Presentation on theme: "Politics and Elections. 2 The Origins of Political Parties Madison’s view of “faction” First U.S. political parties: Federalists and Anti- Federalists."— Presentation transcript:
2 The Origins of Political Parties Madison’s view of “faction” First U.S. political parties: Federalists and Anti- Federalists Battle began over a strong central government vs. states’ and individual rights “Congressional Pugilists,” a 1798 political cartoon
3 The Origin of Political Parties: Hamilton vs. Jefferson Hamilton Strong federal government Jefferson Limited national authority Rule by elite Believed in ability of farmers and common people to rule themselves Loose interpretation of Constitution Strict interpretation of Constitution Favored national bank Favored payment of national debt, not state debts Favored paying state debts Opposed national bank Supported merchants, landowners, investors, wealthy Tended to support France in foreign affairs Tended to support Britain in foreign affairs Followers formed the Democratic-Republican Party, which eventually became the Democratic Party Followers formed the Federalist Party, which eventually became the Republican Party
4 The Evolution of Political Parties Federalist Party: first U.S. political party Democratic-Republicans formed in opposition to the Federalists Democratic Party developed from the Democratic-Republicans Whig Party arose to counter the Democratic Party Andrew Jackson Henry Clay Daniel Webster
5 The Evolution of Political Parties (continued) The Republican Party rose from the ashes of the Whig Party The Democratic Party lost influence from its association with the Southern states during the Civil War The Republican Party became the dominant party in the second half of the 19th century The Democratic Party regained support via the reform movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries An 1860 campaign poster for Abraham Lincoln
6 The Role of Political Parties Parties organize individuals with similar ideas who work to effect political change Citizens may freely choose their party affiliation, or opt to have none at all Parties can represent a wide variety of interests Parties aim to elect people to government who will help pass laws in their favor
7 Third Parties in a Two-Party System Usually form in opposition to one or both major parties Have had great influence without ever winning the presidency Bring attention to important public issues ignored by the major parties Complaints about third parties: –They take votes away from major candidates with similar positions –Supporting a third-party candidate “wastes” one’s vote Third-party poster from the 1912 presidential campaign
8 Discussion Questions 1.What are factions, and why did James Madison and many of the other Founders distrust them? 2.Trace the development of the first political parties in the United States. What were these parties, when did they arise, who led them, and who were their major supporters? 3.What is the role of a political party? How do third parties usually form? Do you think they are good for the American political system? Why or why not?
9 The Constitutional Basis for Presidential Elections The Constitution’s Framers doubted the public’s ability to directly elect its leaders Article II: Electors from each state vote directly for president 1804: The 12th Amendment changed the electoral process to a presidential/vice- presidential ticket Verifying the Electoral College vote in the House of Representatives, 1913
10 The Presidential Election Process The public votes for president in November every four years The members of the Electoral College cast the official votes for president the next month, in December
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