Presentation on theme: "Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901–1912"— Presentation transcript:
1 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901–1912 Chapter 28Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901–1912
2 Marching for Suffrage Prominent New York socialite Mrs. Herbert Carpenter, bearing an American flag, marches in a parade for women’ssuffrage on Manhattan’s Fifth Avenue, 1912.p636
3 Bound for Guadalcanal,1942 These troopswere headed for one ofthe bloodiest battles ofWorld War II, in thesouthwest Pacific’sSolomon Islands. Americathrew some 15 millionmen and the full weightof its enormous economyinto the struggle againstGerman and Japaneseaggression.p637
4 I. Progressive Roots Progressive ideas and theories: The old philosophy of hands-off individualism seemed out of place in modern machine ageProgressive theorists were insisting that society could not longer afford the luxury of a limitless “let-alone” (laissez-faire) policyThe people, through government, must substitute mastery for driftPoliticians and writers began to pinpoint targets:Bryan, Altgeld, and the Populists branded the “bloated trusts” with the stigma of corruption and wrongdoing.
5 I. Progressive Roots (cont.) 1894 Henry Demarest Lloyd charged the Standard Oil Company in his book Wealth Against CommonwealthThorstein Veblen assailed the new rich in his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899):It was a savage attack on “predatory wealth” and “conspic-uous consumption:”In his view the parasitic leisure class engaged in wasteful “business” rather than productive “industry”He urged that social leadership pass from these superfluous titans to truly useful engineers.Jacob A. Riis shocked middle-class Americans in 1890:With How the Other Half Lives
6 I. Progressive Roots (cont.) A damning indictment of the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-gnawed human rookeries knows as New York slumsThe book deeply influenced Theodore Roosevelt.Novelist Theodore Dreiser:Used his blunt prose to batter promoters and profiteers in The Financier (1912) and The Titan (1914)Socialists registered appreciable strength at the ballot box (see pp )Social gospel movement:Promoted a brand of progressivism based on Christian teachingsThey used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor
7 I. Progressive Roots (cont.) Other reformers:University-based economists urged new reforms modeled on European examplesFeminists added social justice to suffrage on their list of needed reformsUrban pioneers entered the fight to improve the lot of families living and working in the festering cities.
8 Melting Pot in P.S. 188, 1910 These immigrant children from the Lower East Side of New York are dressed in costumes from their native lands and surround their teacher,adorned as the Statue of Liberty. Schools like this one, flooded with immigrant childrenwho could scarcely speak English, tried to respect their students’ ancestral cultureswhile also cultivating loyalty to their adopted country by teaching American “civics” andappreciation for patriotic symbols and rituals.p639
9 II. Raking Muck with the Muckrakers Muckraking magazines—McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, Collier’s and Everybody’s:They dug deep for the dirt that the public lovedEnterprising editors financed extensive researchPresident Theodore Roosevelt called them muckrakersSome famous reformer-writers were Lincoln Steffens, Ida M. TarbellTheir targets were:Corrupt alliance between big business and municipal gov’t., exposé of Standard Oil Company, malpractices of life insurance companies and tariff lobbies, trust, etc.Some of the most effective fire of the muckrakers was directed at social evils:
10 Room in a Tenement Flat,1910 Tenement life on theLower East Side of New York Citywas exposed by the camera ofJacob Riis, who compiled a largephotographic archive of turn-of the-century urban life. Manyfamilies counted themselveslucky to share a single room, nomatter how squalid.p640
11 Ida Tarbell (1857–1944) in Her Office Tarbell was the most eminent woman in the muckraking movement andone of the most respected business historians of hergeneration. In 1904 she earned a national reputation forpublishing a scathing history of the Standard Oil Company,the “Mother of Trusts.” Two years later she joined RayStannard Baker, William Allen White, and other muckrakersin purchasing the American magazine, which became ajournalistic podium in their campaign for honestgovernment and an end to business abuses.p641
12 II. Raking Muck with the Muckrakers (cont.) The immoral “white slave” traffic in women, the rickety slums, the appalling number of industrial accidents, subjugation of blacks and the abuse of child laborVendors of potent patent medicines were also criticizedThe muckrakers signified much about the nature of the progressive reform movement:They were long on lamentation but stopped short of revolutionary remediesThey counted on publicity to right social wrongsThey sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse itThe cure of American democracy was more democracy
13 III. Political Progressivism (cont.) “Who were the progressives?”Militarists—like Theodore RooseveltPacifists—Jane AddamsFemale settlement workers, labor unionists, and enlightened businessmenThey sought to modernize American institutions to achieve two goals:To use the state to curb monopoly powerTo improve the common person’s conditions of life and labor.
14 III. Political Progressivism (cont.) They emerged in both political parties, in all regions, and at all levels of governmentTheir objective was to regain power by:Pushing for direct primary electionsFavored initiative so that voters could directly propose legislation themselvesAgitated for the referendum that would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the peopleFor recall to enable voters to remove faithless elected officials.
15 III. Political Progressivism (cont.) Rooting out graft became a prime goalIntroduced the secret Australian ballot to counteract boss ruleDirect election of senators was a favorite goal to be achieved by a constitutional amendment:The Seventeenth Amendment, approved in 1913, established the direct election of U.S. senators.Woman suffrage received powerful support:States like Washington, California, and Oregon gradually extended the vote to women
16 The Prophet of the Class Struggle, Karl Marx (1818–1883)
17 The IWW Seeks Subscribers, 1911 This poster aimed to attract subscribers to Industrial Worker,the newspaper of the Industrial Workers of theWorld (IWW). The IWW was a small but vocal radicallabor union that hoped to unify American workersin “one big union,” irrespective of their particularjobs, gender, or race. Its motto was “An injury toone is an injury to all.” At its peak in 1923, the unionclaimed 100,000 members, commonly known asWobblies, and could marshal the support of some300,000 more, mostly workers on the docks and inmines, lumbering, and textiles.p643
18 Jane Addams and Fellow Pacifists, 1915 Addams cofounded the Women’s Peace Party in Its pacifist platform was said to represent the views of the “mother half ofhumanity.” Although the party initially attracted twenty-five thousand members,America’s entry into the war two years later eroded popular support, since pacifistinternationalism became suspect as anti-American.p644
19 IV. Progressivism in the Cities and States Progressives scored most impressive gains in the cities:Example of Galveston, Texas: appointed expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairsOther communities adopted the city-manager systemUrban reformers attacked: “slumlords,” juvenile delinquency, wide-open prostitutionThey looked to German and English cities for examples
20 Progressivism in the Cities and States (cont.) To clean up their water suppliesLight their streetsRun their trolley carsThey bubbled up to states, like Wisconsin:Governor Robert M. (“Fighting Bob”) La Follette was an overbearing crusader and militant progressive Republican leaderHe wrested considerable control from the crooked corporations and returned it to the peopleHe perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities
21 Progressivism in the Cities and States (cont.) Other states marched toward progressivism:Undertook to regulate railroads and trustsLeaders were Hiram W. Johnson of California, Charles Evans Hughes of New York.
22 V. Progressive WomenWomen were an indispensable part of the progressive army:Critical focus was the settlement house movement—which offered a side door to public life:They exposed middle-class women to the problems plaguing America’s cities:Poverty, political corruption, and intolerable working and living conditionsGave them skill and confidence to attack those evils
23 V. Progressive Women (cont.) Women’s club movement provided a broader civic entryway for middle-class womenWomen, whose place was seen in the home, defended their new activities as an extension—not a rejection—of their traditional roles:Thus driven to moral and “maternal” issuesAgitated through organizations like the National Consumers League (1899) and the Women’s Trade Union League (1903), both in the Department of LaborCampaigns for factory reform and temperance
24 V. Progressive Women (cont.) Florence Kelley became the State of Illinois's first chief factory inspector:Was one of the nation’s leading advocates for improved factory conditionsTook control of the newly founded National Consumers LeagueIn the landmark case Muller v. Oregon (1908):Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women’s weaker bodiesProgressives hailed Brandeis’s achievement as a triumph over existing legal doctrines.
25 V. Progressive Women (cont.) American welfare state focused more on protecting women and children rather than granting benefits to everyoneSetbacks:1905, when the Supreme Court in Lochner v. New York invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakersIf laws regulating factories were not enforced they proved worthless—for example, a lethal fire (1911) at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company of New YorkBy 1917 thirty states had workers’ compensation laws.
26 The Wages of Negligence Officials review the charred remains of some of the survivors of the catastrophic Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in Outrage over thiscalamity galvanized a generation of reformers to fight for better workplace safety rules.p646
27 V. Progressive Women (cont.) Corner saloons attracted the progressives:Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) founded by Frances E. WillardSome states and counties passed “dry “ laws to control, restrict, or abolish alcoholBig cities were generally “wet” due to immigrants who were accustomed in the Old Country to the free flow of alcoholBy World War I (1914) nearly one-half lived in “dry” territory
28 Out of Work and the Reason Why, 1899 This temperance propaganda from an 1899 magazine illustrates therole of women in the temperance movement. Alcoholabuse threatened the stability of the family, still predominantlyconsidered the “woman’s sphere” in the late nineteenthcentury.p647
29 VI. TR’s Square Deal for Labor TR feared public interest was submerged in the progressive movement:“Square Deal” for capital, labor, and the public at large:His program embraced three C’s:Control of the corporationsConsumer protectionConservation of natural resourcesFirst test came in the anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania
30 VI. TR’s Square Deal for Labor (cont.) Roosevelt urged Congress to create the new Department of Commerce and Labor (1903)—ten years later it was separated in twoThe Bureau of Corporations was authorized to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce:This bureau helped to break stranglehold of monopolyCleared the road for the era of “trust-busting.”
31 VII. TR Corrals the Corporations First—the railroads:Hatch Act (1903) aimed at railroad rebate evilHeavy fines could be imposed both on the railroads that gave rebatesAnd on the shippers that accepted them.Hepburn Act (1906): free passes, with their hint of bribery, were severely restrictedInterstate Commerce Commission was expanded:Included express companies, sleeping-car companies and pipelinesThe Commission could nullify existing rates and stipulate maximum rates
32 VII. TR Corrals the Corporations (cont.) Trusts—Roosevelt’s opposition:Trusts was a fighting word in the progressive eraHe believed they were here to stay:Some were “good” trusts—public consciencesSome were “bad” trusts—lusted greedily for powerHis first burst into headlines was an attack on the Northern Securities Company (1902):A railroad holding company organized by financial titan J.P. Morgan and empire builder James J. HillThey sought to achieve a virtual monopolyTR challenged potentates of industrial aristocracy
33 VII. TR Corrals the Corporations (cont.) The Supreme Court upheld TR’s antitrust suit and ordered Northern Securities Company to dissolveThe Northern Securities decision jolted Wall StreetAngered big businessGreatly enhanced Roosevelt’s reputation as a trust smasherTR initiated over forty legal proceedings against giant monopolies:Supreme Court (1905) declared the beef trust illegalThe heavy fist of justice fell upon monopolists controlling sugar, fertilizer, harvesters, and other key productsTR’s real purpose was symbolic: to prove conclusively that the government, not private business, ruled the country
34 VII. TR Corrals the Corporations (cont.) He believed in regulating, not fragmenting, the big business combinesHe hoped to make the business leaders more amenable to federal regulationHe never swung his trust-crushing stick with maximum forceIndustrial behemoths more “tame” at the end of TR’s reignHis successor, William Howard Taft:Actually “busted” more trusts than TRTaft launched a suit against U.S. Steel (1911) but it caused a political reaction by TR.
35 Roosevelt Tames the Trusts Legend to the contrary, Roosevelt did not attack all trusts indiscriminately. Rather,he pursued a few high-profile cases against a handful ofcorporate giants, in order to “tame” other businesses intoaccepting government regulation.p649
36 VIII. Caring for the Consumer Roosevelt backed a noteworthy measure (1906) that benefited both corporations and consumers:The meat packing industry called for safer canned productsCaused by Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906)It intended to focused on the plight of workersBut instead appalled the public with his description of disgustingly unsanitary preparation of food productsIt described Chicago’s slaughterhouses.
37 VIII. Caring for the Consumer (cont.) Roosevelt induced Congress to pass:The Meat Inspection Act (1906):Decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to canThe Pure Food and Drug Act (1906):Designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals
38 IX. Earth Control Steps to conservation of US natural resources: Desert Land Act (1877):Whereby the federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within three years.Forest Reserve Act (1891):Authorized the president to set aside public forests as national parks and other reservesSome 46 million acres were rescued.
39 IX. Earth Control (cont.) Carey Act (1894):Distributed federal land to the states on condition that it be irrigated and settled.New day for the history of conservation dawned with Roosevelt (see “Makers of America: The Environmentalists,” pp )He seized the banner of conservation leadershipCongress responded with the landmark Newlands Act (1902):Washington was authorized to collect money from the sale of public land in western statesUse the funds for the development of irrigation projects.
40 IX. Earth Control (cont.) The Roosevelt Dam, constructed on the Arizona’s Salt River, was appropriately dedicated by Roosevelt (1911)TR worked to preserve the nation’s shrinking forests:He set aside in federal reserves some 125 million acresHe earmarked million of acres of coal deposits, and water resources useful for irrigation and powerConservation and reclamation was Roosevelt’s most enduring tangible achievementThe disappearance of the frontier—was believed to be the source of national characteristics as individualism and democracy
41 IX. Earth Control (cont.) Organizations and societies created:Result of Jack London’s Call of the Wild (1903)Outdoor-oriented Boy Scouts of AmericaAudubon Society to save wild native birdsThe Sierra Club (1906) dedicated to preserve the wildness of the western landscapeLosses:(1913) when San Francisco built a dam in the Hetch Hetchy Valley
42 IX. Earth Control (cont.) It caused a deep division between conservationists that persists to the present dayRoosevelt’s chief forester, Gifford Pinchot, believed that “wilderness was waste”Pinchot and TR wanted to use the nation’s natural endowment intelligently—thus two battles:One against greedy commercial interests that abused natureAnd against romantic preservationists who simply were “woodman-spare-that-tree” sentimentalityA national policy was developed of “multiple-use resource management”Sought to combine recreation, sustained-yield logging, watershed protection, and summer stock grazing on the same expanse of federal land
43 IX. Earth Control (cont.) Westerners learned how to work with the federal management of natural resources:Through new agencies, such as the Forest Service and the Bureau of ReclamationThey worked with federal conservation programs devoted to the rational, large-scale, and long-term use of natural resourcesSingle-person enterprises were shouldered aside, in the interest of efficiency, by the combined bulk of big business and big government
44 Sausage Making, ca. 1906White-jacketed inspectors likethose on the right made someprogress in cleaning up theseptic slaughterhouses after thepassage of the Meat InspectionAct in 1906.p650
45 High Point for Conservation Roosevelt and famed naturalist John Muir visit Glacier Point, on the rim ofYosemite Valley, California. In the distance is Yosemite Fallsa few feet behind Roosevelt is a sheer drop of 3,254 feet.p651
46 Gifford Pinchot Going Trout Fishing The father of the modern Forest Service, Pinchot championed the concept of“rational use” as the guiding principle of the federalgovernment’s natural resource management policies.p652
47 Lake Powell, Utah Named for the famed explorer John Wesley Powell and formed by one of the several dams on theColorado River, Lake Powell has been a focus of intensecontroversy. It drowned the spectacularly beautiful Glen Canyonbut created recreational facilities for countless Americans.p653
48 Earth Day, 1999 Some fifteen hundred schoolchildren gathered on the shoreline near Los Angeles to participate in abeach cleanup project. The “O” here represents planet earththe children inside it represent the North and South Americancontinents.p653
49 Loggers in the State of Washington, 1912 It took the sweat and skill ofmany men to conquer a giant Douglasfir like this one. An ax-wielding“sniper” had rounded the edges of thislog so that a team of oxen, driven by a“bullwhacker,” could more easily dragit out of the woods along a “skid road.”Skid road (sometimes corrupted as skidrow) was also a name for the often sleazysections of logging towns,where loggers spent their time in theoff-season.p654
50 Flooding the Hetch Hetchy Valley to Quench San Francisco’s ThirstPreservationists led by John Muirbattled for seven years—unsuccessfully—to prevent the building of adam that would turn this spectacularglacial valley in Yosemite National Parkinto the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, whichwould provide San Francisco withwater. Muir observed, “Dam HetchHetchy! As well dam for water-tanksthe people’s cathedrals and churches,for no holier temple has ever beenconsecrated by the heart of man.”Today environmentalists are campaigningto restore the Hetch HetchyValley by removing the dam.p654
51 The Machine and Nature These hardy sightseers at the Grand Canyon in 1911 ironically and probably unwittinglyforeshadowed the mass tourism that arrived with thedawning automobile age. Soon millions of motorizedAmericans would regularly flee from the cities and suburbsto “get away from it all” in wilderness sites increasinglyoverrun by their fellow refugees from “civilization.”p655
52 X. The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907 Roosevelt’s second term:He called for regulating corporations, taxing incomes, and protecting workersHe declared (1904) under no circumstances would he be a candidate for a third termHe suffered a sharp setback (1907) when a panic descended on Wall Street:There were frightened “runs” on banks, suicides, and criminal indictments against speculatorsThe financial world hastened to blame RooseveltConservatives called him “Theodore the Meddler”
53 X. The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907 (cont.) Results of the 1907 panic:Paved the way for long-overdue fiscal reformsPrecipitating a currency shortage—showed the need for a more elastic medium of exchangeCongress (1908) responded by passing the Aldrich-Vreeland Act:It authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateralThe path was smoothed for the momentous Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (see p. 665).
54 XI. The Rough Rider Thunders Out Roosevelt in 1908:Could easily have won a second presidential nomination and won the electionHowever, he felt bound in by impulsive postelection promise of 1904He sought a successor who would carry out “my policies”:His choice was William Henry Taft, secretary of war and a mild progressiveHe often served upon Roosevelt’s absence
55 XI. The Rough Rider Thunders Out (cont.) In 1908 he “steamrollered” to push Taft’s nomination on the first ballotThe Democrats nominated twice-beaten William Jennings BryanThe campaign of 1908:Taft—“Boy Orator”—tried to don the progressive Roosevelt mantleTaft read cut-and-dried speechThe majority chose stability with Roosevelt-endorsed Taft, who polled 321 electoral votes to 162 for BryanThe Socialists amassed 420,793 votes for Eugene V. Debs (see pp ).
56 XI. The Rough Rider Thunders Out (cont.) Roosevelt branded by his adversaries:As a wild-eyed radicalHad a reputation as an eater of errant industrialistsThe number of laws he inspired were not in proportion to the amount of noise he madeOften under attack from the reigning business lords:But they knew they had a friend in the White HouseHe should first and foremost be remembered as the cowboy who tamed the bucking bronco of adolescent capitalism, thus ensuring it a long adult life.
57 XI. The Rough Rider Thunders Out (cont.) Roosevelt’s achievements and popularity:His youthfulness appealed to the young of all agesHe served as a political lightning rod:To protect capitalists against popular indignation—against socialismHe strenuously sought the middle road between unbridled individualism and paternalist collectivism
58 XI. The Rough Rider Thunders Out (cont.) His conservation crusade:Tried to mediate between romantic wilderness preservationistsAnd the rapacious resource-predatorsWas probably his most typical and his most lasting achievementOther contributions of Roosevelt:Greatly enlarged the power/prestige of the presidencyHelped shape the progressive movementOpened the eyes of Americans to the fact that they shared the world with other nations.
59 Baby, Kiss Papa Good-bye Theodore Roosevelt leaves his baby, “My Policies,” in the hands of his chosensuccessor, William Howard Taft. Friction between Taft andRoosevelt would soon erupt, however, promptingRoosevelt to return to politics and challenge Taft for thepresidency.p656
60 XII. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole William Howard Taft:Had established an enviable reputation as a lawyer and judgeHad been a trusted administrator under RooseveltSuffered from lethal political handicaps:Had not of the arts of a dashing political leaderHe recoiled from the clamor of controversy, generally adopted an attitude of passivity toward CongressWas a poor judge of public opinion
61 XIII. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole (cont.) His candor made him a chronic victim of “foot-in-mouth” diseaseWas a mild progressive, but at heart was wedded to the status quo rather than to changeHis cabinet did not contain a single representative of the party’s “insurgent” wing
62 Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt Watches President Taft Struggle with the Demands of Government, 1910p657
63 XIII. The Dollar Goes Abroad as a Diplomat Taft’s foreign policy:Use the lever of American investments to boost American political interests abroad—dollar diplo-macy:Encouraged Wall Street to invest surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S.Especially the Far East and the Panama CanalThus the bankers would strengthen American defenses and foreign policies—bring prosperity to the homelandThe almighty dollar supplanted the big stick.
64 XIII. The Dollar Goes Abroad as a Diplomat (cont.) Foreign areas of interest to Taft:China’s Manchuria was Taft’s most spectacular effortThe new trouble spot of revolution-riddled CaribbeanWall Street was encouraged to pump dollars into the financial vacuums in Honduras and Haiti to keep foreign funds outSporadic disorders in palm-fronded Cuba, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic brought American forces to restore order and protect American investments2500 marines (1912) landed in NicaraguaThey remained in Nicaragua for 30 years (see Map 29.2 on p. 668).
65 XIV. Taft the Trustbuster Taft managed to gain some fame as a smasher of monopolies:Taft brought 90 suits against trusts during his 4 years to 44 for Roosevelt in 7 ½ yearsMost judicial actions came in 1911 when the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the mighty Standard Oil Company:It was judged to be a combination in restraint of trade in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890.
66 XIV. Taft the Trustbuster (cont.) The Supreme Court handed down its famous “rule of reason”:Doctrine—only those combinations that “unreasonably” restrained trade were illegalThis action ripped a huge hole in the government’s antitrust net1911: antitrust suit against the U.S. Steel CorporationThis initiative infuriated RooseveltOnce Roosevelt’s protégé, President Taft was increasingly taking on the role of his antagonist.
67 XV. Taft Splits the Republican Party Progressive members of the Republican Party who favored lowering tariffsThought they had a friend in TaftThe House passed a moderately reductive billSenate reactionaries tacked on hundreds of upward tariff revisionsMuch to the dismay of Taft supporters he signed the Payne-Aldrich BillTaft called it “the best bill that the Republican Party ever passed.”
68 XV. Taft Splits the Republican Party (cont.) Taft also proved to be a dedicated conservationist:Established the Bureau of Mines to control mineral resourcesOne praiseworthy accomplishment was the Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel (1910):Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, Alaska to corpor-ate developmentBallinger was sharply criticized by Gifford Pinchot, chief of the Agriculture Department’s Division of Forestry and a stalwart Rooseveltian
69 XV. Taft Splits the Republican Party (cont.) Taft dismissed Pinchot—insubordination chargesCaused rift between Roosevelt and TaftThe reformist wing of the Republican party was now up in armsTaft was being pushed into the stand-pat Old Guard1910 the Grand Old Party was split wide-open, largely due to the clumsiness of TaftRoosevelt returned to New York and then stirred up a tempest by stumping at Osawatomie, Kansas with a flaming speechHis doctrine, “New Nationalism,” urged the national government to increase its power to remedy economic and social abuses
70 XV. Taft Splits the Republican Party (cont.) Results of the tensions between Taft and Roosevelt and the Republican Party:Republicans lost badly in congressional elections (1910)Democrats emerged with 228 seats, leaving the once-dominant Republicans with only 161A socialist representative, Austrian-born Victor L. Berger, was elected from MilwaukeeRepublicans, by virtue of holdovers, retained the Senate, 51 to 41.
71 XVI. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture Now there was a full-fledged revolt:1911: the National Progressive Republican League was formedFiery, white-maned Senator La Follette (Wisconsin) became the leading Republican presidential candidateFebruary 1912, Roosevelt formally wrote to 7 state governors that he was willing to accept the Republican nominationHis reasoning—the third-term tradition applied to three consecutive elective terms.
72 XVI. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture (cont.) Roosevelt, the Rough Rider, came clattering into the presidential primaries, pushing La Follette asideTaft-Roosevelt explosion was near in June 1912, at the Republican convention in ChicagoRooseveltites were about 100 delegates short of winning the nominationThey challenged the right of some 250 Taft delegates to be seatedMost of these contests were arbitrarily settled for TaftRoosevelt refused to quit the game. Having tasted for the first time the bitter cup of defeat, now on fire, led a third-party crusade.