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Stuart.Lindsay@ASU.EDU Interfacing Molecules to Electronic Materials
Artificial Enzymes Hydrogen generation, photovoltaics + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Steinberg-Yfrach et al. Nature 392, 479 (1998)
1. Make functional molecules 2. Wire molecules to electrodes Steps to bio/molecular electronics: 3. Make them function on electrodes like they do in solution 4. Make economically-viable devices
Test Case: Single Molecule Switch made from Oligo Aniline Insulator i V Conductor -2e - Insulator -2e - Single Molecule Switch?
Molecular electronics vs. solution charge transfer chemistry Charge transfer in nature in solution + ions. Charge transfer in molecular electronics electrode to electrode – No water/ions
1 2 LUMO HOMO CHARGED Why solvent + ions matter e-e- ENERGY e-e- LANDAUER MARCUS
Charge Transfer in DNA Barnett et al., Science 294 567 (2001)
The Challenge Need to measure single molecule conductance in a conducting solution with independent control of charge state. How to do this?
Repeated break junction Xu and Tao, Science 301, 1221-1223 (2003)
Wiring Single Molecules Reliably Cui et al. Science 274 571 (2001) Xu and Tao, Science 301 1221 (2003) GOOD NEWS: 7000:1 G range – worst G theor /G meas is 3.3 BAD NEWS: All Landauer theory
Operating probes in electrolyte Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3128 - 3130 (1989) (DNA - Xu et al. Nanoletts 4 1105 2004) Insulating layer
Controlling ion gradients/electric fields at an electrode surface Bigger ion gradient = Bigger electric field at molecule
Measuring transport as a function of oxidation state LOCAL FIELD SURFACE FIELD
Electrochemical Current Surface Potential, E S, V vs. Ag Molecular Conductance (nS) G=G MAX - a(E S -b) 2 InsulatorConductorInsulator TIP-SUBSTRATE V FIXED AT 50mV Ofer et al. JACS 112 7869, 1990
Neutral molecule - -- --- Current (nA) Tip-substrate bias (V) (NO IONS) FIX E S, VARY TIP FIELD Oxidized molecule E S =0.4V (H 2 SO 4 )
G=G max -a(E S -b) 2 E S (V) =E S - V =1.4 E S =0.3V E S =0.25V Tip-substrate bias (V) Current (nA) ------ MOLECULE FIELD = SURFACE FIELD ± TIP FIELD
We have a two terminal switch!
Current (nA) V ts (Volts) E S (V vs. Ag Wire) --- But it will need more than one molecule: Bias sweeps Potential sweeps
Summary Made a low-voltage switch based on chemical knowledge, get NDR Probe role of fluctuations Roadmap for going from chemistry to molecular electronics
1 Molecular Electronics Aviram-Ratner Diode: an acceptor-bridge-donor molecule Chem.Phys.Lett. (1974) 29, Electrode charge-injection to donor 2.Donor-Acceptor.
Introduction to Electroanalytical Chemistry Potentiometry, Voltammetry, Amperometry, Biosensors.
Electric Potential Energy & Voltage.. Battery Battery : A battery is a combination of electrochemical cells connected together. What does an electrochemical.
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Chapter 20 Electrochemistry 20.1 Introduction to Electrochemistry.
Electrochemistry Experiment 12. Oxidation – Reduction Reactions Consider the reaction of Copper wire and AgNO 3 (aq) AgNO 3 (aq) Ag(s) Cu(s)
Electrochemistry The study of chemical reactions that produce electrical current or are driven to occur by applying an electrical current. Chemical potential.
Various trajectories through the potential energy surface.
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Figure Experimental setup of a mechanically controllable break- junction with (a) the flexible substrate, (b) the counter supports, (c) the notched.
1 Molecular Conductors By: Adam Krause 4/17/07 Physics 672.
10.3 Electric Potential. Electric Potential Electric potential refers to the amount of energy that electrons possess in a circuit.
Electricity Mr. Dunnum Physical Science. Positive and Negative Charge An atom becomes negatively charged when it gains extra electrons. If an atom loses.
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An Introduction to Electroanalytical Chemistry Electrochemistry: The study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy Oxidation is the loss of.
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Chapter 17.2 – Current electrical potential energy – the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another -for like charges, potential increases.
Introduction to electrochemical systems Sähkökemian peruseet KE Tanja Kallio C213 CH 1.
Electrochemical Reactions. Anode: Electrons are lost due to oxidation. (negative electrode) Cathode: Electrons are gained due to reduction. (positive.
Circuit Electricity. Electric Circuits The continuous flow of electrons in a circuit is called current electricity. Circuits involve… –Energy source,
Electricity Foundations of Physics. Electricity The movement of charge from one place to another Requires energy to move the charge Also requires conductors.
Electrochemical Cell An electrochemical cell uses chemistry to produce electricity.
Current Electricity 50AE4B02BBE26ECAD6735.
Electrochemistry. –the branch of chemistry that studies the electricity- related application of oxidation-reduction reactions –Redox reactions involve.
Reduction- Oxidation Reactions (1) 213 PHC 9 th lecture Dr. mona alshehri (1) Gary D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6 th edition. 1.
Electrochemical Cell Experiment #10. What are the goals of this experiment? To build a Cu-Zn galvanic cell. To study the effect of changing concentration.
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Electricity Part 2: Current Current Objectives Describe how batteries are sources of voltage. Explain how a potential difference.
Chapters 22, 23, 24 & 25 Electroanalytical Chemistry.
Electrical Transport and Current-driven Dynamics in Molecular Junctions Chao-Cheng Kaun ( 關肇正 ) Research Center for Applied Sciences Academia Sinica July.
Electrochemistry Introduction Voltaic Cells. Electrochemical Cell Electrochemical device with 2 half-cells with electrodes and solutions Electrode—metal.
8.1 Electric Potential Energy and Voltage. A battery is a combination of electrochemical cells connected together Electrochemical cells convert chemical.
Types of Electrochemical Cells Electrolytic Cells: electrical energy from an external source causes a nonspontaneous reaction to occur Voltaic Cells (Galvanic.
Biopotential Electrodes. Introduction Electrical Contact point Electrical Contact point Transducer Transducer Biopotential electrodes Biopotential electrodes.
After completing this topic you should be able to : State that, in a battery, electricity comes from a chemical reaction. State that electricity passing.
Cells and Voltage. Volta ( ) Electrical current made with spontaneous redox. Separated half – reactions - called half-cells. Transfer of electrons.
Electrochemistry. Electrolysis and Electrical Conductance - Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes - Electrolysis and it’s mechanism -Electrical Units - Coulomb.
1 Molecular electronics: a new challenge for O(N) methods Roi Baer and Daniel Neuhauser (UCLA) Institute of Chemistry and Lise Meitner Center for Quantum.
Key concepts for electrical circuits Electrical circuits oElectron oConductor oInsulator oCurrent oBattery and Voltage oSwitch oResistance oEnergy Electrical.
Electric Potential Energy 8.1. A _________ is a combination of electrochemical cells connected together (or a single electrochemical cell). Electrochemical.
Chapter 6 – Electricity. 6.1 Electric Charge Positive and Negative Charges Matter is composed of _______ Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.
An Introduction to Dip-Pen Nanolithography. What is DPN? Direct-write patterning technique based on AFM scanning probe technology Direct-write patterning.
Fig. 22-1a (p.629) A galvanic electrochemical cell at open circuit.
Chemistry for Life Science. Matter Anything that: Anything that: Has mass. Has mass. Takes up space. Takes up space.
Definition of physics the science of matter and energy and their interactions.
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ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS In redox reactions, there is a chemical reaction and an exchange of electrons between the particles being oxidized and reduced. An.
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