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Presentation on theme: "PROGRESSIVISM AND THE REPUBLICAN ROOSEVELT 1901-1912 Chapter 28."— Presentation transcript:


2 I. Progressive Roots Industrialization, urbanization, immigration brought benefits, social problems Progressive movement emerged 1890’s believed honest, efficient government could bring social change Hands –off individualism of 1800’s out of place in modern age Many felt urban-industrial society could no longer afford laissez- faire policies Included all political parties, social classes, religions, ethnic groups Wanted expansion of government to accomplish reform Similar to Populism 1. wanted government reform 2. make government more responsive to people’s needs Differed from Populism 1. mostly middle class 2. some motivated by religious beliefs, 3. use modern ideas and scientific methods to make society better

3 I. Progressive Roots Before 1900 many writers began to attack trusts, new rich as corrupt and bad for society Jacob Riis shocked middle class America with the book How the Other Half Lives (1890) about life in the NYC slums Other critics of social injustice- socialists made gains at the ballot box; promoters of the social gospel used religious doctrines to fight for better housing and living conditions, improve morality Many feminists fought for social justice and suffrage

4 II. Raking Muck with the Muckrakers Turn of the century- exposing of evil of corporations and industry became big business To keep circulation up many magazines, newspapers investigated wrongdoing Often unmasked corruption and the corrupt alliance between big business and government Journalists called “muckrakers” by TR Novelists developed new genre- naturalism- portrayed misery of common people, struggles of workers (Upton Sinclair- The Jungle) Photographers portrayed the slums and dark side of urban life (Jacob Riis) Publicity aroused social conscience to make changes Progressives wanted to cleanse capitalism, not get rid of it

5 III. Political Progressives Progressive reformers mainly middle class men and women Felt squeezed from above and below in new society Two goals: use the state to curb the power of trusts, improve life of industrial, urban dweller and rural poor Less political movement than majority mood Problems targeted by Progressives a) Government Reform – get rid of political machines and corrupt city officials b) Urban Areas- adequate services and better living conditions c) Big Business- break up trusts and create more economic opportunities d) Women- acquire the right to vote e) Reduce gap between rich and poor

6 III. Political Progressivism Populists wanted to regain political control from moneyed interests and political party bosses Established direct primary for selecting nominees Initiative- power to put proposed law on ballot Referendum- allowed citizens to approve or reject laws Recall- vote to remove public servants from office To get rid of graft government began to limit campaign contributions and gifts to politicians Australian Secret Ballot made bribery less feasible Direct election of senators (17th Amendment), to weed out corruption caused by corrupt state legislatures sending well connected senators to Washington Women’s suffrage began to receive renewed support, to elevate political tone, many states out West had already extended vote to women

7 IV. Political Progressivism in the Cities and States Municipal governments wanted to establish clear lines of authority, make government more efficient Galveston Hurricane 1900 helped bring change To rebuild city replaced mayor with commission called Galveston Plan Reduced power of political machines Dayton, Ohio added city manager to idea Many cities purchased utility companies to keep rates at a fair level By turn of the century government had become specialized Major state in efforts for reform –Wisconsin and Governor Bob La Follette, most militant of Progressive governors (Wisconsin idea)

8 V. Progressive Women Women important part of progressive crusade Settlement Houses opened door to public life, exposed women to problems plaguing cities and gave confidence to attack problems Defended new roles as extension of women’s spheres Drawn to moral issues, child labor, heath, rights for women workers, safe food practices Established organizations – Women’s Trade Union, National Consumers League, Women’s Bureau of Department of Labor Landmark court case Muller vs. Oregon Persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting female workers, also triumph of labor over employers in the workplace 1902 National Child Labor Committee formed 1916 Keating- Owens Act banned child labor Overturned by Supreme Court 1918 Improving education by compulsory attendance- take them out of factories

9 V. Progressive Women 1900 U.S. highest rate of industrial accidents 1905 setback for labor Lochner vs. New York, invalidated state law limiting working hours 1917 Court upheld limit of 10 hour workday 1911 Lack of enforcement led to Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire Flagrant violation of safety codes led to fire and death of 146 workers, mostly immigrant Jewish women Caused state of NY to pass stricter laws regulation working conditions of sweatshops By 1917 many states had passed workers compensation laws to protect injured workers Concept that employers had a social responsibility replaced concept of unregulated free enterprise Many women took up crusade against liquor Formed Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, succeeded in passing ‘dry laws” in many states

10 VI. TR’s Square Deal for Labor TR fought against corporations, for consumer protection and conservation of national resources Program for change called “square deal” Goals to keep wealth and large business from taking advantage of poor and small business Roosevelt used power and authority of federal government to regulate industry 1902- Coal Strike 1. Miners wanted raise in pay, shorter hours 2. Needed steady supply of coal for factories and homes 3. Roosevelt wanted to end strike quickly, threatened to send in federal troops 4. Workers received pay raise, shorter work days First example of government helping workers in labor dispute 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor founded Monitored business and labor engaged in interstate commerce

11 VI. TR Corrals the Corporations Railroads Cost of shipping freight an issue since 1870’s By 1900 most power of ICC was stripped away by Supreme Court 1903 Elkins Act- imposed fines on railroads for giving special rates to certain companies 1906 Hepburn Act- Strengthened ICC, gave government right to set fees for shipping 1904 Government suit against Northern Securities Company Supreme Court ruled it was an illegal trust, forced company to split into smaller railroad companies Roosevelt saw differences between “good” and “bad” trusts Bad trust bullied smaller companies In 1905 Supreme Court began to declare many trusts illegal (beef, sugar, fertilizers, etc.) Purpose was more symbolic than real; wanted to prove government not big business ruled country Wanted to regulate not fragment industry, threat of legal action would keep them inline

12 VII. Caring for the Consumer Regulating Food and Drug Industries 1906 The Jungle published caused public demand for reform of meat packing industry Meat Inspection Act (1906) federal government inspect meat sold across state lines, inspect meat packing, processing plants Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Controls on other foods and medicines, banned shipment of impure food and drugs

13 VIII. Earth Control American concern for the environment grew in the late 1800’s, natural resources once seen as inexhaustible were disappearing quickly First steps toward conservation: Desert Land Act (1877) sold arid land cheaply, purchaser would have to irrigate it within three years Forest Reserve Act (1891) set aside forests as national parks and reserves Carey Act (1894) gave federal land to states with conditions, must be irrigated and settled

14 VIII. Earth Control Roosevelt lover of outdoors appalled by environmental degradation Gifford Pinchot head of federal Division of Forestry close ally of Roosevelt Roosevelt takes charge of environmental policy, sees environment as a resource that should be managed and used wisely 1902 Newlands Reclamation Act collects money from sale of western lands and uses it for irrigation projects, allows dams for irrigation and eventually power to spring up across west Sets aside forests that are protected by federal government Concern for loss of natural heritage and disappearance of part of national character drives movement, wanted use of America’s “national endowment” Roosevelt and Pinchot were conservationists not environmentalists; advocated multiple use of national forests and environment (timber, recreation, watershed protection, livestock grazing) Large farmers and ranchers took advantage of new agencies and figured out how to work system, took small rancher and logger out of the picture

15 IX. Roosevelt and the Panic of 1907 1904 Roosevelt reelected and called for more regulation, taxation and worker protection 1907 Wall Street Panic, industry tried to blame Roosevelt for panic with his regulation Roosevelt said they deliberately caused panic to force relaxation on trusts Panic paved way for financial reform and need for more elastic money supply New industrial economy with its ups and downs needed more money in circulation 1908 Aldrich- Vreeland Act authorized banks to issue emergency currency, smoothed path for Federal Reserve Act of 1913

16 X. Legacy of Roosevelt Rode middle ground between interests of business and total government control Enlarged power of presidency through progressive reform and aggressive foreign policy Used power of government to regulate unbridled business interests Idea that government could take action and change lives Environmental legislation was his most long lasting achievement

17 XI. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole Roosevelt decides not to run in 1908, uses power over party to have William Howard Taft nominated and wins election Taft not as strong of a personality as Roosevelt and he allows Congress to push him around; Taft seemed wedded to the status quo not major change Diplomacy changes from “Big Stick” to “Dollar Diplomacy”, not aggressive like Roosevelt Taft did use the power of government to break up more trusts than Roosevelt

18 XII. Taft the Trustbuster Brought more suits against trusts than Roosevelt 1911 Supreme Court orders breakup of Standard Oil Uses “rule of reason”, says Standard Oil unreasonably restrained trade, any company that did this was illegal In same year he brings suit against US Steel 1909- Taft fought against the tariff, called special session of Congress to lower tariff, Senate instead raises them Taft signs bill and draws criticism from Progressives Mann- Elkins Act (1910) government control over telephone, telegraph rates, one of his few successes Taft wanted to protect environment, established Bureau of Mines to control mineral resources and protect federal land from exploitation 1910 undoes positive record on environment when he sides with Sec. of the Interior on opening public lands to development Taft was criticized by Gifford Pinchot and so he is fired, creates rift between Roosevelt and Taft Roosevelt travels around country giving speeches against Taft and pushing New Nationalism Republican party is split and 1910 elections go to Democrats

19 XIII. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture and the Election of 1912  1911 Republicans split off from main party and form the National Republican Progressive League  By 1912 Roosevelt had seized Progressive banner and became a third party presidential candidate (known as the Bull Moose Party)  Platform advocated New Nationalism A. Promote government regulation of business B. Social Justice C. Child labor laws D. Minimum wage  Roosevelt and Taft split each others constituencies and this led to the election of Woodrow Wilson a progressive governor of New Jersey as president


21 I. Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President With Republicans split, Wilson won election easily Taft and Roosevelt won more votes put together so election was really a mandate for Progressivism, helped spur the enactment of many Progressive reforms Wilson was a former university professor and progressive governor from New Jersey First president from the south(VA) to win presidency since before the Civil War Great orator, believed that president should play a dynamic role and provide leadership Son of a minister he was an idealist and moralist, hard to get him to compromise

22 II. Wilson Tackles the Tariff Wilson attacked the “triple wall” of privilege- tariffs, banks and trusts 1913 calls special session of Congress to reduce tariff rates Appealed to Congress personally (a first) and gets Underwood Tariff Bill passed, cut tariffs and created graduated income tax Authority to tax from 16 th Amendment passed 1913 By 1917 revenue from income tax more than from tariffs Wilson next tackled banking and currency issues that had outgrown America’s new economic role Most serious problem inelasticity of currency 1913 delivers plea for sweeping banking reform Signs Federal Reserve Act, most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal Created Federal Reserve Board, oversaw decentralized system of 12 regional reserve districts with their own central bank, empowered to issue paper money Federal Reserve Board set up banks to reserve money from commercial banks Keeps one bank, person, region from having too much money Sets interest rates, regulates bank practices Amount of money in circulation could be quickly expanded in times of crisis

23 III. The President Tames the Trusts and the High Tide of Progressivism 1914 Congress passes the Federal Trade Commission Act Gave teeth to Sherman Anti-Trust Act, provided enforcement to check monopolies and companies that engaged in unfair business practices Clayton Act protected labor unions and agricultural organizations from antitrust legislation, legalized strikes and peaceful picketing 1916 Federal Farm Loan Act made credit available to farmers at low interest rates Warehouse Act authorized loans on security of staple crops Laws provided for funding for highway construction, allowed farmers to ship products easier Workingmen’s Compensation Act granted assistance to disabled federal workers Legislation to restrict child labor was struck down by the Supreme Court Adamson Act established eight hour workday for people engaged in interstate commerce Business leaders did not like Wilson’s policies Appeased business interests by making conservative appointments to Federal Reserve Board and Federal Trade Commission Wilson increased segregation in federal bureaucracy, possibly due to southern roots

24 IV. New Directions in Foreign Policy Repudiated “Big Stick” and “Dollar” diplomacy, favored moral diplomacy Wanted to end colonialism, promote independent governments Did use troops in Latin America to protect American interests Had to take new direction with events in Europe European balance of power interupted with assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in 1914 European powers were drawn into a war through a series of alliances Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary; Allies were France, England, Russia America was happy to have an ocean as a buffer…..

25 V. A Precarious Neutrality Wilson proclaimed America as neutral in the war Both sides wooed the US British had an advantage because they controlled the transatlantic cables, sent stories of German atrocity to the US, also close economic and cultural ties with British Germans counted on sympathies of immigrants Most Americans were anti-German, Kaiser embodiment of European aristocracy, many upset at German attack on neutral Belgium US economy in recession in 1914 and war orders from the allies helped pull us out of it J.P. Morgan helped British and French finance war with loans ($2.3 billion), Germans said this violated American neutrality Technically Germans could trade with US but British navy prevented shipping 1915 Germans begin to use submarine to harass shipping, but declared they would not attack neutral ships Wilson warned Germans they would be accountable for any losses Sinking of Lusutania, Sussex by Germans created tension between US and Germans


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