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Ammonia Jeff Roberge (Helmenstine). Introduction  Hazardous Waste  A solid material that poses a threat to human and environmental health (increase.

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Presentation on theme: "Ammonia Jeff Roberge (Helmenstine). Introduction  Hazardous Waste  A solid material that poses a threat to human and environmental health (increase."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ammonia Jeff Roberge (Helmenstine)

2 Introduction  Hazardous Waste  A solid material that poses a threat to human and environmental health (increase in mortality, irreversible illness) due to physical characteristics  Causes environmental degradation in large quantities  Due to improper treatment of wastes  80,000 chemicals used in industry worldwide

3 Introduction  Types of hazardous wastes  Ignitable- liquid with flashpoint under 140 degrees F, flammable gas, or easily ignited solid  Corrosive- aqueous waste with pH less than or equal to 2, greater than or equal to 12.5, liquid waste that corrodes steel.25 inch/yr

4 Introduction  Types (Cont.)  Reactive- solid that is unstable, or reacts violently with water, makes toxic gas in combination with other materials  Toxic- waste containing certain substances above a maximum safe concentration (“Waste Labels”)

5 Uses  Ammonia- NH 3 used in:  Cleaning agents  Rocket fuel  Drinking water purifiers  Fertilizers  Stack Emission Control Systems (neutralize sulfur oxides)  Feeds yeast in beverage companies  pH control in wastewater treatment plants  Industrial refrigeration systems  Pulping of paper  Extraction of metals from their ores  Explosives (USA)

6 Uses  Farming  Up to 200 lbs of ammonia used per acre in 1 growing season  Used in liquid solutions (ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, aqua ammonia)  Selective Catalytic Reduction  Ammonia is the reducing agent in the stack stream flow-causes 80 to 90% emission reductions of NOx (“Selective”)

7 Manufacturing  Manufacturing process  Burrup Ammonia Plant:  QyY. QyY QyY  A plant can produce 1854 tons a day (“Ammonia”)

8 Manufacturing  Haber-Bosch process  Typical plant turns natural gas (methane, LPG) into hydrogen in gas form through steam reforming  Then combined with nitrogen in air to form liquefied anhydrous ammonia  Byproducts CO, CO2, CH4, uses natural gas, heating processes use gas  H2 + RSH → RH + H2S(gas)  H2S + ZnO → ZnS + H2O  CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2  CO + H2O → CO2 + H2  CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O  CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 +2H2O  3H2 + N2 → 2NH3

9 Manufacturing (“Ammonia Production”) ,000 tons H2 was produced in Iceland Uses hydrolysis to split water to get hydrogen

10 Side Effects  It is a corrosive substance  Only harms areas exposed to it  At high levels, causes burns on contact  Can cause blindness, lung disease, death, or chemical discolorations  No proof it causes cancer  Its ions are more mild  No evidence of birth defects

11 Side Effects  Effects  In environment, alkaline plants uptake ammonia as a source of Nitrogen  At 5 ppm, it is toxic to fish  Bacteria Convert Ammonia into ions in ground and it is recycled  It occurs naturally- 1-5 ppb in air, <6 ppm in water  Ammonia lasts 1 week in air  In Haz. waste sites: ppm in soil, up to 16 ppm in water  >50 ppm you can smell in the air  35 ppm you can taste in liquid  Solutions 25% or higher are corrosive (“The Nitrogen”)

12 Side Effects  Causes plant growth due to fertilizer  Up to 3,000 ppm in farm soil after applied  Fish and aquatic animals burned  Quickly recycled when in ground  In body, turned into safe chemicals and urinated out after a few days (The Oscar Spot) NH3 burns on eyes

13 Regulations  State regulations  Handler of material must have completed an anhydrous Ammonia training program every 3 years  All storage areas need eyewash, shower or 150 gallons of water nearby  Transfer hoses can be only a max of 30 ft  Transfer vehicles and tanks have a max load of 6,000 gallons  Holding tank minimum distance of 200 feet from property line

14 Regulations  EPA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulate  100 lbs spill of NH3 needs to be reported  lbs spill ammonium salt needs to be reported  Suggested 8-hr exposure limit at 25 ppm  25 min at 35 ppm  5 min at 50 ppm

15 Regulations  Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)  Equipment must meet OSHA standards  Can be inspected at anytime with 24 hours notice  5 gallons of water mounted on equipment  Goggles, gloves required

16 Areas Impacted  Ammonia found in 137 of 1647 National Priority List sites  Naturally- 1-5 ppb in air  Farm land up to 200 lbs per acre (3000 ppm)  CT River- Watersheds  Naturally found in urine and body  Does not bioaccumulate  Found in microorganisms, plants, bacteria  Fish, humans, mammals that ingest are injured

17 Areas Impacted  Found in food  Ammonium bicarbonate % (in baked goods, snacks)  Ammonium carbonate 2.0% (in gelatins)  Ammonium chloride 0.001% (baked goods)  Ammonium hydroxide % (cheeses, gelatin)  0.012% in condiments

18 Areas Impacted  Oil burned to produce high temps. to make reaction  CO2, CO, CH4, Sulfur emissions  Electricity needed for electrolysis-uses oil (“Process Plants”)

19 Conclusion  Natural material only deadly in large quantities  Necessary for nitrogen cycle and plant nitrogen uptake  As long as it is properly handled, there is no real problem

20 Hazardous Wastes What- Collection of hazardous materials Where- CRERPA Rte. 9, Exit 4, Dump Road, Essex, CT When- Oct 11, Oct 25, Nov 1 9am-1pm Includes- Paint stripper, turpentine, transmission fluid, unfinished aerosols, pesticides, herbicides, paints, insecticides, drain cleaners, brake fluids, batteries, cleaning solvents… Ammonia- a hazardous waste common in every household in cleaning solvents and some refrigerants. It can cause burns, blindness and lung complications so deserves proper disposal. For More Info (860)

21 Works Cited “Ammonia.” John Matthey Catalysts Oct “Ammonia Production via a 2-Step Al2O3/AlN Thermochemical Cycle.” ETH. 2 Oct Helmenstine, Anne Marie. “Ammonia.” Oct “Highlights of the New Anhydrous Ammonia Regulations.” Department of Agriculture. 2 Oct “Household Hazardous Waste Facility.” CRERPA. 2 Oct “The Nitrogen Cycle.” 16 Aug Hach. 2 Oct The Oscar Spot Oct “Process Plants.” 1 Feb Shiraz Petrochemical Complex. 2 Oct R.M. Technologies Oct “Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).” De-Nox Technologies. 2 Oct USA Detergents. 2 Oct “Waste Labels.” Imperial Irrigation District. 2 Oct “What is Hazardous Waste?” Think Quest. 2 Oct


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