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Chapter 17.2 – Current electrical potential energy – the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another -for like charges, potential increases.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17.2 – Current electrical potential energy – the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another -for like charges, potential increases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17.2 – Current electrical potential energy – the ability to move an electric charge from one point to another -for like charges, potential increases as charges move closer -for unlike charges, potential decreases as charges move closer

2 Chapter 17.2 – Current potential difference – the change in electrical potential energy divided by the charge that moves through the electric field -measured in units of volts (V) -often called voltage -outlets have a voltage of 120 V

3 Chapter 17.2 – Current Batteries -the ends of a battery are called terminals -there is a potential difference between terminals of a battery -batteries are made of electrochemical cells – devices that convert chemical energy to electrical energy -the cells contain an electrolyte – a solution that conducts electricity -each cell has 2 electrodes – a conductor used to make contact with the electrolyte

4 Chapter 17.2 – Current there are 2 kinds of batteries dry cell – has a moist pastelike electrolyte -typically 1.5 V ex. AA, AAA batteries, cell phone & laptop batteries wet cell – has a liquid electrolyte -typically 12 V ex. car battery

5 Chapter 17.2 – Current electric current – rate at which charges pass through a given point or conductor -measured in amperes (A) -batteries produce a current by creating a potential difference across an electrical device -the electric field pushes electrons toward the side with lower potential

6 Chapter 17.2 – Current direct current (DC) – electrons always move from one terminal to the other in the same direction ex. batteries alternating current (AC) – electrons constantly change direction between terminals ex. wall socket

7 Chapter 17.2 – Current conventional current – current made of positive charge that has the same effect as the actual motion of charge -the direction of conventional current is opposite the direction that electrons move resistance – opposition to the movement of a current by a material or device -caused by internal friction which slows the movement of charges -units of ohms (Ω)

8 Chapter 17.2 – Current

9 The current in a resistor is 0.50 A when connected across a voltage of 120 V. What is the resistance of the resistor? A 1.5 V battery is connected to a light bulb with a resistance of 3.5 Ω. What is the current in the bulb?

10 Chapter 17.2 – Current -conductors have a low resistance -insulators have a high resistance semiconductor – has properties between conductors and insulators ex. used in computers, cell phones, anything with a microchip superconductor – material with zero resistance when their temperature falls below a critical temperature -very cold temperatures (-272°C to -123°C) are used to make powerful magnets to levitate trains

11 Chapter 17.2 – Current ground wire – wire connected to the ground which carries excess charge to the ground where it spreads out safely ex. third prong on power outlets

12 Chapter 17.2 – Current


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