Federalists and Democratic-Republican (1789-1828) Federalist party emerged from those supporting Hamilton's policies (formation of a national bank, use of federal funds to repay states' war debts) and Democratic-Republicans emerged from those supporting Thomas Jefferson's (a more limited federal governmental role). In the elections of 1800 the Federalists were defeated, then allowing the alternation of parties in political power. Due to the overpowering success of Democratic- Republicans' such as Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe the Federalists ceased to exist by 1820. Jefferson Hamilton
Jacksonian Democrats and Whigs (1828-1860) By the 1920's, the Democratic-Republicans had broken and split apart. The Jacksonian Democrats appealed to the "common man" and successfully urged states to lower property requirements for voting and choose electors by popular vote instead of by the state legislatures. The House unsuccessfully tried to pass over Andrew Jackson, the candidate with the most votes, to pick John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson’s opponents during the 1828 election formed the Whig Party. Jackson Adams
Era of Republican Dominance (1860-1932) During the Presidency of Lincoln, the slavery issue split the Democratic Party into Northern Democrats and Southern Democrats and led to the founding of the Republican Party in 1854. After the war, the Republican Party won every election until 1932 with two exceptions. After Roosevelt split the Republican party, it wasn’t until the 1920’s that they were able to get the White House back. For the majority of this period the Democrats were a minority party, taking part in both Southern and Northern interest by opposing Republicans and consenting to policies of high tariffs to protect manufacturers and tight money in the form of a gold standard to protect bankers.
The New Deal Democratic Party (1932-1968) The in 1929, the Great Depression brought Republican pro-business policies into disrepute and, together with WWII, led to the unprecedented four consecutive terms in office of Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt FDR created the New Deal, which instituted Social Security and other "social safety net" programs for the poor, unemployed, Catholics, Jews, African-Americans, and other ethnic groups. During this time, the hard-hit Southern Democrats, also known as Dixiecrats, did not start splitting from the Democratic Party until the party's 1948 platform called for an end to segregation. Roosevelt
The New Republican Majority (1968-1980) The combination of the "solid South" into the Republican camp in presidential elections, a popular reaction against "big government" welfare and other programs in Johnson's Great Society, and a general conservative stand in opinion after Vietnam and the social turmoil of the 1960's, created a new Republican majority capable of defeating the New Deal coalition. The Democratic Convention's 1968 reforms, opened party processes more to women and minorities, and led to a 1972 convention dominated by liberals who later nominated George McGovern. With an obvious public opinion against the liberal causes of the 1960s,with which the Democratic Party had become closely associated, Richard Nixon defeated McGovern
The Reagan Coalition (1980-1992) Ronald Reagan established the new Republican coalition of traditional business and professional supporters opposition to high taxes and "big government," He was able to hold this diverse coalition together but was not able to lead the Republican Party to control of Congress. At the same time the Democratic Party began to force liberal stands onto the Democratic party platform and be seen as a party of special interests, beholden to organized labor, civil rights organizations, feminists, and environmentalists Reagan
Clinton and the "New" Democrats (1992-2000) By the 1990s, the Republican coalition was began to experience problems with the undermining of the anticommunist appeal, reaction against religious fundamentalism, and splits between economic conservatives and social conservatives. Bill Clinton to embrace a "new" platform and led the Democrats who’s strategy was to downplay social justice and social welfare issues and to return to an emphasis on policies for restoring economic prosperity. Environmentalists, feminists, civil rights activists, and other Democratic liberals, recognized the end of the 1980's and unanimously accepted the Clinton strategy. Clinton
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