 2 Rb(s) + O2(g) → Rb2O(s)

Metals The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd. Each of these metals react with H2O(g) and acids, replacing hydrogen. Mg(s) + H2O(g) → MgO(s) + H2(g) Zn(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)

Metals The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd. Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides. 2 Zn(s) + O2(g) → 2 ZnO(s) 4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Fe2O3(s)

Metals The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb. None of these metals react with H2O (hot or cold). They do react with acids, replacing hydrogen. Co(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Co(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g) Pb(s) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Metals The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb. Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides. 2 Ni(s) + O2(g) → 2 NiO(s) 2 Sn(s) + O2(g) → 2 SnO(s)

Metals The next most active set of metals is Sb followed by Bi, Cu, and Hg. None of these metals react with water or acids. Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides. 4 Sb(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Sb2O3(s) 2 Cu(s) + O2(g) → 2 CuO(s)

Metals The least active set of metals is Ag followed by Pt and Au.
These metals are fairly unreactive. None of these metals react with water or acids. None of these metals react directly with O2(g) to form oxides. They will form oxides, but only indirectly.

Metals The Activity Series: Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu
most active Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd increasing activity increasing activity increasing activity increasing activity increasing activity least active

Halogens The most active halogen is F2 followed by Cl2, Br2, and I2.
Each of these halogens are reactive with a wide variety of elements and compounds. The activity series just shows which is most reactive and least reactive.

Halogens The Activity Series: F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 most active
increasing activity least active

Using the Activity Series
The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out. If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.

Using the Activity Series
The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas. If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd Zn is more active than Cu.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd Zn is more active than Cu. Zn(s) will replace Cu2+(aq).

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. We predict that the solid zinc will dissolve in the solution (forming Zn2+ ions) and copper metal will precipitate out. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd Mg is more active than Fe.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd Mg is more active than Fe. Mg(s) will replace Fe3+(aq).

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. We predict that the solid magnesium will dissolve in the solution (forming Mg2+ ions) and iron metal will precipitate out. 3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) → 3 MgCl2(aq) + 2 Fe(s)

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd Fe is more active than Cu.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. Li Mg Co Sb Ag Rb Al Ni Bi Pt K Mn Sn Cu Au Ba Zn Pb Hg Sr Cr Ca Fe Na Cd Fe is more active than Cu. Cu(s) will not replace Fe3+(aq).

Using the Activity Series
For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. We predict that there will be no reaction. Cu(s) + FeCl3(aq) → no reaction

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 Cl2 is more active than I2.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 Cl2 is more active than I2. Cl2 will replace I−.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. We predict that the chlorine gas will go into solution (forming a Cl− ion) and the iodine will come out as a solid. 3 Cl2(g) + 2 FeI3(aq) → 2 FeCl3(aq) + 3 I2(s)

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 F2 is more active than Cl2.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 F2 is more active than Cl2. Cl2 will not replace F−.

Using the Activity Series
For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. We predict that there will be no reaction. Cl2(g) + FeF3(aq) → no reaction

Practice Problems Use the activity series to predict the products of the following reactions. Indicate if there is no reaction. Mg(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) → Fe(s) + AgNO3(aq) → Cu(s) + AgNO3(aq) → Fe(s) + Na2SO4(aq) → Pb(s) + Co(NO3)2(aq) → Al(s) + SnSO4(aq) → Zn(s) + MnCl2(aq) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Cu(s) Fe(NO3)3(aq) + 3 Ag(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s) no reaction no reaction Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3 Sn(s) no reaction

Summary The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out. If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.

Summary The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas. If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.