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Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions Using the Activity Series.

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Presentation on theme: "Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions Using the Activity Series."— Presentation transcript:

1 Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions Using the Activity Series

2 Introduction In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal. AX(aq) + B(s) → BX(aq) + A(s) For example: Adding magnesium metal to a solution of silver chloride causes the magnesium to dissolve and the silver to precipitate out. 2 AgNO 3 (aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Ag(s)

3 Introduction In a single replacement reaction, the halide in a salt solution is replaced by another halide. AX(aq) + Y 2 → AY(aq) + X 2 For example: Adding chlorine gas to a solution of sodium bromide causes the chlorine to dissolve and the bromine to come out as a liquid. 2 NaBr(aq) + Cl 2 (g) → 2 NaCl(aq) + Br 2 (l)

4 Introduction These kinds of reactions do not occur with all combinations of metals or halogens. Some metals will replace some other metal ions in solution. Some halogens will replace some other halogen ions in solution. However, not every metal will replace every other metal ion in solution.

5 Metals The metals that replace other metal ions are said to be “more active” than the metals they replace. For example, in the reaction 2 AgNO 3 (aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Ag(s) The metal Mg is more active than the Ag + ion. By examining a series of reactions with solid metals and dissolved metal ions, we can build a list of metals based on activity. We call this the “Activity Series.”

6 Metals The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na. Each of these metals react with cold water and acids, replacing H. 2 Li(s) + H 2 O(l) → Li 2 O(s) + H 2 (g) 2 K(s) + HCl(aq) → 2 KCl(aq) + H 2 (g)

7 Metals The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na. Each of these metals react with O 2 (g), forming oxides. 2 Ba(s) + O 2 (g) → 2 BaO(s) 2 Rb(s) + O 2 (g) → Rb 2 O(s)

8 Metals The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd. Each of these metals react with H 2 O(g) and acids, replacing hydrogen. Mg(s) + H 2 O(g) → MgO(s) + H 2 (g) Zn(s) + 2 HNO 3 (aq) → Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)

9 Metals The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd. Each of these metals react with O 2 (g), forming oxides. 2 Zn(s) + O 2 (g) → 2 ZnO(s) 4 Fe(s) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s)

10 Metals The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb. None of these metals react with H 2 O (hot or cold). They do react with acids, replacing hydrogen. Co(s) + 2 HNO 3 (aq) → Co(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Pb(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) → PbSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g)

11 Metals The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb. Each of these metals react with O 2 (g), forming oxides. 2 Ni(s) + O 2 (g) → 2 NiO(s) 2 Sn(s) + O 2 (g) → 2 SnO(s)

12 Metals The next most active set of metals is Sb followed by Bi, Cu, and Hg. None of these metals react with water or acids. Each of these metals react with O 2 (g), forming oxides. 4 Sb(s) + 3 O 2 (g) → 2 Sb 2 O 3 (s) 2 Cu(s) + O 2 (g) → 2 CuO(s)

13 Metals The least active set of metals is Ag followed by Pt and Au. These metals are fairly unreactive. None of these metals react with water or acids. None of these metals react directly with O 2 (g) to form oxides. They will form oxides, but only indirectly.

14 Metals The Activity Series: LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd most active least active increasing activity

15 Halogens The most active halogen is F 2 followed by Cl 2, Br 2, and I 2. Each of these halogens are reactive with a wide variety of elements and compounds. The activity series just shows which is most reactive and least reactive.

16 Halogens The Activity Series: F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 most active least active increasing activity

17 Using the Activity Series The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out. If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.

18 Using the Activity Series The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas. If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.

19 Using the Activity Series For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

20 Using the Activity Series For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd

21 Using the Activity Series For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd

22 Using the Activity Series For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd Zn is more active than Cu.

23 Using the Activity Series For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd Zn is more active than Cu. Zn(s) will replace Cu 2+ (aq).

24 Using the Activity Series For example: We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. We predict that the solid zinc will dissolve in the solution (forming Zn 2+ ions) and copper metal will precipitate out. Zn(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) → ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu(s)

25 Using the Activity Series For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

26 Using the Activity Series For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd

27 Using the Activity Series For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd

28 Using the Activity Series For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd Mg is more active than Fe.

29 Using the Activity Series For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd Mg is more active than Fe. Mg(s) will replace Fe 3+ (aq).

30 Using the Activity Series For example: We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. We predict that the solid magnesium will dissolve in the solution (forming Mg 2+ ions) and iron metal will precipitate out. 3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl 3 (aq) → 3 MgCl 2 (aq) + 2 Fe(s)

31 Using the Activity Series For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

32 Using the Activity Series For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd

33 Using the Activity Series For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd

34 Using the Activity Series For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd Fe is more active than Cu.

35 Using the Activity Series For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. LiMgCoSbAg RbAlNiBiPt KMnSnCuAu BaZnPbHg SrCr CaFe NaCd Fe is more active than Cu. Cu(s) will not replace Fe 3+ (aq).

36 Using the Activity Series For example: We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride. We predict that there will be no reaction. Cu(s) + FeCl 3 (aq) → no reaction

37 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

38 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2

39 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2

40 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. Cl 2 is more active than I 2. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2

41 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. Cl 2 will replace I −. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2 Cl 2 is more active than I 2.

42 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide. We predict that the chlorine gas will go into solution (forming a Cl − ion) and the iodine will come out as a solid. 3 Cl 2 (g) + 2 FeI 3 (aq) → 2 FeCl 3 (aq) + 3 I 2 (s)

43 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

44 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2

45 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2

46 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. F 2 is more active than Cl 2. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2

47 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. Cl 2 will not replace F −. F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2 F 2 is more active than Cl 2.

48 Using the Activity Series For example: We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride. We predict that there will be no reaction. Cl 2 (g) + FeF 3 (aq) → no reaction

49 Practice Problems Use the activity series to predict the products of the following reactions. Indicate if there is no reaction. 1. Mg(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) → 2. Fe(s) + AgNO 3 (aq) → 3. Cu(s) + AgNO 3 (aq) → 4. Fe(s) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) → 5. Pb(s) + Co(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) → 6. Al(s) + SnSO 4 (aq) → 7. Zn(s) + MnCl 2 (aq) → Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Cu(s) 3 Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + 3 Ag(s) 2 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Ag(s) no reaction 2 3 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + 3 Sn(s) no reaction

50 Summary The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out. If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.

51 The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur. First, we look at the ions in a solution. Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution. If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas. If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction. Summary


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