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Ammonia Jeff Roberge (Helmenstine). Introduction  Hazardous Waste  A solid material that poses a threat to human and environmental health (increase.

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Presentation on theme: "Ammonia Jeff Roberge (Helmenstine). Introduction  Hazardous Waste  A solid material that poses a threat to human and environmental health (increase."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ammonia Jeff Roberge (Helmenstine)

2 Introduction  Hazardous Waste  A solid material that poses a threat to human and environmental health (increase in mortality, irreversible illness) due to physical characteristics  Causes environmental degradation in large quantities  Due to improper treatment of wastes  80,000 chemicals used in industry worldwide

3 Introduction  Types of hazardous wastes  Ignitable- liquid with flashpoint under 140 degrees F, flammable gas, or easily ignited solid  Corrosive- aqueous waste with pH less than or equal to 2, greater than or equal to 12.5, liquid waste that corrodes steel.25 inch/yr

4 Introduction  Types (Cont.)  Reactive- solid that is unstable, or reacts violently with water, makes toxic gas in combination with other materials  Toxic- waste containing certain substances above a maximum safe concentration (“Waste Labels”)

5 Uses  Ammonia- NH 3 used in:  Cleaning agents  Rocket fuel  Drinking water purifiers  Fertilizers  Stack Emission Control Systems (neutralize sulfur oxides)  Feeds yeast in beverage companies  pH control in wastewater treatment plants  Industrial refrigeration systems  Pulping of paper  Extraction of metals from their ores  Explosives (USA)

6 Uses  Farming  Up to 200 lbs of ammonia used per acre in 1 growing season  Used in liquid solutions (ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea, aqua ammonia)  Selective Catalytic Reduction  Ammonia is the reducing agent in the stack stream flow-causes 80 to 90% emission reductions of NOx (“Selective”)

7 Manufacturing  Manufacturing process  Burrup Ammonia Plant:  QyY. QyY QyY  A plant can produce 1854 tons a day (“Ammonia”)

8 Manufacturing  Haber-Bosch process  Typical plant turns natural gas (methane, LPG) into hydrogen in gas form through steam reforming  Then combined with nitrogen in air to form liquefied anhydrous ammonia  Byproducts CO, CO2, CH4, uses natural gas, heating processes use gas  H2 + RSH → RH + H2S(gas)  H2S + ZnO → ZnS + H2O  CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2  CO + H2O → CO2 + H2  CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O  CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 +2H2O  3H2 + N2 → 2NH3

9 Manufacturing (“Ammonia Production”) 2002- 2,000 tons H2 was produced in Iceland Uses hydrolysis to split water to get hydrogen

10 Side Effects  It is a corrosive substance  Only harms areas exposed to it  At high levels, causes burns on contact  Can cause blindness, lung disease, death, or chemical discolorations  No proof it causes cancer  Its ions are more mild  No evidence of birth defects

11 Side Effects  Effects  In environment, alkaline plants uptake ammonia as a source of Nitrogen  At 5 ppm, it is toxic to fish  Bacteria Convert Ammonia into ions in ground and it is recycled  It occurs naturally- 1-5 ppb in air, <6 ppm in water  Ammonia lasts 1 week in air  In Haz. waste sites: 1-1000 ppm in soil, up to 16 ppm in water  >50 ppm you can smell in the air  35 ppm you can taste in liquid  Solutions 25% or higher are corrosive (“The Nitrogen”)

12 Side Effects  Causes plant growth due to fertilizer  Up to 3,000 ppm in farm soil after applied  Fish and aquatic animals burned  Quickly recycled when in ground  In body, turned into safe chemicals and urinated out after a few days (The Oscar Spot) NH3 burns on eyes

13 Regulations  State regulations  Handler of material must have completed an anhydrous Ammonia training program every 3 years  All storage areas need eyewash, shower or 150 gallons of water nearby  Transfer hoses can be only a max of 30 ft  Transfer vehicles and tanks have a max load of 6,000 gallons  Holding tank minimum distance of 200 feet from property line

14 Regulations  EPA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulate  100 lbs spill of NH3 needs to be reported  1000-5000 lbs spill ammonium salt needs to be reported  Suggested 8-hr exposure limit at 25 ppm  25 min at 35 ppm  5 min at 50 ppm

15 Regulations  Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)  Equipment must meet OSHA standards  Can be inspected at anytime with 24 hours notice  5 gallons of water mounted on equipment  Goggles, gloves required

16 Areas Impacted  Ammonia found in 137 of 1647 National Priority List sites  Naturally- 1-5 ppb in air  Farm land up to 200 lbs per acre (3000 ppm)  CT River- Watersheds  Naturally found in urine and body  Does not bioaccumulate  Found in microorganisms, plants, bacteria  Fish, humans, mammals that ingest are injured

17 Areas Impacted  Found in food  Ammonium bicarbonate 0.04-3.2% (in baked goods, snacks)  Ammonium carbonate 2.0% (in gelatins)  Ammonium chloride 0.001% (baked goods)  Ammonium hydroxide 0.6-0.8% (cheeses, gelatin)  0.012% in condiments

18 Areas Impacted  Oil burned to produce high temps. to make reaction  CO2, CO, CH4, Sulfur emissions  Electricity needed for electrolysis-uses oil (“Process Plants”)

19 Conclusion  Natural material only deadly in large quantities  Necessary for nitrogen cycle and plant nitrogen uptake  As long as it is properly handled, there is no real problem

20 Hazardous Wastes What- Collection of hazardous materials Where- CRERPA Rte. 9, Exit 4, Dump Road, Essex, CT When- Oct 11, Oct 25, Nov 1 9am-1pm Includes- Paint stripper, turpentine, transmission fluid, unfinished aerosols, pesticides, herbicides, paints, insecticides, drain cleaners, brake fluids, batteries, cleaning solvents… Ammonia- a hazardous waste common in every household in cleaning solvents and some refrigerants. It can cause burns, blindness and lung complications so deserves proper disposal. For More Info (860) 388-3497

21 Works Cited “Ammonia.” John Matthey Catalysts. 2007. 2 Oct 2008. “Ammonia Production via a 2-Step Al2O3/AlN Thermochemical Cycle.” ETH. 2 Oct. 2008. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. “Ammonia.” 2008. 2 Oct. 2008. “Highlights of the New Anhydrous Ammonia Regulations.” Department of Agriculture. 2 Oct. 2008. “Household Hazardous Waste Facility.” 2008. CRERPA. 2 Oct. 2008. “The Nitrogen Cycle.” 16 Aug. 2006. Hach. 2 Oct. 2008. The Oscar Spot. 2007. 2 Oct. 2008. “Process Plants.” 1 Feb. 2003. Shiraz Petrochemical Complex. 2 Oct. 2008. R.M. Technologies. 2003. 2 Oct. 2008. “Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).” De-Nox Technologies. 2 Oct. 2008. USA Detergents. 2 Oct. 2008. “Waste Labels.” 2006. Imperial Irrigation District. 2 Oct. 2008. “What is Hazardous Waste?” Think Quest. 2 Oct. 2008.

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